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A 3D Full Windshield Head Up Display

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Thales Avionics-Philippe Coni, Jean Luc BARDON, Xavier servantie
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2156
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
A new concept of Head Up Display is presented, using the windshield as a transparent screen. This breakthrough technology does not need the use of complex combiner, bulky optics and overhead projection unit. The novel system uses several holographic optical elements to perform a 3D stereoscopic display, with the ability to present floating graphical objects in a large field of view. Augmented Reality display will be possible, increasing considerably the User Experience and situational awareness, without the need of wearing a bulky and complex Head Mounted Display.
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Time-Varying Loads of Co-Axial Rotor Blade Crossings

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Georgia Institute of Technology-Narayanan Komerath
NASA Ames Research Center-Natasha L. Schatzman, Ethan A. Romander
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2024
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
The blade crossing event of a coaxial counter-rotating rotor is a potential source of noise and impulsive blade loads. Blade crossings occur many times during each rotor revolution. In previous research by the authors, this phenomenon was analyzed by simulating two airfoils passing each other at specified speeds and vertical separation distances, using the compressible Navier-Stokes solver OVERFLOW. The simulations explored mutual aerodynamic interactions associated with thickness, circulation, and compressibility effects. Results revealed the complex nature of the aerodynamic impulses generated by upper/lower airfoil interactions. In this paper, the coaxial rotor system is simulated using two trains of airfoils, vertically offset, and traveling in opposite directions. The simulation represents multiple blade crossings in a rotor revolution by specifying horizontal distances between each airfoil in the train based on the circumferential distance between blade tips. The shed vorticity from prior crossing events will affect each pair of upper/lower airfoils. The aerodynamic loads on the airfoil and flow field characteristics are computed before, at, and after each airfoil crossing. Results from the multiple-airfoil simulation show noticeable changes…
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Development of SLD Capabilities in the RTA Icing Wind Tunnel

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

RTA-Hermann Ferschitz, Michael Wannemacher, Otto Bucek, Florian Knöbel, Wolfgang Breitfuß
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9001
Published 2017-06-29 by SAE International in United States
RTA Rail Tec Arsenal Fahrzeugversuchsanlage GmbH has focused on the simulation of in-flight icing conditions since 2012. Following the successful implementation of the icing conditions specified in EASA CS-25 Appendix C, it was expected that the facility could also be used to simulate the SLD conditions required by EASA CS-25 Appendix O. This paper sets forth theoretical considerations concerning the selection of suitable nozzles and their operation in the existing facility. The transport of large droplets through the contraction nozzle was simulated using a CFD program. The results then served as a basis for deriving secondary droplet breakup. The validations carried out confirm the theoretical considerations and identify potential limits and open research questions.
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Real Time Pose Control of an Industrial Robotic System for Machining of Large Scale Components in Aerospace Industry Using Laser Tracker System

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

Fraunhofer IFAM-Christian Moeller, Hans Christian Schmidt, Philip Koch, Christian Boehlmann, Simon Kothe
IPMT TU Hamburg-Harburg-Wolfgang Hintze
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2165
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
The high demand of efficient large scale machining operations by concurrently decreasing operating time and costs has led to an increasing usage of industrial robots in contrast to large scaled machining centers. The main disadvantage of industrial robots used for machining processes is their poor absolute accuracy, caused by the serial construction, resilience of gearings and sensitivity for temperature changes. Additionally high process forces that occur during machining of CFRP structures in aerospace industry lead to significant path errors due to low structural stiffness of the robot kinematic. These errors cannot be detected by means of motor encoders. That is why calibration processes and internal control laws have no effect on errors caused by elastic deformation. In this research paper an approach for increasing the absolute accuracy of an industrial milling robot with help of a Laser Tracker system during machining tasks will be presented. To measure the position and orientation of the robot tool center point (TCP) a specific adapter is mounted on the milling spindle near the TCP to provide a 6DoF measurement.…
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Electric versus Hydraulic Flight Controls: Assessing Power Consumption and Waste Heat Using Stochastic System Methods

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

PC Krause & Associates-William Schley
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2036
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Of all aircraft power and thermal loads, flight controls can be the most challenging to quantify because they are highly variable. Unlike constant or impulsive loads, actuator power demands more closely resemble random processes. Some inherent nonlinearities complicate this even further. Actuation power consumption and waste heat generation are both sensitive to input history. But control activity varies considerably with mission segment, turbulence and vehicle state. Flight control is a major power consumer at times, so quantifying power demand and waste heat is important for sizing power and thermal management system components. However, many designers sidestep the stochastic aspects of the problem initially, leading to overly conservative system sizing. The overdesign becomes apparent only after detailed flight simulations become available. These considerations are particularly relevant in trade studies comparing electric versus hydraulic actuation. These two actuation types use power in fundamentally different ways. This paper provides methods to quantify power consumption and waste heat, by applying stochastic system methods. Both electric (electromechanical and electrohydrostatic) and conventional hydraulic actuation are discussed. Formulas are derived to quantify…
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Optimizing the Benefit of Virtual Testing with a Process-Oriented Approach

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

dSPACE GmbH-Jann-Eve Stavesand, Sören Reglitz, Andreas Himmler
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2114
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
In the aerospace industry, methods for virtual testing cover an increasing range of test executions carried out during the development and test process of avionics systems. Over the last years, most companies have focused on questions regarding the evaluation and implementation of methods for virtual testing. However, it has become more and more important to seamlessly integrate virtual testing into the overall development process. For instance, a company’s test strategy might stipulate a combination of different methods, such as SIL and HIL simulation, in order to benefit from the advantages of both in the same test process. In this case, efforts concentrate on the optimization of the overall process, from test specification to test execution, as well as the test result evaluation and its alignment with methods for virtual testing. Furthermore, software tools have to be suitable for virtual testing and the entire tool chain has to be adaptable so it can be used for different test methods for various applications that have different users.This paper introduces an exemplary validation and verification process according to…
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The Evolution of the Composite Fuselage - A Manufacturing Perspective

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

AJ Technical Services & Consulting-Alan Hiken
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2154
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
A review of critical technologies and manufacturing advances that have enabled the evolution of the composite fuselage is described. The author’s perspective on several development, military, and production programs that have influenced and affected the current state of commercial fuselage production is presented. The enabling technologies and current approaches being used for wide body aircraft fuselage fabrication and the potential reasons why are addressed. Some questions about the future of composite fuselage are posed based on the lessons learned from today and yesterday.
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A Methodology on Guiding Effectiveness-Focused Training of the Weapon Operator Using Big Data and VC Simulations

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

KAIST-Ojeong Kwon
University of Central Florida-Won Il Jung, Larry Lowe, Luis Rabelo, Gene Lee
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-2018
Published 2017-09-19 by SAE International in United States
Operator training using a weapon in a real-world environment is risky, expensive, time-consuming, and restricted to the given environment. In addition, governments are under intense scrutiny to provide security, yet they must also strive for efficiency and reduce spending. In other words, they must do more with less. Virtual simulation, is usually employed to solve these limitations. As the operator is trained to maximize weapon effectiveness, the effectiveness-focused training can be completed in an economical manner. Unfortunately, the training is completed in limited scenarios without objective levels of training factors for an individual operator to optimize the weapon effectiveness. Thus, the training will not be effective.For overcoming this problem, we suggest a methodology on guiding effectiveness-focused training of the weapon operator through usability assessments, big data, and Virtual and Constructive (VC) simulations. Usability assessments will be done to identify human factors affecting weapon’s effectiveness. Usability assessments consist of data-driven and judgment-driven analytics. The first is generated from raw simulation log files to evaluate the participant’s level of skill. The latter is generated from questionnaires, and…
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Towards Standardising Methods for Reporting the Embodied Energy Content of Aerospace Products

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

ADS Group Ltd.-Kevin M Morris
ADS Group Ltd. and University of Surrey-Abdul Hakim Siddique Miah
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9002
Published 2017-08-29 by SAE International in United States
Within the aerospace industry there is a growing interest in evaluating and reducing the environmental impacts of products and related risks to business. Consequently, requests from governments, customers, manufacturers, and other interested stakeholders, for environmental information about aerospace products are becoming widespread. Presently, requests are inconsistent and this limits the ability of the aerospace industry to meet the informational needs of various stakeholders and reduce the environmental impacts of their products in a cost-effective manner. Energy consumption is a significant business cost, risk, and a simple proxy value for overall environmental impact. This paper presents the initial research carried out by an academic and industry consortium to develop standardised methods for calculating and reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content of aerospace products. Following an action research approach, three potential methods are identified and applied in a real manufacturing environment. Suitability for use across the aerospace value chain is assessed. The benefits, implementations issues, areas of data uncertainty, and differences in results are outlined. Results show companies could be over/under reporting the embodied manufacturing energy content…
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Designing a Hybrid Electric Powertrain for an Unmanned Aircraft with a Commercial Optimization Software

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Salento-Teresa Donateo, Antonio Ficarella
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-9000
Published 2017-06-29 by SAE International in United States
The design of a hybrid electric powertrain requires a complex optimization procedure because its performance will strongly depend on both the size of the components and the energy management strategy. The problem is particular critical in the aircraft field because of the strong constraints to be fulfilled (in particular in terms of weight and volume). The problem was addressed in the present investigation by linking an in-house simulation code for hybrid electric aircraft with a commercial many-objective optimization software. The design variables include the size of engine and electric motor, the specification of the battery (typology, nominal capacity, bus voltage), the cooling method of the motor and the battery management strategy. Several key performance indexes were suggested by the industrial partner. The four most important indexes were used as fitness functions: electric endurance, fuel consumption, take-off distance and powertrain volume. A design able to fulfill all the targets set by the industrial partner was found using an elimination-by-aspect approach applied to the overall Pareto front. The results of the algorithm were post-processed and some metrics…
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