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Rear-End Collisions-The Effect of the Seat Belt and the Crash Pulse on Occupant Motion
Published May 23, 1994 by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration in United States
Neck injuries in rear-end collisions and the societal costs associated with these injuries are increasing yearly. This situation calls for further research in the field, one area of interest in this context being the influence of the various vehicle compartment components on the human body response in the interaction with the body during a rear-end impact.
Rear-end collision sled tests were carried out in order to investigate the influence of a standard three-point retractor seat belt system and that of the crash pulse magnitude on occupant response. A mathematical (MADYMO) model of the test set-up was implemented and validated. The model was used to further investigate the influence of the parameters.
According to sled test results, the seat belt system did not have any significant effect on dummy response. However, using the MADYMO model it was possible to vary the friction between occupant and seat-back, which resulted in a certain influence of the seat belt in limiting the ramping up of the dummy along the seat back at high velocity changes (Δv) and low seat back friction.
For a given velocity change a doubled sled crash-pulse magnitude resulted in increased linear accelerations, angular accelerations and neck loads in the dummy.