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A Study on the Effect of Debris Location on a Double Element Wing in Ground Effect

Loughborough University-Tom Marsh, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Dipesh Patel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0693
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Multi-element front wings are essential in numerous motorsport series, such as Formula 1, for the generation of downforce and control of the onset flows to other surfaces and cooling systems. Rubber tyre debris from the soft compounds used in such series can become attached to the wing, reducing downforce, increasing drag and altering the wake characteristics of the wing. This work studies, through force balance and Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, the effect a piece of debris has on an inverted double element wing in ground effect. The wing was mounted at a ride height determined to minimise separation from a fixed false-floor in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. The debris is modelled using a hard-setting putty and is located at different span and chord-wise positions around the wing. The sensitivity to location is studied and the effect on the wake analysed using PIV measurements. The largest effect on downforce was observed when the debris was located on the underside of the wing towards the endplates. The wake was most effected when the debris was…
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Simulation of Transient On-Road Conditions in a Closed Test Section Wind Tunnel Using a Wing System with Active Flaps

FKFS-Andreas Wagner, Jochen Wiedemann
German Aerospace Center DLR-Henning Wilhelmi, James Bell, Daniela Heine, Claus Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0688
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Typical automotive research in wind tunnels is conducted under idealized, stationary, low turbulence flow conditions. This does not necessarily reflect the actual situation in traffic. Thus, there is a considerable interest to simulate the actual flow conditions. Because of this, a system for the simulation of the turbulence intensity I, the integral linear scale L and the transient angle of incidence β measured in full-scale tests in the inflow of a test vehicle was developed and installed in a closed-loop, closed test section wind tunnel. The system consists of four airfoils with movable flaps and is installed in the beginning of the test section. Time-series of the flow velocity vector are measured in the empty test section to analyze the system’s envelope in terms of the turbulence intensity and the integral length scales. It is shown that the length scales in spanwise and in driving (streamwise) direction can be varied from 0.15 m to 7.9 m and from 0.15 m to 2.5 m, respectively, depending on the frequency of the flap movement. The maximum obtained…
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CAD-Based Optimization of a Race Car Front Wing

Phoenix Integration-Ilya Tolchinsky
Pointwise, Inc.-Travis Carrigan, Joshua Dawson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0624
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aerodynamics of the front wing of modern race cars are critical to the performance of the vehicle. The Formula 1 line up represents the state of the art in this field as there are some very complex aerodynamic designs on display. It is strange, however, that there is no agreement on twist direction for the multiple wing sections of the front wing. This paper addresses this question by posing it as an optimization problem. The geometry of the wings has been simplified so that the twist of the upper sections could be studied in isolation. The whole assembly consisted of only two high lift surfaces. The forward wing remained fixed for the study, and twist of the secondary wing became the primary focus. Its geometry was generated by lofting a set of cross-sections at specified angles to create the surface. The resulting geometry was automatically meshed and then evaluated using CFD. This fully automated process was then used to find an ideal twist distribution of the secondary wing. The results show that a higher…
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Aerodynamic Design and Analysis of a Formula SAE Drag Reduction System (DRS)

University of Manitoba-David J. Penner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0685
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Formula SAE vehicles, like many other vehicles within the realm of motorsport, often employ rear mounted aerodynamic devices to improve cornering performance, these devices can however have a significant amount of aerodynamic drag. Additional speed can be gained by reducing the impact of the rear wing on the straightaways of the track through the use the aptly named Drag Reduction System (DRS), which works by reducing the angle of attack of the rear wing flap(s). A DRS can however introduce other performance losses, including the losses from having a gap between the rear wing flaps and endplate to prevent friction, the potential to stall the rear wing from improper opening angles of the flaps, and from the wake of the DRS actuator if positioned in front of the airfoils. An additional concern is the time it takes for the rear wing performance to return upon DRS deactivation, which will affect how long before corner entry the driver must disable the system. Insight into each of these problems as well as the optimum opening angles was…
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Parametric Studies on Airfoil-Boundary Layer Ingestion Propulsion System

Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI), Russia-Leonid L. Teperin
Peking University, China-Mostafa E. El-Salamony
  • Journal Article
  • 01-13-01-0003
Published 2020-03-11 by SAE International in United States
From the fact that a propulsor consumes less power for a given thrust if the inlet air is slower, simulations are conducted for a propulsor imposed behind an airfoil as ideal boundary layer ingestion (BLI) propulsor to stand on the benefits of this configuration from the point of view of power and efficiency and to get a closer look on the mutual interaction between them. This interaction is quantified by the impact on three main sets of parameters, namely, power consumption, boundary layer properties, and airfoil performance. The position and size of the propulsor have great influence on the flow around the airfoil. Parametric studies are carried out to understand their influence. BLI propulsor directly affects the power saving and all of the pressure-dependent parameters, including lift and drag. For the present case, power saving reached 14.4% compared to the propeller working in freestream.
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Fluid-Structure Interaction of a Spring-Mounted Symmetrical Rigid Wing for Drag Reduction of Cars at Higher Wind Velocities

Kingston University-George Haritos
University of Duisburg-Essen-Simon Fels
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5037
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper details an aeroelastic concept for an adaptive and passive wing, which is primarily aimed for use within the automotive sector to reduce drag and fuel emissions. The work will also be of interest in the motorsport sector to improve performance and also some applications within the aerospace and renewable energy sectors. The wind tunnel testing of a spring-mounted symmetrical NACA 0012 wing in freestream is studied over 0° to 40° angles of incidence. General operation of the concept is verified at low angles in the pre-stall region with that of a theoretical estimation using finite and infinite wings. Three distinct regions are identified, pre-stall, near-stall, and post-stall. The transient limitations associated in the near-stall region with variations in spring loading and flow velocities are discovered. It is identified as a periodic self-sustained oscillation with nondimensional reduced frequencies in the range from 0.14 to 0.22. Furthermore, performance in the post-stall region along with pre-stall is reported, and methods for the adjustment of the elastic element for a desired response are introduced. Evaluation is conducted…
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new

Application of Extended Messinger Models to Complex Geometries

Georgia Institute of Technology-Avani Gupta, Lakshmi Sankar
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Richard Kreeger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0022
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since, ice accretion can significantly degrade the performance and the stability of an airborne vehicle, it is imperative to be able to model it accurately. While ice accretion studies have been performed on airplane wings and helicopter blades in abundance, there are few that attempt to model the process on more complex geometries such as fuselages. This paper proposes a methodology that extends an existing in-house Extended Messinger solver to complex geometries by introducing the capability to work with unstructured grids and carry out spatial surface streamwise marching.For the work presented here commercial solvers such as STAR-CCM+ and ANSYS Fluent are used for the flow field and droplet dispersed phase computations. The ice accretion is carried out using an in-house icing solver called GT-ICE. The predictions by GT-ICE are compared to available experimental data, or to predictions by other solvers such as LEWICE and STAR-CCM+. Three different cases with varying levels of complexity are presented. The first case considered is a commercial transport airfoil, followed by a three-dimensional MS(1)-317 swept wing. Finally, ice accretion calculations…
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new

Multi-Objective Flight Control Optimization Framework

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36201
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Composite materials are used in aerospace design because of their high strength-to-weight ratio. On modern airplanes, composite wings offer a greater degree of aerodynamic efficiency due to weight savings but at the same time introduce more structural flexibility than their aluminum counterparts. Under off-design flight conditions, changes in the wing shape due to structural flexibility cause the wing aerodynamics to be non-optimal. This effect could offset any weight-saving benefits realized by the composite wings. Structural flexibility could also cause adverse interactions with flight control and structural vibration that can compromise aircraft stability, pilot handling qualities, and passenger ride quality.

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Flap Device for Airframe Noise Reduction

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36168
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA’s Langley Research Center developed a simple, deployable, flap side edge main element link that reduces airframe noise while still enabling a clean cruise configuration. Termed the FLEXSEL (flexible side edge link), this flexible structural link design makes use of hyperelastic materials to provide a smooth geometric transition of minimal spanwise extent between the flap side edge and the main wing. The comparatively small spanwise dimension of the FLEXSEL enables it to achieve the noise reduction without detriment to, and with possible improvement of, other aerodynamic characteristics.

Robots Assemble Large Structures from Little Pieces

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36001
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Today's commercial aircraft are typically manufactured in sections and often in different locations — wings at one factory, fuselage sections at another, tail components somewhere else — and then flown to a central plant in huge cargo planes for final assembly. If the entire plane could be built out of a large array of tiny identical pieces, all put together by an army of tiny robots, costs in manpower and transportation could be slashed.