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Mobile Hybrid Power System's Elements

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Fee Leung
Department of Defence-Thomas Podlesak
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2236
Published 2012-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The effectiveness of elements comprising a hybrid electric power generating system was studied. The wind and photovoltaic renewable resources served as integral components of the hybrid systems configuration. A HMMWV towable trailer system provided an intermediary basis for formulation of methodology needed for optimization of power generation and energy storage capacity constrained by cost, size and weight of the system. The methodology employed in this paper is scalable from kilowatts to megawatts or from man portable systems to significantly larger systems which can be housed in 40 foot ISO containers.
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Design of Direct and Indirect Liquid Cooling Systems for High- Capacity, High-Power Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

AVL Powertrain Engineering, Inc.-Ho Teng, Kim Yeow
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-2017
Published 2012-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Battery packs for plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) applications can be characterized as high-capacity and high-power packs. For PHEV battery packs, their power and electrical-energy capacities are determined by the range of the electrical-energy-driven operation and the required vehicle drive power. PHEV packs often employ high-power lithium-ion (Li-ion) pouch cells with large cell capacity in order to achieve high packing efficiency. Lithium-ion battery packs for PHEV applications generally have a 96SnP configuration, where S is for cells in series, P is for cells in parallel, and n = 1, 2 or 3. Two PHEV battery packs with 355V nominal voltage and 25-kWh nominal energy capacity are studied. The first pack is assembled with 96 70Ah high-power Li-ion pouch cells in 96S1P configuration. The second pack is assembled with 192 35Ah high-power Li-ion pouch cells in 96S2P configuration. The battery temperatures are managed with a direct liquid cooling system for the 96S1P pack and with an indirect liquid cooling system for the 96S2P pack. Procedures are discussed for the cooling system design for both direct liquid…
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Intelligent Alternator Employment To Reduce Co2 Emission and to Improve Engine Performance

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Fiat Powertrain SPA-Iolanda Montalto, Domenico Tavella lng, Ferdinando De Cristofaro
Università della Calabria-Alessandro Casavola PhD
  • Journal Article
  • 2011-01-2444
Published 2012-06-15 by SAE International in United States
In modern internal combustion engines a greater reduction of CO₂ emissions is required in order to significantly reduce fuel consumption and minimize the emissions of polluting gases, allowing them to fall within the strict limits set by current regulations. In a conventional engine control system, it is not possible to optimize the efficiency of the alternator in terms of emissions and fuel consumption, due to a constant voltage which is imposed and is not modifiable. On the contrary, in a system capable of controlling the voltage of the alternator, referring to such an alternator as "smart" hereafter, it would be possible to optimize its efficiency as a function of the vehicle/engine working points. This system requires first and foremost a communication protocol between the alternator and engine control unit, and a special sensor that gets data on the charging status of the battery.In this chapter a management strategy is proposed for regulating the alternator regulation voltage in order to maximize its efficiency on the basis of the engine and vehicle conditions. This is done by…
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Electromagnetic and Structural Coupled Simulation to Investigate NVH Behavior of an Electrical Automotive Powertrain

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Renault-Louis HUMBERT
Renault SA-P. Pellerey, S. Cristaudo
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1523
Published 2012-06-13 by SAE International in United States
RENAULT aims to become the first full-line manufacturer putting to market zero-emission affordable electrical vehicles and is therefore developing 100 % electric powertrains. NVH problems related to electric machine design have nothing in common with those of gasoline or diesel engines: electric whistling is a high frequency harmonic phenomenon, easily detectable due to the low background noise of a non-thermal vehicle and mainly perceived as very unpleasant by the customer.Therefore we have developed a coupled numerical simulation between electromagnetic and structural models, making it possible to understand the influence of magnetic parts design on noise and vibration level. Impact of the spatial and time coherence between magnetic pressures and vibration modes of the motor will be explained. The novelty of our approach is to already take into account the whole powertrain structure radiation, including reducer and power supply boxes. Moreover we investigate the influence of the harmonic content of the supply current due to the regulation system, as well as the tangential forces effect on stator teeth.
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Methodology for Assessment of Alternative Hybrid Electric Vehicle Powertrain System Architectures

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Ford Motor Co.-Alexander T. Zaremba, Ciro Soto, Mark Jennings
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1010
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) systems offer significant improvements in vehicle fuel economy and reductions in vehicle generated greenhouse gas emissions. The widely accepted power-split HEV system configuration couples together an internal combustion engine with two electric machines (a motor and a generator) through a planetary gear set. This paper describes a methodology for analysis and optimization of alternative HEV power-split configurations defined by alternative connections between power sources and transaxle. The alternative configurations are identified by a matrix of kinematic equations for connected power sources. Based on the universal kinematic matrix, a generic method for automatically formulating dynamic models is developed. Screening and optimization of alternative configurations involves verification of a set of design requirements which reflect: vehicle continuous operation, e.g. grade test; and vehicle dynamic operation such as acceleration and drivability. Only the former are consider in this paper. The method automatically defines a design parameter space for each configuration which eventually would allow configuration evaluation and optimization, e.g. sizing of power sources or optimization of transaxle gear ratios.
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Temperature Characteristics of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle Fire

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

National Traffic Safety & Enviro Lab.-Hideki Matsumura, Shinichiro Itoh, Kazuo Matsushima, Takeo okada
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0982
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Recently, vehicles with high capacity traction batteries for driving such as Ni-MH, lithium-ion have come to be produced in the world. However, the damage has not been clarified in the case of these vehicles fire by a traffic accident or arson. In particular, lithium-ion cells in high temperature environment may cause a thermal runaway which emits smoke or flare. Therefore, it is necessary to examine what kinds of phenomena occur when a vehicle with a lithium-ion battery catches fire. In this paper, the authors studied the situation and temperature characteristics of a hybrid electric vehicle fire to investigate the temperature input to a lithium-ion battery on a vehicle. We assumed an accident that gasoline leaking from other vehicle would be spread under a vehicle and ignited. In a vehicle fire test, gasoline was spread under a hybrid electric vehicle without the traction battery instead of a vehicle with lithium-ion battery, and ignited. Thermocouple sensors were installed inside and under the vehicle. During the test, the situation of the vehicle fire was recorded by photos and…
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PEFC Performance Improvement Methodology for Vehicle Applications

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Nippon Soken, Inc.-Masahiro Shiozawa
Toyota Motor Corporation-Shigetaka Hamada, Masaaki Kondo, Sogo Goto
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1232
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
For over a decade and a half, Toyota Motor Corporation has been developing fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) and is continuing various approaches to enable mass production. This study used new methods to quantitatively observe some of the mass transfer phenomena in the reaction field, such as oxygen transport, water drainage, and electronic conductivity. The obtained results are applicable to the design requirements of ideal reaction fields, and have the potential to assist to reduce the size of the fuel cell.
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Development of System Control for Rapid Warm-up Operation of Fuel Cell

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

Toyota Motor Corporation-Yoshiaki Naganuma, Kota Manabe, Hiroyuki Imanishi, Yasuhiro Nonobe
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-1230
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
Cold weather operation has been a major issue for fuel cell hybrid vehicles (FCHV). To counteract the effects of low temperatures on FCHV operation, an approach for rapid warm-up operation based on concentration overvoltage increase and conversion efficiency decrease by limiting oxygen or hydrogen supply was adopted. In order to suppress increases in exhaust hydrogen concentration due to pumping hydrogen during rapid warm-up, dilution control using bypass air and reduction of concentration overvoltage by a minimum voltage guard were implemented. These approaches effectively control waste heat generation and suppress exhaust hydrogen concentrations during cold start and warm-up. These developments were incorporated into the 2008 Toyota FCHV-adv and it was confirmed that the rapid warm-up operation strategy allowed the FCHV-adv to be successfully and repeatedly started at -30°C.
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Inverter Dead-Time Compensation up to the Field Weakening Region with Respect to Low Sampling Rates

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of Stuttgart-Hans-Christian Reuss
ZF Lenksysteme GmbH-Eugen Sworowski, Thomas Pötzl
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0500
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
This report presents a new compensation method for distortions related to dead time, caused by B6-inverters with pulse-width-modulated output voltages. In spite of low sampling rates, the new method of compensation is effective at all ranges of rotation speed up to the field weakening region. No additional hardware is required for its implementation. The effectiveness of the new method has been shown experimentally. A description of the relevant distortions is given first to provide a basis for the development. This considers the field weakening region, and offers an illustrative method of quantifying the distortions. It is also shown that the use of compensation methods that do not take the sampling time into account leads to additional distortions. It is even possible that they exceed the distortions in an equivalent system without compensation.
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Thermal Analysis of a Li-ion Battery System with Indirect Liquid Cooling Using Finite Element Analysis Approach

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

AVL Powertrain Engineering Inc-Kim Yeow, Ho Teng, Marina Thelliez, Eugene Tan
  • Journal Article
  • 2012-01-0331
Published 2012-04-16 by SAE International in United States
The performance and life of Li-ion battery packs for electric vehicle (EV), hybrid electrical vehicle (HEV), and plug-in hybrid electrical vehicle (PHEV) applications are influenced significantly by battery operation temperatures. Thermal management of a battery pack is one of the main factors to be considered in the pack design, especially for those with indirect air or indirect liquid cooling since the cooling medium is not in contact with the battery cells. In this paper, thermal behavior of Li-ion pouch cells in a battery system for PHEV applications is studied. The battery system is cooled indirectly with liquid through aluminum cooling fins in contact with each cell and a liquid cooled cold plate for each module in the battery pack. The aluminum cooling fins function as a thermal bridge between the cells and the cold plate. Cell temperature distributions are simulated using a finite element analysis approach under cell utilizations corresponding to PHEV applications. Both single cold plate cooling and dual cold plate cooling were analyzed. Influences of the cold plate surface temperature gradients on the…
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