This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Development of a Small-Bore Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine, and Enhancement of Its Performance Using Multiple-Injection Strategies

Journal Article
ISSN: 1946-3936, e-ISSN: 1946-3944
Published November 07, 2020 by SAE International in United States
Development of a Small-Bore Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine, and Enhancement of Its Performance Using Multiple-Injection Strategies
Citation: Jose, J., Mittal, M., and Ramesh, A., "Development of a Small-Bore Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine, and Enhancement of Its Performance Using Multiple-Injection Strategies," SAE Int. J. Engines 14(1):115-133, 2021,
Language: English


  1. Reitz, R.D., Ogawa, H., Payri, R., Fansler, T. et al. , “IJER Editorial: The Future of the Internal Combustion Engine,” International Journal of Engine Research. 21:3-10, 2019,
  2. Zhao, H. , Advanced Direct Injection Combustion Engine Technologies and Development First Edition (Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, United Kingdom, 2010),
  3. Yu, C., Park, K., Han, S., and Kim, W. , “Development of Theta II 2.4L GDI Engine for High Power & Low Emission,” SAE Technical Paper 2009-01-1486, 2009,
  4. Liu, Y., Pei, Y., Peng, Z., Qin, J. et al. , “Spray Development and Droplet Characteristics of High Temperature Single-Hole Gasoline Spray,” Fuel 191:97-105, 2017,
  5. Eichhorn, A., Lejsek, D., Hettinger, A., and Kufferath, A. , “Challenge Determining a Combustion System Concept for Downsized SI-Engines - Comparison and Evaluation of Several Options for a Boosted 2-Cylinder SI-Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1730, 2013,
  6. Bogarra, M., Herreros, J.M., Hergueta, C., Tsolakis, A. et al. , “Influence of Three-Way Catalyst on Gaseous and Particulate Matter Emissions During Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Cold-Start,” Johnson Matthey Technological Review 61(4):329-341, 2017,
  7. Noyori, T., Ohira, T., Nakamura, T., and Akamatsu, Y. , “Development of a 660cc Turbo-Charged Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2003-32-0013, 2003,
  8. Anderson, W., Yang, J., Brehob, D., Vallance, J. et al. , “Understanding the Thermodynamics of Direct Injection Spark Ignition (DISI) Combustion Systems: An Analytical and Experimental Investigation,” SAE Technical Paper 962018, 1996,
  9. Fiengo, G., di Gaeta, A., Palladino, A., and Giglio, V. , “Common Rail System for GDI Engines,” London: Springer London, 2013,
  10. Achleitner, E., Bäcker, H., and Funaioli, A. , “Direct Injection Systems for Otto Engines,” SAE Technical Paper 2007-01-1416, 2007,
  11. Henriot, S., Chaouche, A., Chevé, E., Duclos, J. et al. , “NSDI-3: A Small Bore GDI Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-0172, 1999,
  12. Iwamoto, Y., Noma, K., Nakayama, O., Yamauchi, T. et al. , “Development of Gasoline Direct Injection Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 970541, 1997,
  13. Zhou, F., Fu, J., Ke, W., Liu, J. et al. , “Effects of Lean Combustion Coupling with Intake Tumble on Economy and Emission Performance of Gasoline Engine,” Energy 133:366-379, 2017,
  14. Xie, F., Zheng, W., Chen, H., Liu, Y. et al. , “Effects of Split and Single Injection Strategies on Particle Number Emission and Combustion of a GDI Engine,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering 233(5):1100-1114, 2018,
  15. Kawamoto, M., Honda, T., and Katashiba, H. , “A Study of Center and Side Injection in Spray Guided DISI Concept,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-0106, 2005,
  16. Serras-Pereira, J., Aleiferis, P.G., and Richardson, D. , “Imaging and Heat Flux Measurements of Wall Impinging Sprays of Hydrocarbons and Alcohols in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine,” Fuel 91(1):264-297, 2012,
  17. Stola, F., Ravaglioli, V., Silvagni, G., Ponti, F. et al. , “Injection Pattern Investigation for Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis,” SAE Technical Paper 2019-24-0112, 2019,
  18. Stan, C., Stanciu, A., Guenther, S., Martorano, L. et al. , “Direct Injection Application on a Four-Stroke Motorcycle Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2001-01-1818, 2001,
  19. Mittal, M., Hung, D.L.S., Zhu, G., and Schock, H.J. , “Fuel Spray Visualization and Its Impingement Analysis on In-Cylinder Surfaces in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine,” Journal of Visualization 14(2):149-160, 2011,
  20. Reddy, A. and Mallikarjuna, J. , “Parametric Study on a Gasoline Direct Injection Engine - A CFD Analysis,” SAE Technical Paper 2017-26-0039, 2017,
  21. Devassy, B.M., Bakshi, S., and Ramesh, A. , “A New Injector Concept for Multimode Operation in Gasoline Direct Injection Engines,” International Journal of Engine Research 15(5):626-638, 2014,
  22. Sureshkumar, J., Venkitachalam, G., Mallikarjuna, J., and Elayaraja, R. , “Study on Effect of Engine Operating Parameters on Flame Characteristics,” SAE Technical Paper 2015-01-0749, 2015,
  23. Szekely, G. and Alkidas, A. , “Combustion Characteristics of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine with a High-Squish Piston,” SAE Technical Paper 2005-01-1937, 2005,
  24. Khan, M., Watson, H., and Baker, P. , “Mixture Preparation Effects on Gaseous Fuel Combustion in SI Engines,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):230-245, 2009,
  25. Jose, J.V., Mittal, M., and Ramesh, A. , “A Computational Study of In-Cylinder Flow, and the Influence of Injection Timing on Mixture Preparation in a Small-Bore GDI Engine,” in NCICEC Conference Proceedings, Suratkal, Karnataka, India, 2017.
  26. Jose, J., Parsi, A., Shridhara, S., Mittal, M. et al. , “Effect of Fuel Injection Timing on the Mixture Preparation in a Small Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 2018-32-0014, 2018,
  27. Han, Z., Reitz, R.D., Yang, J., and Anderson, R.W. , “Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine,” SAE Technical Paper 970625, 1997,
  28. Yamamoto, S., Tanaka, D., and Sato, K. , “Keys to Understanding Spray-guided Combustion of a Narrow-spacing Gasoline Direct Injection SI Engine with a Centrally Mounted Multi-hole Injector,” SAE Int. J. Engines 2(1):1408-1419, 2009,
  29. Bisht, A., Gupta, S.K., Mittal, M., and Schock, H. , “Analysis of Spray Variations and Macroscopic Spray Characteristics in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine at Different Injection Timings,” Journal of Visualization 22(4):761-771, 2019,
  30. Rounce, P., Brogan, M., and Eastwood, P. , “Gasoline Direct Injected Particulate Emissions Control at Stage 6,” Internal Combustion Engines: Performance, Fuel Economy and Emissions , IMechE, 231-250, London, 2013,
  31. Motohashi, Y., Kubota, K., Akaishi, N., Ishiki, K. et al. , “Development of New L4 2.4L Gasoline Engine for 2013 Model Year ACCORD,” SAE Technical Paper 2013-01-1734, 2013,
  32. Zheng, Z., Tian, X., and Zhang, X. , “Effects of Split Injection Proportion and the Second Injection Time on the Mixture Formation in a GDI Engine under Catalyst Heating Mode Using Stratified Charge Strategy,” Applied Thermal Engineering 84:237-245, 2015,
  33. Han, Z. and Reitz, R.D. , “Turbulence Modelling of Internal Combustion Engines Using RNG K-ɛ Models,” Combustion Science and Technology 106(46):267-295, 1995,
  34. Liu, Y.D., Jia, M., Xie, M.Z., and Pang, B. , “Enhancement on a Skeletal Kinetic Model for Primary Reference Fuel Oxidation by Using a Semi-Decoupling Methodology,” Energy and Fuels 26(12):7069-7083, 2012,
  35. Reitz, R.D. and Beale, J.C. , “Modelling Spray Atomization with the Kelvin-Helmholtz/Rayleigh-Taylor Hybrid Model,” Atomization Sprays 9(6):623-650, 1999,
  36. Su, J., Xu, M., Yin, P., Gao, Y. et al. , “Particle Number Emissions Reduction Using Multiple Injection Strategies in a Boosted Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Gasoline Engine,” SAE Int. J. Engines 8(1):20-29, 2015,
  37. Amsden, A.A., O’Rourke, P.J., and Butler, T.D. , “KIVA-II: A Computer Program for Chemically Reactive Flows with Sprays,” Los Alamos National Laboratory Technical Report LA-11560-MS, 1989.
  38. Liu, A.B., Mather, D., and Reitz, R.D. , “Modelling the Effects of Drop Drag and Breakup on Fuel Sprays,” SAE International Congress Expo 298(412):1-6, 1993,
  39. O’Rourke , “Collective Drop Effects on Vaporizing Sprays,” Los Alamos National Lab., NM, 1981.
  40. O’Rourke, P.J. and Amsden, A.A. , “A Spray/Wall Interaction Sub model for the KIVA-3 Wall Film Model,” SAE Technical Paper 2000-01-0271, 2000,
  41. Jose, J.V., Thakur, H., Mittal, M., and Ramesh, A. , “A Computational Study on the Effect of Injector Location on the Performance of a Small Spark-Ignition Engine Modified to Operate under the Direct-Injection Mode,” SAE Technical Paper 2020-01-0286, 2020,
  42. Zheng, Z., Liu, C., Tian, X., and Zhang, X. , “Numerical Study of the Effect of Piston Top Contour on GDI Engine Performance under Catalyst Heating Meode,” Fuel 157:64-72, 2015,

Cited By