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A Study on the Effect of Debris Location on a Double Element Wing in Ground Effect

Loughborough University-Tom Marsh, Graham Hodgson, Andrew Garmory, Dipesh Patel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0693
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Multi-element front wings are essential in numerous motorsport series, such as Formula 1, for the generation of downforce and control of the onset flows to other surfaces and cooling systems. Rubber tyre debris from the soft compounds used in such series can become attached to the wing, reducing downforce, increasing drag and altering the wake characteristics of the wing. This work studies, through force balance and Particle Image Velocimetry measurements, the effect a piece of debris has on an inverted double element wing in ground effect. The wing was mounted at a ride height determined to minimise separation from a fixed false-floor in the Loughborough University Large Wind Tunnel. The debris is modelled using a hard-setting putty and is located at different span and chord-wise positions around the wing. The sensitivity to location is studied and the effect on the wake analysed using PIV measurements. The largest effect on downforce was observed when the debris was located on the underside of the wing towards the endplates. The wake was most effected when the debris was…
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Simulation of Transient On-Road Conditions in a Closed Test Section Wind Tunnel using a Wing System with Active Flaps

FKFS-Andreas Wagner, Jochen Wiedemann
German Aerospace Center DLR-Henning Wilhelmi, James Bell, Daniela Heine, Claus Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0688
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a high interest to improve the static approach of wind tunnel testing by simulating realistic transient flow conditions. To determine these conditions, different driving maneuvers (driving behind, passing) were conducted in previous experiments on a runway. The transient, incoming flow and the vehicle’s surface pressure were measured. To create the realistic inflow conditions in a wind tunnel, a new system of four symmetric airfoils with active flaps was developed for the Side-Wind Facility Göttingen (SWG), a closed loop, closed test-section facility with a moving belt and suction system. The airfoils heights are half the test section’s height and the trailing third of their chords are active flaps. The reduced inertia - resulting from only one third of the airfoil moving - allows for individual high-speed, rotational movements of the flap at with up to 50 Hz and angles of up to ±20°. Time-resolved velocity component measurements in the empty test section were conducted with an array of eleven 5-hole probes connected to an ESP64HD pressure transducer system for various flap configurations. These measurements…
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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SYMMETRICAL VS ASYMMETRICAL VS SEMISYMMETRICAL AIRFOILS

Delhi Technological University-Gautam Thakur, Naman Choudhary
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0514
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Airfoils are the cross-section of the wing or blade. Extensive research in the maximum L/D ratio is crucial as faster travel may be needed for developing faster aircraft, for the military as well as transportation purposes. Hence to find the best aerodynamic property, we will study the 3 types of airfoils. Through this paper, the intention is to find out the best airfoil which can be applied for use. In this study, the comparison between symmetric, anti-symmetric, and semi symmetric airfoil characteristics are made using ANSYS Fluent. ANSYS Fluent offers us a suitable platform to make simulations. Codes have been fed into the MATLAB software to generate the required coordinates. Airfoil design upholds great importance in modern-day design in aeronautics. The airfoils were designed using NACA guidelines and compared. This paper aims to find the advantages and disadvantages of the 3 different airfoils. The airfoils tested are made using coordinates derived from the NACA 4-digit series. Four different pitch angles were used: 0°, 2°, 4°, 8° to best replicate real-life applications. The main purpose of…
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CAD based Optimization of a Race Car Front Wing

Phoenix Integration-Ilya Tolchinsky
Pointwise, Inc.-Travis Carrigan, Joshua Dawson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0624
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aerodynamics of the front wing of modern race cars are critical to the performance of the vehicle. The Formula 1 line up represents the state of the art in this field. There some very complex aerodynamic designs on display. It is stranger, however, that there is no agreement on whether the multiple wing sections of the front wing should be twisted in or out. This paper will address this question by posing it as an optimization problem. The geometry of the wings will be simplified so that the twist of the upper sections can be studied in isolation. The whole assembly will consist of only two high lift surfaces. The forward wing will remain fixed for the study and the focus will be on the twist of the secondary wing. Its geometry will be generated by lofting a set of cross sections at specified angles to create the surface. The resulting geometry will be automatically meshed and then evaluated using CFD. This fully automated process will then be executed by an optimization algorithm to…
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Aerodynamic Design and Analysis of a Formula SAE Drag Reduction System (DRS)

University of Manitoba-David J. Penner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0685
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Formula SAE vehicles, like many other vehicles within the realm of motorsport, often employ rear mounted aerodynamic devices to improve cornering performance, these devices can however have a significant amount of aerodynamic drag. Additional speed can be gained by reducing the impact of the rear wing on the straightaways of the track through the use the aptly named Drag Reduction System (DRS), which works by reducing the angle of attack of the rear wing flap(s). A DRS can however introduce other performance losses, including the losses from having a gap between the rear wing flaps and endplate to prevent friction, the potential to stall the rear wing from improper opening angles of the flaps, and from the wake of the DRS actuator if positioned in front of the airfoils. An additional concern is the time it takes for the rear wing performance to return upon DRS deactivation, which will affect how long before corner entry the driver must disable the system. Insight into each of these problems as well as the optimum opening angles was…
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Application of Extended Messinger Models to Complex Geometries

Georgia Institute of Technology-Avani Gupta, Lakshmi Sankar
NASA John Glenn Research Center-Richard Kreeger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0022
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since, ice accretion can significantly degrade the performance and the stability of an airborne vehicle, it is imperative to be able to model it accurately. While ice accretion studies have been performed on airplane wings and helicopter blades in abundance, there are few that attempt to model the process on more complex geometries such as fuselages. This paper proposes a methodology that extends an existing in-house Extended Messinger solver to complex geometries by introducing the capability to work with unstructured grids and carry out spatial surface streamwise marching.For the work presented here commercial solvers such as STAR-CCM+ and ANSYS Fluent are used for the flow field and droplet dispersed phase computations. The ice accretion is carried out using an in-house icing solver called GT-ICE. The predictions by GT-ICE are compared to available experimental data, or to predictions by other solvers such as LEWICE and STAR-CCM+. Three different cases with varying levels of complexity are presented. The first case considered is a commercial transport airfoil, followed by a three-dimensional MS(1)-317 swept wing. Finally, ice accretion calculations…

Shape Sensing Innovations Dramatically Improve Structural Design Tools

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35793
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Advances in fiber optic shape sensing developed at NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center are enabling the development of next-generation flexible aircraft wings that maximize structural efficiency and reduce weight, improving fuel efficiency. These same advances will help engineers design stronger bridges, buildings, ocean vessels, and more.

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Stall Mitigation and Lift Enhancement of NACA 0012 with Triangle-Shaped Surface Protrusion at a Reynolds Number of 105

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India-Aslesha Bodavula, Rajesh Yadav, Ugur Guven
  • Journal Article
  • 01-12-02-0007
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Transient numerical simulations are conducted over a NACA 0012 airfoil with triangular protrusions at a Reynolds number (Re) of 100000 using the γ-Reθ transition Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Protrusions of heights 0.5%c, 1%c, and 2%c are placed at one of the three locations, viz, the leading edge (LE), 5%c on the suction surface, and 5%c on the pressure surface, while the angle of attack (AOA) is varied between 0° and 20°. Results obtained from the time-averaged solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation indicate that the smaller protrusion placed at 5%c on the suction surface improves the post-stall lift coefficient by up to 59%, without altering the pre-stall characteristics. The improvement in time-averaged lift coefficients comes with enhanced flow unsteadiness due to vigorous vortex shedding. For a given protrusion height, the vortex shedding frequency decreases as the AOA is increased, while the amplitude of fluctuations in lift coefficient increases as the protrusion height is increased or as the AOA is increased. Nevertheless, mitigation of static stall phenomena is observed for most configurations investigated, and…
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Aerodynamic Analysis of Race Car Using Active Wing Concept

ARAI Academy-Prakash P Bhanushali
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2395
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In high speed race cars, aerodynamics is an important aspect for determining performance and stability of vehicle. It is mainly influenced by front and rear wings. Active aerodynamics consist of any type of movable wing element that change their position based on operating conditions of the vehicle to have better performance and handling. In this work, front and rear wings are designed for race car prototype of race car. The high down force aerofoil profiles have been used for design of front and rear wing. The first aerodynamic analysis has been performed on baseline model without wings using CFD tool. For investigation, parameters considered are angle of attack in the range of 0-18° for front as well as rear wing at different test speeds of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kmph. The simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results show significant improvement in vehicle performance and handling parameters. To validate the results, a scaled model prototype is manufactured and tested in wind tunnel.
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Flying Robot Mimics Rapid Insect Flight

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35433
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Flying animals both power and control flight by flapping their wings. This enables small natural flyers such as insects to hover close to a flower but also to rapidly escape danger. Animal flight has always drawn the attention of biologists, who not only study their complex wing motion patterns and aerodynamics but also their sensory and neuro-motor systems during such agile maneuvers. Recently, flying animals have also become a source of inspiration for robotics researchers, who try to develop lightweight flying robots that are agile, power-efficient, and even scalable to insect sizes.