This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.
Effect of Additives on the Machinability and Properties of Alloy-Steel Bars
ISSN: 0148-7191, e-ISSN: 2688-3627
Published February 01, 1973 by SAE International in United States
Annotation ability available
Research programs were conducted to select the free-machining additive that would greatly increase the machinability of AISI 8620- and 4140-type steels without adversely affecting their hot workability, chemical homogeneity, and mechanical and metallurgical properties. The additives investigated were sulfur, selenium, tellurium, lead, and bismuth.
The principal findings were as follows:
Selenium and tellurium were more effective in increasing machinability than were the other additives.
Tellurium, even in small amounts, greatly increased scrap loss and conditioning loss.
The potent effect of selenium on machinability was obtained with pearlite, bainite, and tempered martensite microstructures.
The hardenability, impact properties, fatigue properties, and case-hardening characteristics of steels containing sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and lead were about the same.
On the basis of these studies, it is concluded that selenium is the optimum additive, and that the machinability of 8620-and 4140-type steels containing nominally 0.10% selenium is superior to that of commercially available 8620 and 4140 free-machining steels.
CitationTata, H. and Sampsell, R., "Effect of Additives on the Machinability and Properties of Alloy-Steel Bars," SAE Technical Paper 730114, 1973, https://doi.org/10.4271/730114.
- “Multiple Spindle Screw Machines.” Automatic Machining April 1968 57
- Case S. L. Oct. 18 1949
- Armour J. D. “Metallurgy and Machinability of Steels.” Machining Theory and Practice, ASM 1950 141
- Opitz H. “Unsolved Problems Associated With Metal Removal Operations.” Proceedings of the Second Buhl International Conference on Materials: Metal Transformations 1966 272
- Ito Tetsuro Kato Goshi “Free Cutting Stainless Steels.” Aug. 10 1971
- Asada Chiaki “Free Cutting Steels.” Dec. 28 1971
- Ito Tetsuro Kato Goshi Kimura Atsuyoshi “Free Cutting Steels.” Jan. 11 1972
- Miyashita Yoshio Nishikawa Katuhiko Sata Toshio “Free Cutting Steels Containing Small Amounts of Aluminum and Calcium.” Mar. 7 1972
- “The Selection of Steel for Economy in Machining.” Metals Handbook 1 Properties and Selection of Metals American Society for Metals Metals Park, Ohio 1961 303
- Nead J. E. Sims C. E. Harder O. E. “Properties of Some Free-Machining Lead-Bearing Steels.” Metals and Alloys 10 1939 68 109
- Dolan T. J. Price B. R. “Properties and Machinability of a Leaded Steel.” Metals and Alloys 11 1940 20
- Swinden T. “Leaded Manganese-Molybdenum Steel.” Paper No. 13/1943, Alloy Steels Research Committee, Jrl. Iron and Steel Institute 148 2 1943 441
- Woolman J. Jacques A. “Influence of Lead Additions on the Mechanical Properties and Machinability of Some Alloy Steels.” Jrl. Iron and Steel Institute July 1950 257
- Zlatin N. Gould J. V. “The Effect of a Lead Additive on the Machinability of Alloy Steels.” Jrl. Engineering for Industry 81 Transactions of ASME, Series B May 1959 131
- Bagley, F. L. Jr. Mennell R. “Machining Characteristics of Leaded Steels.” Jrl. Basic Engineering, Transactions of ASME June 1960 347
- United States Air Force Machinability Report 2 1951 72
- Palmer F. R. “Free-Machining Structural Alloy.” July 30 1935
- Boulger F. W. “The Effect of Selenium on the Machinability and Tensile Properties of Five Percent Chromium Steel.” Transactions of American Society for Metals 52 1960 698
- Schmitt L. B. Nachtman E. S. “An Investigation of the Machinability of Elevated-Temperature Drawn Alloy Steel Bar Stock.” Mechanical Working of Steel-2, AIME Metallurgical Society Conference 26 1964 151
- Tipnis V. A. Poole S. W. “The Effect of Selenium Additions on the Machinability of Low-Carbon Resulfurized Steels.” Trace Additives: Bismuth, Selenium, and Tellurium in Iron and Steel, ASM Symposium, Materials Engineering Congress Oct. 15 1970
- Aborn R. H. “The Role of Metallurgy, Particularly Bismuth, Selenium, and Tellurium in the Machinability of Steels.” American Smelting and Refining Co. 1969
- “Gas Nitriding.” Metals Handbook 2 Heat Treating, Cleaning and Finishing American Society for Metals Metals Park, Ohio 1964 149
- Tata H. J. Sampsell R. E. “Machinability of AISI 4140 Type Steels Maximized by Selenium.” Mechanical Working and Steel Processing-X, The Metallurgical Society of AIME 1972 378
- Hugo M. Bellot J. Frey J. “Study of the Hot-Forming Capacity of Structural Steels Containing Tellurium.” June 1971 397 409
- Schmitt L. B. Nachtman E. S. “Effect of Tellurium on the Machinability of 180,000 Psi Strength Level Alloy Steel.” Trace Additives: Bismuth, Selenium, and Tellurium in Iron and Steel, ASM Symposium, Materials Engineering Congress Oct. 15 1970
- Almand E. “Influence of Low Selenium Additions on the Transverse Properties of Structural Steels.” 66 11 November 1969 749
- Kanter J. J. “Reducing Creep in Alloy Steel Bolting Materials.” Steel 106 1940
- Wragge W. B. Discussion of paper
- Mostovoy S. Breyer N. N. “The Effect of Lead on the Mechanical Properties of 4145 Steel.” Transactions of American Society for Metals 61 1968 219
- Douglas A. W. Heitmann W. E. Madrzyk E. S. “The Effect of Tellurium on the Metallurgical and Mechanical Properties of Steel.” Trace Additives: Bismuth, Selenium, and Tellurium in Iron and Steel, ASM Symposium, Materials Engineering Congress Oct. 15 1970
- Tata H. J. “The Effect of Special Additives on the Machinability of Steel.” Trace Additives: Bismuth, Selenium, and Tellurium in Iron and Steel, ASM Symposium, Materials Engineering Congress Oct. 15 1970
- Shaw M. C. Smith P. A. Cook N. H. “Free-Machining Steel-Tool-Wear Characteristics of Resulfurized Steels.” ASME Paper No. 60-PROD-2 May 1960
- Odin G. Almand E. “Constructional Steels With Improved Machinability-III. Influence of Selenium and Tellurium on the Mechanical and Physiochemical Properties of Different Carbon and Alloy Steels.” March 1971
- Nachtman E. S. “Recent Developments in Improving the Machinability of Steel.” International Conference of ASTME-Manufacturing Technology 1967 673