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Stall Mitigation and Lift Enhancement of NACA 0012 with Triangle-Shaped Surface Protrusion at a Reynolds Number of 105

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India-Aslesha Bodavula, Rajesh Yadav, Ugur Guven
  • Journal Article
  • 01-12-02-0007
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Transient numerical simulations are conducted over a NACA 0012 airfoil with triangular protrusions at a Reynolds number (Re) of 100000 using the γ-Reθ transition Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Protrusions of heights 0.5%c, 1%c, and 2%c are placed at one of the three locations, viz, the leading edge (LE), 5%c on the suction surface, and 5%c on the pressure surface, while the angle of attack (AOA) is varied between 0° and 20°. Results obtained from the time-averaged solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation indicate that the smaller protrusion placed at 5%c on the suction surface improves the post-stall lift coefficient by up to 59%, without altering the pre-stall characteristics. The improvement in time-averaged lift coefficients comes with enhanced flow unsteadiness due to vigorous vortex shedding. For a given protrusion height, the vortex shedding frequency decreases as the AOA is increased, while the amplitude of fluctuations in lift coefficient increases as the protrusion height is increased or as the AOA is increased. Nevertheless, mitigation of static stall phenomena is observed for most configurations investigated, and…
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Race Car Using Active Wing Concept

ARAI Academy-Prakash P Bhanushali
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2395
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In high speed race cars, aerodynamics is an important aspect for determining performance and stability of vehicle. It is mainly influenced by front and rear wings. Active aerodynamics consist of any type of movable wing element that change their position based on operating conditions of the vehicle to have better performance and handling. In this work, front and rear wings are designed for race car prototype of race car. The high down force aerofoil profiles have been used for design of front and rear wing. The first aerodynamic analysis has been performed on baseline model without wings using CFD tool. For investigation, parameters considered are angle of attack in the range of 0-18° for front as well as rear wing at different test speeds of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kmph. The simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results show significant improvement in vehicle performance and handling parameters. To validate the results, a scaled model prototype is manufactured and tested in wind tunnel.
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Flying Robot Mimics Rapid Insect Flight

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35433
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Flying animals both power and control flight by flapping their wings. This enables small natural flyers such as insects to hover close to a flower but also to rapidly escape danger. Animal flight has always drawn the attention of biologists, who not only study their complex wing motion patterns and aerodynamics but also their sensory and neuro-motor systems during such agile maneuvers. Recently, flying animals have also become a source of inspiration for robotics researchers, who try to develop lightweight flying robots that are agile, power-efficient, and even scalable to insect sizes.

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Winglet Design and Analysis for Cessna 152 - A Numerical Study

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Vivek Saini, Nagarajan Sunil Bhargav, Yallur Mohiddinsha, Sundararaj Senthilkumar
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
During flight an emergent circulatory flow pattern named vortex is observed at wing tips producing induced drag. An approach to reduce this effect is by implementing winglets. Winglets are small wing-like lifting surfaces, fitted at the tip of some wings, usually with the objective of decreasing trailing vortex drag and thereby increasing the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing. The aim of the project is to design and analyze the effect of winglets for Cessna 152 by varying the cant angle and sweep angle. This model has been selected since it provides a good choice for Pilots first airplane. A baseline wing model was designed in CATIA V5, correspondingly wings with winglet models were designed with a fixed taper ratio of 0.2 and different cant and sweep angles. The lift to drag ratio is evaluated at different angles of attack by varying winglet design parameters. Different wing configurations with various Cant and Sweep angles were analyzed at sea level conditions using K-ω SST turbulent model in ANSYS FLUENT and best winglet with desired characteristics for optimum…
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New Airplane Wing Assembled from Tiny Identical Pieces

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35277
Published 2019-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A radically new kind of airplane wing, assembled from hundreds of tiny identical pieces, can change shape to control the plane’s flight, and could provide a significant boost in aircraft production, flight, and maintenance efficiency. The new approach to wing construction could afford greater flexibility in the design and manufacturing of future aircraft.

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Low Cost Reconfigurable Jig Tooling and In-Process Metrology for High Accuracy Prototype Rotorcraft Wing Assembly

University of Nottingham-Richard J. Crossley, Svetan Ratchev
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Reconfigurable tooling frames consisting of steel box sections and bolted friction clamps offer an opportunity to replace traditional expensive welded steel tooling. This well publicized reconfigurable reusable jig tooling has been investigated for use in the assembly of a prototype compound helicopter wing.Due to the aircraft configuration, the wing design is pinned at both ends and therefore requires a higher degree of end to end accuracy, over the 4m length, than conventional wings. During the investigation some fundamental issues are approached, including:Potential cost savings and variables which effect the business case.Achievable Jig accuracy.Potential sources of instability that may affect accuracy over time.Repeatability of measurements with various features and methods.Typical jig stability over 24hrs including effects of small temperature fluctuations.Deflections that occur due to loading.The cost benefit of reusable tooling in a low volume prototype scenario is examined followed by the design of the jig and location features to enable the accurate build and certification documentation to be completed. A prototype 4m test jig comprising of commercially available components and bespoke machined ‘pick-ups’ is presented.Hardware and…
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Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (AH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by AH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture, assembly and testing of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure.The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…
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Landing Gear Integration into Aircraft Structure in Early Design Stage

Bauhaus Luftfahrt EV-Ulrich Kling, Mirko Hornung
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The demanded development towards various emission reduction goals set up by several institutions forces the aerospace industry to think about new technologies and alternative aircraft configurations. With these alternative aircraft concepts, the landing gear layout is also affected. Turbofan engines with very high bypass ratios could increase the diameter of the nacelles extensively. In this case, mounting the engines above the wing could be a possible arrangement to avoid an exceedingly long landing gear. Thus, the landing gear could be shortened and eventually mounted at the fuselage instead of the wings. Other technologies such as high aspect ratio wings have an influence on the landing gear integration as well. To assess the difference, especially in weight, between the conventional landing gear configuration and alternative layouts a method is developed based on preliminary structural designs of the different aircraft components, namely landing gear, wing and fuselage. Simplified parametric finite element structural models for the different components are introduced. These models are used to investigate different aircraft configurations with special regard on the landing gear integration. The…
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Preliminary Design of Hydraulic and Pneumatic System Architectures for a Morphing Flight Control Structure

German Aerospace Center DLR-Michael Schäfer, Andreas Schäfer, Oliver Bertram
Published 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Bionics in aeronautics has the potential to increase the performance and efficiency of aircraft significantly. Inspired by the wings of birds, morphing wing structures have been extensively investigated over the last decades. The continuous adaption of the wings over a large scale of the flight envelope enables an optimization of the aerodynamic characteristics and, this way, a reduction of the fuel consumption. Additionally, those structures could support or replace traditional flight control surfaces. Depending on the morphing technology, different systems may be suitable to actuate the morphing structure. An early inclusion of the system architecture into the development of the morphing technology enables designing an optimal system in compliance with all requirements. Therefore, this paper discusses the conceptual design of system architectures for a novel morphing wing structure that is used for flight control. The benefits of morphing structures for aircraft applications are shown and the functionality of the used morphing structure is introduced. The morphing structure was designed to be actuated by fluids and is compatible with different gases and liquids. Since the fluid…
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3D Optical Scanner

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35116
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NVision, Inc. Southlake, TX 817-416-8006