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SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants
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ERRATUM

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Innospec-Jim Barker, Jacqueline Reid
Univ. of Nottingham-David Scurr
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2293.01
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
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Impact of Siloxanes in Biomethane on the Performance of a CNG Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

DNV GL-Martijn van Essen, Pieter Visser, Sander Gersen, Howard Levinsky
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0003
Published 2018-03-23 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the results of experiments to determine the effects of silicon-containing compounds in biogas on the performance of spark-ignited gas engines for use in CNG vehicles are presented. Initial research was performed on micro-CHP units, which have many features common with automotive engines, to identify engine components sensitive for silica deposition prior to investigating a practical CNG engine. The experiments on the micro-CHP units revealed that the catalyst was the most sensitive part for silica fouling, with strong impact on the reduction of NOx. With the insight gained from these experiments, an 9-week endurance test was performed on a light-duty CNG vehicle. While the wideband-type lambda sensor originally installed upstream of the catalyst did not fail during the test, an additional switching-type lambda sensor positioned upstream of the catalyst was found to be most sensitive to silica deposition, causing a false signal regarding the oxygen content in the exhaust gas (“failure”). In contrast to the micro-CHP test, the catalyst used in the CNG vehicle was not affected by silica deposition under the experimental…
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Literature Review on the Effects of Organometallic Fuel Additives in Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Coordinating Research Council-Amber Leland
Desert Research Institute-S. Kent Hoekman
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0005
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
A literature review was conducted and fuel survey data were obtained to identify the use of metallic fuel additives (MFAs) within market fuels and determine their effects on engines, exhaust systems, and vehicle performance. The primary focus was on modern vehicles equipped with on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems and advanced emissions control systems. For gasoline, this includes vehicles categorized as National Low Emission Vehicles (NLEV) and Tier 2 or beyond in the U.S., and Euro-3 through Euro-6 in the EU. For diesel, this includes engines/vehicles with original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-equipped oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters. The literature search of peer-reviewed papers and other publicly available articles returned over 100 items relevant to the use of organometallic fuel additives, but did not provide significant evidence of widespread use of MFAs in either gasoline or diesel fuels. It is possible, however, that in specific cases, MFAs are added to fuels downstream of refinery blending. Recent fuel survey information confirmed that relatively few MFAs are found in market fuels, and they are generally present at quite low concentrations.…
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Exploring Engine Oil Reactivity Effects on End Gas Knock in a Direct-Injection Spark Ignition Engine

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Jim Szybist, Brian West
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0002
Published 2018-03-07 by SAE International in United States
An experimental study was conducted in a direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited engine to determine the extent to which oil reactivity impacts combustion phasing and knock propensity. Three engine oils were examined: a baseline 20W30 oil from conventional base stock, a 5W30 oil from a synthetic base stock, and a jet oil from a hindered ester base stock. The engine was operated at a constant fueling rate of 24.7 mg/injection for two engine speed conditions (1500 and 2000 rpm) using two cam profile conditions (high and low lift), for a total of four operating conditions. Spark timing sweeps were conducted at each of the four operating conditions. Results were analyzed for an engine oil impact on combustion phasing, cycle-to-cycle variability, combustion duration, knock propensity, and knock intensity. No correlation between engine oil type and any of these performance metrics could be identified. Measurements showed that the oil consumption rate for this engine is low and comparable to engines compliant with U.S. Tier 1 and Tier 2 emissions standards, consuming 1.4 g/kg of fuel consumed (150 g for 20 hours of operation). The…
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Open Access

Investigations on Spark and Corona Ignition of Oxymethylene Ether-1 and Dimethyl Carbonate Blends with Gasoline by High-Speed Evaluation of OH* Chemiluminescence

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)-Thorsten Langhorst, Olaf Toedter, Thomas Koch, Benjamin Niethammer, Ulrich Arnold, Jörg Sauer
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0001
Published 2018-03-01 by SAE International in United States
Bio-fuels of the 2nd generation constitute a key approach to tackle both Greenhouse Gas (GHG) and air quality challenges associated with combustion emissions of the transport sector. Since these fuels are obtained of residual materials of the agricultural industry, well-to-tank CO2 emissions can be significantly lowered by a closed-cycle of formation and absorption of CO2. Furthermore, studies of bio-fuels have shown reduced formation of particulate matter on account of the fuels’ high oxygen content therefore addressing air quality issues. However, due to the high oxygen content and other physical parameters these fuels are expected to exhibit different ignition behaviour. Moreover, the question is whether there is a positive superimposition of the fuels ignition behaviour with the benefits of an alternative ignition system, such as a corona ignition. To shed light on these questions two oxygenic compounds, oxymethylene ether-1 (OME1) and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) have been studied with respect to OH* emission throughout ignition and onset of flame-front propagation in a combustion chamber with a large optical access via a quartz window. OH* measurements have been…
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Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Thermoplastics with Bio-Blendstock Fuel Candidates Using Hansen Solubility Analysis

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Brian H. West
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0004
Published 2018-03-01 by SAE International in United States
The compatibility of key fuel system infrastructure plastics with 39 bio-blendstock fuel candidates was examined using Hansen solubility analysis. Fuel types included multiple alcohols, esters, ethers, ketones, alkenes and one alkane. These compounds were evaluated as neat molecules and as blends with the gasoline surrogate, dodecane, and a mix of dodecane and 10% ethanol (E10D). The plastics included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), high density polyethylene (HDPE), along with several nylon grades. These materials have been rigorously studied with other fuel types, and their volume change results were found to correspond well with their predicted solubility levels. The compatibility was assessed using Hansen solubility parameters and in many instances peak solubility occurred for blends rather than the neat fuel components. The results showed that good compatibilities can be expected for PPS, PVDF, PET, nylons, acetal, PEI, PVC, HDPE and PBT. PTFE showed potential incompatibilities at low blend concentrations, especially when E10D was used as the base fuel blend. Although, the nylons show…
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