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Prediction of Fuel Maps in Variable Valve Timing Spark Ignited Gasoline Engines Using Kriging Metamodels
ISSN: 2641-9637, e-ISSN: 2641-9645
Published April 14, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Citation: Tafreshi, A. and Mourelatos, Z., "Prediction of Fuel Maps in Variable Valve Timing Spark Ignited Gasoline Engines Using Kriging Metamodels," SAE Int. J. Adv. & Curr. Prac. in Mobility 2(4):1999-2010, 2020, https://doi.org/10.4271/2020-01-0744.
Creating a fuel map for simulation of an engine with Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) can be computationally demanding. Design of Experiments (DOE) and metamodeling is one way to address this issue. In this paper, we introduce a sequential process to generate an engine fuel map using Kriging metamodels which account for different engine characteristics such as load and fuel consumption at different operating conditions. The generated map predicts engine output parameters such as fuel rate and load. We first create metamodels to accurately predict the Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP), fuel rate, Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and CA50 (Crank Angle for 50% Heat Release after top dead center). The last two quantities are used to ensure acceptable combustion. The metamodels are created sequentially to ensure acceptable accuracy is achieved with a small number of simulations. Two optimization problems are then solved using the developed metamodels, for full load and part load conditions, respectively. We demonstrate that the estimated fuel map is of high accuracy compared to the actual map. The map is obtained with about one tenth of the number of engine simulations for a full factorial design, leading to much faster predictions.