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Aerodynamic analysis of race car using active wing concept.

ARAI Academy-Prakash P Bhanushali
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2395
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In high speed race cars, aerodynamics is an important aspect for determining performance and stability of vehicle. It is mainly influenced by front and rear wings. Active aerodynamics consist of any type of movable wing element that change their position based on operating conditions of the vehicle to have better performance and handling. In this work, front and rear wings are designed for race car prototype of race car. The high down force aerofoil profiles have been used for design of front and rear wing. The first aerodynamic analysis has been performed on baseline model without wings using CFD tool. For investigation, parameters considered are angle of attack in the range of 0-18˚ for front as well as rear wing at different test speeds of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kmph. The simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results show significant improvement in vehicle performance and handling parameters. To validate the results, a scaled model prototype is manufactured and tested in wind tunnel. Keywords: Active aerodynamics, wing, angle of attack, racecar.

Winglet design and analysis for Cessna 152 – A Numerical study

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Vivek Saini, Nagarajan Sunil Bhargav, Yallur Mohiddinsha, Sundararaj Senthilkumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0035
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
During flight an emergent circulatory flow pattern named vortex is observed at wing tips causing induced drag. An approach to reduce this is by implementing winglets. Winglets are small wing-like lifting surfaces, fitted at the tips of some wings, usually with the objective of decreasing trailing vortex drag and thereby increasing the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. The aim of the project is to design and analyse winglets for Cessna 152 by varying the cant angle and other parameters. A baseline wing model was designed in CATIA V5, correspondingly wings with winglet. Models were designed by means of specific taper ratio, cant angle and sweep angle. A basic comparison of maximum L/D ratio, optimum drag, and stall are evaluated at different mission segments by varying winglet design parameters. In addition, performances of wings, with and without winglets are evaluated using ANSYS FLUENT and finally, as a result, the optimal performance of the winglets is obtained.

Reconfigurable Jig Tooling and In-Process Metrology for High Accuracy Prototype Compound Helicopter Wing Assembly

University of Nottingham-Richard J. Crossley, Svetan Ratchev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1877
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper documents the potential use of reconfigurable reusable jig tooling based on the box-joint system for use in the assembly of a prototype compound helicopter wing. Due to the aircraft configuration the wing design is pinned at both ends and therefore requires a higher degree of accuracy (typically 0.2mm), over the 4m length, than conventional wings. In this paper the cost benefit of reusable tooling in a low volume prototype scenario is examined followed by the design of the jig and location features to enable accurate build and metrology documentation. A prototype 4m test jig comprising of commercially available components and bespoke machined ‘pick-ups’ is presented here. Hardware and measurement process cost modelling is documented along with results for the positional and hinge-line concentricity setting accuracy that was achieved using a laser tracking system. Subsequent measurements over a 24hr period are also discussed along with potential sources of the observed reduction in jig accuracy over time.

Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1884
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (ABH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by ABH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture and assembly of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure. The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…

Landing Gear Integration into Aircraft Structure in Early Design Stage

Bauhaus Luftfahrt EV-Ulrich Kling, Mirko Hornung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1890
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The demanded development towards various emission reduction goals set up by several institutions forces the aerospace industry to think about new technologies and alternative aircraft configurations. With these alternative aircraft concepts, the landing gear layout is also affected. Turbofan engines with very high bypass ratios could increase the diameter of the nacelles extensively. In this case, mounting the engines above the wing could be a possible arrangement to avoid an exceedingly long landing gear. Thus, the landing gear could be shortened and eventually mounted at the fuselage instead of the wings. Other technologies such as high aspect ratio wings have an influence on the landing gear integration as well. To assess the difference, especially in weight, between the conventional landing gear configuration and alternative layouts a method is developed based on preliminary structural designs of the different aircraft components, namely landing gear, wing and fuselage. Simplified parametric finite element structural models for the different components are introduced. These models are used to investigate different aircraft configurations with special regard on the landing gear integration. The…

Preliminary Design of Hydraulic and Pneumatic System Architectures for a Morphing Flight Control Structure

German Aerospace Center DLR-Michael Schäfer, Andreas Schäfer, Oliver Bertram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1916
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Bionics in aeronautics has the potential to increase the performance and efficiency of aircraft significantly. Inspired by the wings of birds, morphing wing structures are extensively investigated over the last decades. The continuous adaption of the wings over a large scale of the flight envelope enables an optimization of the aerodynamic characteristics and, in this way, a reduction of the fuel consumption. Additionally, those structures could support or replace traditional flight control surfaces. Depending on the morphing technology, different systems may be suitable to actuate the morphing structure. An early inclusion of the system architecture concepts into the development of the morphing technology enables the design of an optimal system in compliance with all requirements. Therefore, this paper discusses the conceptual design of system architectures for a novel morphing wing structure that is used for flight control. The benefits of morphing structures for aircraft applications are shown and the functionality of the used morphing structure is introduced. The morphing structure was designed to be actuated by fluids and is compatible with different gases and liquids.…

Advanced Over-the-Wing Nacelle Transport Configuration

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34760
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA’s Langley Research Center has developed a new aircraft design with the engine nacelle over the wing, improving engine ground clearance and freeing landing gear design. While previous over-the-wing designs have produced unacceptably high drag conditions, the new NASA design reduces drag on the wing. By optimizing the nacelle design and the wing leading edge location, NASA’s design confines the shock to the leading edge of the wing. Also, placing the exhaust nozzle over the wing reduces noise to the communities below.


Simulations of Thin Film Dynamics on a Flat Plate and an Airfoil

Baylor University-Jordan Sakakeeny, Stephen T. McClain, Yue Ling
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the present study is to investigate the dynamics of a thin water film on a flat plate and an airfoil using direct numerical simulation (DNS). The first case for a wetted flat plate is used to model former experiments and investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film. The second case for a thin film on a NACA 0012 airfoil of chord length 0.5 m is used to investigate the dynamics of a wind-driven water film on a curved surface. Particular attention is paid to the interaction between the liquid film and the air shear-layer above the film. As the incoming airflow moves over the thin water film, instability is triggered at the gas-liquid interface. Interfacial waves develop and are advected downstream. The interaction between the air flow and the interfacial waves induces shedding vortices near the interface, which in turn perturb the liquid film farther downstream. Simulations are performed using the open source multiphase flow solvers, Gerris and Basilisk. Both solvers employ a finite-volume approach and the interface is captured using…
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Experimental and Computer Model Results for a Carbon Nanotubes Electrothermal De-Icing System

Embraer-Rodrigo Domingos, Gilberto Becker
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Results from a three-dimensional computer model of a Carbon Nanotubes (CNT) based de-icing system are compared to experimental data obtained at COLLINS-Ohio Icing Wind Tunnel (IWT). The experiments were performed using a prototype of a CNT based de-icing system installed in a section of a business jet horizontal tail. The 3D numerical analysis tools used in the comparisons are AIPAC [1] and CFD++. The former was derived from HASPAC, an anti-icing computer model developed at Wichita State University in 2010 [3, 9, 10]. AIPAC uses the finite volumes method for the solution of the icing problem on an airfoil leading edge (or other 3D surfaces) and relies on any CFD solver to obtain the external flow properties used as boundary conditions. AIPAC is capable of predicting 3D multi-step ice shapes under rime, glaze and mixed regimes, and can also deal with the complex dynamics of cyclic ice accretion, melting, and shedding present in the realm of aircraft electrothermal de-icing systems. The latter is the CFD solver selected to provide the external flow properties for the…
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Frostwing Co-Operation in Aircraft Icing Research

Aalto University-Pekka Koivisto
Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)-Thomas Bond
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The aerodynamic effects of Cold Soaked Fuel Frost have become increasingly significant as airworthiness authorities have been asked to allow it during aircraft take-off. The Federal Aviation Administration and the Finnish Transport Safety Agency signed a Research Agreement in aircraft icing research in 2015 and started a research co-operation in frost formation studies, computational fluid dynamics for ground de/anti-icing fluids, and de/anti-icing fluids aerodynamic characteristics. The main effort has been so far on the formation and aerodynamic effects of CSFF. To investigate the effects, a generic high-lift common research wind tunnel model and DLR-F15 airfoil, representing the wing of a modern jet aircraft, was built including a wing tank cooling system. Real frost was generated on the wing in a wind tunnel test section and the frost thickness was measured with an Elcometer gauge. Frost surface geometry was measured with laser scanning and photogrammetry. The aerodynamic effect of the frost was studied in a simulated aircraft take-off sequence, in which the speed was accelerated to a typical rotation speed and the wing model was then…
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