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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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Oil Consumption Sources in a Modern Gasoline Engine Including Contribution of Blow-by Separator and Turbocharger: An Experimental Study Based on the Use of Radiotracers

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

DSI-Thierry Delvigne
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2256
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Minimizing engine oil consumption of modern engines has become an important issue and there is a need for better understanding associated sources and mechanisms. An innovative method based on the use of radiotracer compounds that are representative of oil distillation interval has been presented in a previous paper. This paper presents a methodology to evaluate and quantify oil consumption sources in a production turbocharged spark ignition engine at different speed and load conditions. A specific experimental set-up was used to measure independently and in real-time contribution of piston ring package, blow-by circuit, and turbocharger on oil consumption. Results show how contribution of each consumption source varies with engine operating conditions.
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Effect of Viscosity Index Improvers in Ethanol/Gasoline/Water Emulsions Formed with E25 and E85 in Passenger Car Motor Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Chevron Oronite Co. LLC-Pritesh A. Patel, Catherine S. Puckett, David S. George, Kirk A. Nass
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2258
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Concern about the consequences of fuel dilution on engine oil properties are intensifying due to the increasing use of E25 and E85 fuel in passenger cars. Notably, such concerns are about the effect of emulsion formation and stability in crankcase oils by E25 or E85 fuel and water dilution on vehicle operation at cold-start conditions. Different types of Viscosity Index Improver (VII) chemistries were evaluated for their effects on emulsion formation and engine oil characteristics. Emulsions were prepared with fresh and used passenger car motor oils using the ASTM D7563 method for emulsion retention. The emulsion properties were evaluated after storage for 24 hours at two different temperatures. Separate oil/gasoline and emulsion (ethanol/water/oil) phases were observed for fresh oil emulsions. None of the emulsions exhibited a separate water phase, regardless of the type of VII in the oil. Analysis of the emulsion composition by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and Gel Permeation Chromatography confirmed ethanol and water were present in the emulsion phase, while the gasoline and other oil soluble components, including the VII, were present…
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Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Engine Operating with In-Cylinder Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Blending

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Vitaly Y. Prikhodko, Scott J. Curran, Teresa L. Barone, Samuel A. Lewis, John M. Storey, Kukwon Cho, Robert M. Wagner, James E. Parks
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2266
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
Advanced combustion regimes such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) offer benefits of reduced nitrogen oxides (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions. However, these combustion strategies often generate higher carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions. In addition, aldehydes and ketone emissions can increase in these modes. In this study, the engine-out emissions of a compression-ignition engine operating in a fuel reactivity-controlled PCCI combustion mode using in-cylinder blending of gasoline and diesel fuel have been characterized. The work was performed on a 1.9-liter, 4-cylinder diesel engine outfitted with a port fuel injection system to deliver gasoline to the engine. The engine was operated at 2300 rpm and 4.2 bar brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) with the ratio of gasoline-to-diesel fuel that gave the highest engine efficiency and lowest emissions. Engine-out emissions for aldehydes, ketones and PM were compared with emissions from conventional diesel combustion. Sampling and analysis was carried out following micro-tunnel dilution of the exhaust. Particle geometric mean diameter, number-size distribution, and total number concentration were measured by…
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Characteristics of Nano-Scale Particulates from Gasoline Turbo-Intercooled Direct-Injection Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oxford Brookes Univ-Stephen Samuel, Ahmed Hassaneen
University College Dublin, Ireland-Ian Whelan, David Timoney
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2197
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
This study aims to identify the factors that control particulate matter (PM) formation and size distribution in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engines. The test engine used for this research was a 1.6 litre, wall-guided DISI, turbocharged, intercooled, in-line 4 cylinder, Euro IV engine. The exhaust sampling point was before the catalytic converter, i.e. engine-out emissions were measured. The first part of this paper investigates the characteristics of PM number and size distribution of DISI and throttle body injected (TBI) engines. The second part investigates the effect of combustion characteristics of DISI engines on the number of 5nm and 10nm (nucleation) and 200nm (accumulation) PM. A statistical analysis of the coefficient of variance (COV) of the maximum rate of pressure rise (RPmax) over 100 cycles was performed against the COV of 5nm, 10nm and 200nm total particle number. The degree of asymmetry of the COV of RPmax around its mean and the relative peakedness or flatness of the distribution were analysed using Skewness and Kurtosis. It was found that the more positive the skewness and more negative…
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500 Hours Endurance Test on Biodiesel Running a Euro IV Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Coburg Univ. of Applied Sciences-Juergen Krahl
Institute of Agricultural Tech. and Biosystems Engineering-Axel Munack, Olaf Schroder, Yvonne Ruschel
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2270
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
A 500 hours endurance test was performed with a heavy-duty engine (Euro IV); MAN type D 0836 LFL 51 equipped with a PM-Kat®. As fuel 100% biodiesel was used that met the European specification EN 14214. The 500 hours endurance test included both the European stationary and transient cycle (ESC and ETC) as well as longer stationary phases. During the test, regulated emissions (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and particulate matter), the particle number distribution and the aldehydes emission were continuously measured. For comparison, tests with fossil diesel fuel were performed before and after the endurance test.During the endurance test, the engine was failure-free for 500 hours with the biogenic fuel. There were almost no differences in specific fuel consumption during the test, but the average exhaust gas temperature increased by about 15°C over the time.Emissions changed only slightly during the test. Carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and aldehydes were effectively eliminated by the oxidation catalyst as part of the PM-Kat®. The concentration of hydrocarbons was partially under background level and the emissions of hydrocarbons as well…
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Modeling of the Soot Accumulation in DPF Under Typical Vehicle Operating Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León-Simón Martínez-Martínez
Universidad Castilla-La Mancha-Magín Lapuerta, Fermín Oliva
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2097
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The pressure losses across the different parts of a regenerative Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) have been modeled and compared with the measured pressure loss and with the measured changes in the instantaneous weight of the DPF of a commercial automotive diesel engine. The comparisons were made in three operating conditions selected among those included in the transient cycle established in the European Emission Directive. The first one is a low-load mode, with high soot emissions and therefore with high contribution to the DPF charge. The second one is a medium-load mode, in which the balance of soot charge versus spontaneous soot regeneration leads to a slow DPF charging, the temperature at the exhaust manifold being high enough to permit active regeneration. The third one is a high-load mode, in which the spontaneous regeneration leads to a net DPF discharge, the active regeneration becoming useless. The model proposed uses computational fluid dynamics (Fluent®) for validating the hypothesis of homogeneous pressure distribution in the conical inlet and along the filter channels. Once validated, a simplified model is…
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Effect of Biodiesel on NOx Reduction Performance of Urea-SCR System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Norifumi Mizushima, Hisakazu Suzuki, Hajime Ishii, Yuichi Goto, Daisuke Kawano
Waseda Univ.-Yutaka Murata
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2278
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The use of biomass fuels for vehicles has been a focus of attention all over the world in terms of prevention of global warming, effective utilization of resources and local revitalization. For the purpose of beneficial use of unused biomass resources, the movement of the use of bioethanol and biodiesel made from them has spread in Japan.In Japan, biodiesel is mainly made from waste cooking oil collected by local communities or governments, and in terms of local production for local consumption, it is used as neat fuel (100% biofuel) or mixed with diesel fuel in high concentration for the vehicles. On the other hand, extremely low emission level must be kept for not only gasoline vehicles but also diesel vehicles in the post new long-term regulation implemented from 2009 in Japan. It is necessary for diesel vehicles to equip an advanced type of aftertreatment such as Urea-Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) system or lean NOx trap (LNT) catalyst system in order to comply with this regulation.In this study, engine bench tests were conducted to understand the…
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Internal Injector Deposits in High-Pressure Common Rail Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Afton Chemical Corporation-Scott D. Schwab, Joshua J. Bennett, Steven J. Dell, Julie M. Galante-Fox, Alexander M. Kulinowski, Keith T. Miller
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2242
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
To meet increasingly stringent diesel exhaust emissions requirements, original equipment manufacturers (OEMs) have introduced common rail fuel injection systems that develop pressures of up to 2000 bar (30,000 psi). In addition, fuel delivery schemes have become more complicated, often involving multiple injections per cycle. Containing higher pressures and allowing for precise metering of fuel requires very tight tolerances within the injector. These changes have made injectors more sensitive to fuel particulate contamination.Recently, problems caused by internal diesel injector deposits have been widely reported. In this paper, the results of an investigation into the chemical nature and probable sources of these deposits are discussed. Using an array of techniques, internal deposits were analyzed from on a number of sticking injectors from the field and from OEM test stands in North America. In each case, the internal deposits were found to be composed mainly of the sodium salts of alkenyl succinic acids. These salts are insoluble in ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and can exist as very fine particles that pass through fuel filters, flowing to the…
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Soot Removal from Diesel Engine Lubrication Systems

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Honeywell Int'l Inc.-Nageswara R. Cheekala, Ronald Rohrbach, Peter Unger
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2101
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The removal of soot in the lubricating sumps of diesel engines is a formidable task, further compounded by the introduction of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR). Efficient removal of soot would help ensure engine durability and engine performance while increasing oil drain intervals thus reducing maintenance costs. This paper describes a method by which soot can be separated from the oil with the application of an electric field by utilizing the small electrical charge on the soot particles. The electric field is applied to a network of electrodes that support an open porous network which stabilizes the weakly bound soot cake. Significantly higher filtration efficiency was achieved as compared to mechanical particulate filtration and centrifugation. The paper also discusses the controlling conditions while detailing the performance testing at both a bench scale level and pilot scale level.
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Feasibility of Using Full Synthetic Low Viscosity Engine Oil at High Ambient Temperatures in Military Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Southwest Research Institute-Adam Brandt, Edwin Frame, Greg Hansen, Robert Warden, Douglas Yost
US Army RDECOM-TARDEC-Allen Comfort, Luis Villahermosa
  • Journal Article
  • 2010-01-2176
Published 2010-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The US Army is currently assessing the feasibility and defining the requirements of a Single Common Powertrain Lubricant (SCPL). This new lubricant would consist of an all-season (arctic to desert), fuel-efficient, multifunctional powertrain fluid with extended drain capabilities. As a developmental starting point, diesel engine testing has been conducted using the current MIL-PRF-46167D arctic engine oil at high temperature conditions representative of desert operation. Testing has been completed using three high density military engines: the General Engine Products 6.5L(T) engine, the Caterpillar C7, and the Detroit Diesel Series 60. Tests were conducted following two standard military testing cycles; the 210 hr Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Cycle, and the 400 hr NATO Hardware Endurance Cycle. Modifications were made to both testing procedures to more closely replicate the operation of the engine in desert-like conditions. These modifications included operation at elevated oil sump (nominally 127°C) and water jacket (nominally 96°C) temperatures. Test engines completed an initial tear down, inspection, and metrology process prior to being built to manufacturer-supplied specifications for testing. After completion of testing all engines were…
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