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Crush Behavior of 3d Textile Structural Composites
Published September 30, 1997 by Automotive Technology Group, Inc. in United States
Composite materials with a 3D-woven, 3D-braided or knitted fiber reinforcement offer a high potential for the cost-effective manufacturing of lightweight structural components. The special feature of these textile structural composites is the possibility to realize near-net-shaped fiber structures with a three-dimensional fiber geometry. Compared to conventional composites based on tapes or 2D weavings, a higher damage tolerance and structural integrity can be achieved. Additionally, crash elements with very high weight-specific energy absorption behavior can be realized due to the flexibility in designing fiber architecture in 3D space in order to optimize the failure behavior.
The paper describes the most interesting textile technologies and the general energy-absorbing mechanisms of composite materials as well as the results of an experimental study with various textile structural composites, tested in diverse crush configurations (plates and profiles, through-penetration, longitudinal crash and transversal crash). Of special interest are the basic factors of influence (fiber type, hybridization, reinforcement geometry, net shape, trigger mechanisms) and the resulting crush properties compared to conventional composites. Mainly glass and carbon-fiber composites with an epoxy matrix are investigated. These results give interesting hints for the design of structural components with high crash performance.
Finally, some possible applications for cars, trucks, trains and helicopters are described.