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Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Thorsten Koch, Jonathan Millitzer, William Kaal PhD, Georg Stoll, Matthias Schmidt
Hyundai Motor Company-Joong-Kwan Kim, Jinmo Lee, ChiSung Oh, Kang-Duck Ih
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1535
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. Based upon a numerical simulation of an installed windshield of a medium-sized car, this paper illustrates a conceptual study of both the evaluation of optimal positioning as well as a consideration of different electromechanical activation measures. A simulation model of the installed windshield is gained from an experimental modal analysis of both the windshield in free-free condition as well as in its installed configuration. The experimental data serves the frequency domain model update process of a finite element model of the installed windshield. A…
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Study of the Noise Contributors on the Interior Acoustic of a Car and Their Countermeasures

Autoneum Holding AG-Thibault Lafont, Claudio Bertolini
Saint-Gobain-Fabien Dalzin, Fabien Bouillet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1585
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper shows that the collaboration between a glass manufacturer and a passive acoustic treatment manufacturer can bring different benefits and considerably improve the interior acoustics of a vehicle. In terms of passenger safety and well-being, glazing have always played a key role by offering solutions to interior comfort, particularly when it comes to heat and acoustics. Today, cars are becoming a living space which from an acoustic point of view brings a challenge for the interior comfort. Indeed, glazing has no absorption and classically it has an acoustic insulation weakness around its coincident frequency. In most of the cases, these different aspects make glazing one of the main contributors to the sound pressure level in the passenger compartment, and the trend is not one of change. However, there are possible countermeasures. One of which is the use of laminated glazing with acoustic PVB. This solution allows to reduce the loss of insulation performance at the coincidence frequency. The other is the usage of passive interior acoustic trims. When properly positioned and optimized, the latter…
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CFD Analysis and Validation of Automotive Windshield De-Fogging Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.https://www.sae-Gopinath Sathianarayanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0039
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays Climate component system plays a vital role in JD power rating of automotive vehicle. Apart from customer point of view, stringent homologation norms pose challenge in designing climate control system components. At extreme cold climate conditions either mist/ fog forms on the automobile windshield. This makes visibility issue on driver/Co driver side. To overcome this issue efficient demister system is required. Development of Demister system requires thorough knowledge on velocity spread over windscreen and thermal performance of heater (HVAC). This work is aimed for simulating windshield demisting patterns of a vehicle as described by ECC norms. New methodology was developed to simulate the actual behaviour of condensation and evaporation of mist on the windscreen. Transient demisting patterns were simulated with the CFD code and validated with experimental test results.
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Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network and Effect of Real World Signals on Prediction Window.

Colorado State University-Aaron Rabinowitz, Thomas Bradley
Western Michigan University-Tushar Gaikwad, Farhang Motallebiaraghi, Zachary Asher, Alvis Fong, Rick Meyer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0729
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Prediction of vehicle velocity is important since it can realize improvements in the fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety. Velocity prediction has been addressed in many publications. Several references considered deterministic and stochastic approaches such as Markov chain, autoregressive models, and artificial neural networks. There are numerous new sensor and signal technologies like vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication that can be used to obtain inclusive datasets. Using these inclusive datasets of sensors in deep neural networks, high accuracy velocity predictions can be achieved. This research builds upon previous findings that Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural networks provide the highest velocity prediction fidelity. We developed LSTM deep neural network which uses different groups of datasets collected in Fort Collins. Synchronous data was gathered using a test vehicle equipped with sensors to measure ego vehicle position and velocity, ADAS-derived near-neighbor relative position and velocity, and infrastructure-level transit time and signal phase and timing. Effect of different group of datasets on forward velocity prediction window of 10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds is studied. Developed algorithm is tested…
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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
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Impact of Different Types of Glazing on Thermal Comfort of Vehicle Occupants

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Akshay Bhateja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1249
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to intense peak summer temperatures and sunny summers in tropical countries like India etc., achieving the required thermal comfort of car occupants without compromising on fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly challenging. The major source of heat load on vehicle is Solar Load. Therefore, a study has been conducted to evaluate the heat load on vehicle cabin due to solar radiations and its impact on vehicle air-conditioning system performance with various combinations of door glasses and windscreen. The glasses used for this study are classified as green, dark green, dark gray, standard PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) windscreen and PVB windscreen having infrared cut particles. For each glass, part level evaluation was done to find out the percentage transmittance of light of different wavelengths and heat flux through each glass. To verify the effectiveness of each glass, vehicle level air-conditioning system performance test was done in All Weather Chassis Dyno Facility for each retrofitted vehicle. To eliminate the effect of manufacturing variance while evaluating each retrofitted vehicle, only door glasses and windscreen were changed in the same…
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AR projection for driver assistance in autonomous vehicles

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram, Balasubramanian Achuthan
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1035
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Augmented Reality (AR), which involves the integration of digital information with our physical environment in real-time, has been steadily growing over the past few years, finding its way into multiple areas of our lives. Augmented Reality (AR) in automotive vehicles has contributed to revolutionizing the way passengers and drivers access information, acquire knowledge and integrate into the physical spaces and destinations visited. The studies produced concerning this field are still limited, particularly in the perception of how users adopt technology and what use they make of it. On the other hand, even more limited are the studies that consider the role of stakeholders in the implementation of AR technology. In this paper, we discuss and propose solutions for following ADAS applications using projection unit mounted on board projecting on the windshield. • 5G in your route (signal strength - android applications on HU to detect the signal strength and display it on projection unit)). 5G connectivity help to realize the future of connected cars through higher speeds (up to 10 Gbps), better coverage (capacity expansion…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Window Glazing Coding and Rollover Ejection Mitigation Performance Using NASS-CDS

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Ian C. Campbell, Michael Carhart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1216
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Occupant ejection has been identified as a safety problem for decades, particularly in rollover crashes. While field accident studies have repeatedly demonstrated the effectiveness of seat belts in mitigating rollover ejection and injuries, the use of laminated glass in side window positions has been suggested as a means to mitigate occupant ejection. Limited data is available on the field performance of laminated glass in preventing ejection. This study utilized 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data to investigate the reliability of the glazing coding variables in the database and determine if any conclusions can be drawn regarding the effect of different side window glazing types on occupant ejection.An initial query was run for 1997-2016 model year vehicles involved in side impacts to evaluate glazing coding within NASS-CDS. Sixteen individual cases were identified where the first-row side window glass was coded as both laminated and as in-place and holed, out-of-place and not holed, out-of-place and holed, or disintegrated from impact. NASS-CDS case summaries and photographs were reviewed and compared against original equipment manufacturer (OEM) specifications for the involved vehicles. The…
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In-situ studies on the effect of solar control glazings on in-cabin thermal environment for hot and humid climatic zones

Saint Gobain India Pvt., Ltd.-Jyothi Latha Tamalapakula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal comfort in a passenger cabin is the basic necessity of an occupant especially in hot and humid climatic conditions. It is known that the reflective glazing solutions provide better thermal comfort inside the cabin due to significant reflection of IR part of solar radiation. However, in hot and humid climatic zones like India, significant reduction in heat load can also be achieved through cost effective solar control absorbing glazings. Thus, the present work aims to study the effect of solar control absorbing glazings on cabin inside temperatures and its impact on thermal comfort of the occupants in tropical climates. A combination of glazing sets with a range of solar energy transmission and absorption values are considered for the study. Indoor soak and cool tests are performed on a sedan model with multiple sets of solar control absorbing glass combinations. A constant ambient temperature of 38˚C and solar radiation of 1000W/m2 are maintained throughout the tests. Wind speed was simulated for a vehicle running speed of 45kmph. Net heat gain inside the cabin as a…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Glazing and Curtain Airbags for Occupant Containment in Rollover

Exponent Inc.-Bruce Miller, Janine Smedley, Michael Carhart, Sarah Sharpe
Ford Motor Company-Ram Krishnaswami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0976
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By their nature as chaotic, high-energy events, rollovers pose a high risk of injury to unrestrained occupants, in particular through exposure to projected perimeter contact and ejection. While seat belts have long been accepted as a highly effective means of retaining and restraining occupants in rollover crashes, it has been suggested that technologies such as laminated safety glazing or rollover-activated side curtain airbags (RSCAs) could alternatively provide effective occupant containment. In this study, a full-scale dolly rollover crash test was performed to assess the occupant containment capability of laminated side glazing and RSCAs in a high-severity rollover event. This allowed for the analysis of unrestrained occupant kinematics during interaction with laminated side glazing and RSCAs and evaluation of failure modes and limitations of laminated glazing and RSCAs as they relate to partial and complete ejection of unrestrained occupants. The dolly rollover was performed with a 2010 Chevrolet Express at a nominal speed of 43 mph, with unbelted anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) positioned in the driver, right front passenger, and designated third, fourth, and fifth row…