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Vehicle Velocity Prediction Using Artificial Neural Network and Effect of Real World Signals on Prediction Window.

Colorado State University-Aaron Rabinowitz, Thomas Bradley
Western Michigan University-Tushar Gaikwad, Farhang Motallebiaraghi, Zachary Asher, Alvis Fong, Rick Meyer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0729
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Prediction of vehicle velocity is important since it can realize improvements in the fuel economy/energy efficiency, drivability and safety. Velocity prediction has been addressed in many publications. Several references considered deterministic and stochastic approaches such as Markov chain, autoregressive models, and artificial neural networks. There are numerous new sensor and signal technologies like vehicle-to-vehicle and vehicle-to-infrastructure communication that can be used to obtain inclusive datasets. Using these inclusive datasets of sensors in deep neural networks, high accuracy velocity predictions can be achieved. This research builds upon previous findings that Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) deep neural networks provide the highest velocity prediction fidelity. We developed LSTM deep neural network which uses different groups of datasets collected in Fort Collins. Synchronous data was gathered using a test vehicle equipped with sensors to measure ego vehicle position and velocity, ADAS-derived near-neighbor relative position and velocity, and infrastructure-level transit time and signal phase and timing. Effect of different group of datasets on forward velocity prediction window of 10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds is studied. Developed algorithm is tested…
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An Analysis of the Effects of Ventilation on Burn Patterns Resulting from Passenger Compartment Interior Fires

Ford Motor Company-James J. Engle, Jennifer L. Buckman, Jeff Williams, Erich Kemnitz, Eric Kalis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0923
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle fire investigators often use the existence of burn patterns and the amount and location of fire damage to determine the fire origin and its cause. The purpose of this paper is to study the effects of ventilation location on the burn patterns and burn damage of passenger compartment fires. Four similar 20XX Ford Fusion vehicles were burned. The fire origin and first material ignited were the same for all four vehicles. In each test, a different door window was down for the duration of the burn test. Each vehicle was allowed to burn until the windshield, back glass, or another window, other than the window used for ventilation, failed, thus changing the ventilation pattern. At that point, the fire was extinguished. Temperatures were measured in the passenger compartment and video and still photography were recorded. Post-burn, the vehicle burn patterns were analyzed and conclusions drawn on: ability to determine a window was open during the fire, which window was open, the effect the open window had on burn patterns and burn damage, and the…
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Development of the Defrost Performance Evaluation Technology in Automotive using Design Optimization Analysis Method

Hyundai Mobis-Hyeonseok Seo, Jinwon Seo, Bongkeun Choi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0155
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we developed the defrost performance evaluation technology using the multi-objective optimization method based on the CFD. The defrosting is one of the key factors to ensure the drivers’ safety using the forced flow having proper temperature from HVAC during drive. There are many factors affecting the defrost performance, but the configurations of guide-vane and discharge angles in the center DEF duct section which are main design factors of the defrost performance in automotive, so these were set to the design parameters for this study. For the shape-optimization study, the discharge mass flow rate from the HVAC which is transferred to the windshield and the discharge areas in the center DEF duct were set to the response parameters. And then, the standard deviation value of mass flow rate on the selected discharge areas checking the uniformity of discharge flow was set to the objective function to find the optimal design. The results on the windshield from optimization analysis were quantified from some kind of standards to evaluate the defrost performance, in particular, the…
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AR projection for driver assistance in autonomous vehicles

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram, Balasubramanian Achuthan
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1035
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Augmented Reality (AR), which involves the integration of digital information with our physical environment in real-time, has been steadily growing over the past few years, finding its way into multiple areas of our lives. Augmented Reality (AR) in automotive vehicles has contributed to revolutionizing the way passengers and drivers access information, acquire knowledge and integrate into the physical spaces and destinations visited. The studies produced concerning this field are still limited, particularly in the perception of how users adopt technology and what use they make of it. On the other hand, even more limited are the studies that consider the role of stakeholders in the implementation of AR technology. In this paper, we discuss and propose solutions for following ADAS applications using projection unit mounted on board projecting on the windshield. • 5G in your route (signal strength - android applications on HU to detect the signal strength and display it on projection unit)). 5G connectivity help to realize the future of connected cars through higher speeds (up to 10 Gbps), better coverage (capacity expansion…
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Evaluation of Laminated Side Window Glazing Coding and Rollover Ejection Mitigation Performance using NASS-CDS

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Janine Smedley, Ian C. Campbell, Michael Carhart
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1216
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study analyses the effect of laminated glass using 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data. The validity of CDS coding in identifying laminated glass was first assessed with 1997-2015 model year vehicles involved in side impacts. Sixteen individual cases were downloaded where the front outboard glass window was identified as laminated glass by NASS investigators and where the window was coded as either “out-of placed”, “disintegrated” or “holed”. The case summary and photos were reviewed. The results showed that the laminated glass availability was incorrectly coded in 11 out of the 16 cases. New coding definitions were used to identify vehicles equipped with standard or optional laminated glass in the front side windows using various sources such as NAGS data and sale brochures. The results were compared to the individual cases and found appropriate. The NASS-CDS data was then queried with 1997+ model year vehicles to determine the risk and frequency of front seat occupant ejection status by glass type in rollover crashes using the new definitions. For vehicles equipped with standard laminated glass, the risk was 1.45…
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In-situ studies on the effect of solar control glazings on in-cabin thermal environment for hot and humid climatic zones

Saint Gobain India Pvt., Ltd.-Jyothi Latha Tamalapakula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1257
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal comfort in a passenger cabin is the basic necessity of an occupant especially in hot and humid climatic conditions. It is known that the reflective glazing solutions provide better thermal comfort inside the cabin due to significant reflection of IR part of solar radiation. However, in hot and humid climatic zones like India, significant reduction in heat load can also be achieved through cost effective solar control absorbing glazings. Thus, the present work aims to study the effect of solar control absorbing glazings on cabin inside temperatures and its impact on thermal comfort of the occupants in tropical climates. A combination of glazing sets with a range of solar energy transmission and absorption values are considered for the study. Indoor soak and cool tests are performed on a sedan model with multiple sets of solar control absorbing glass combinations. A constant ambient temperature of 38˚C and solar radiation of 1000W/m2 are maintained throughout the tests. Wind speed was simulated for a vehicle running speed of 45kmph. Net heat gain inside the cabin as a…
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Opportunities for Electrified IC Engines

Southwest Research Institute-Graham Conway, Paul Chambon, Terrence Alger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0281
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automotive industry is polarized between external pressures for ‘zero’ emission battery electric vehicles (BEV) and the ability to manufacture them economically and with minimal environmental impact. Most predictions of future BEV market share suggest that the IC engine has an important role to play in personal transportation for the next several decades. That engine will very likely be part of a hybrid architecture. Accepting that the engine will be part of a hybrid powertrain permits new design rules and strategies for the IC engine. A major characteristic change of the engine will be to reduce BMEP, power density and engine speed requirements as performance demand will be supplemented by electric machines. This paper focuses on some simple changes to the IC engine to increase thermal efficiency with the knowledge of the supplemental electric energy. The boosting systems on ICE engines today are sized appropriately for a wide speed range, with the result being a device which is compromised across the operating range. By reducing the engine load requirement, the device can be optimized for…
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Characterization and Quantification of In-Service Windshield Fracture Mechanisms, and Evaluation of Laminate Sharp Impact Resistance as a Function of Construction

Corning Inc.-Thomas M. Cleary, Thomas Tremper, Timothy Huten, Daniel Strong, Elias Merhy, Odile Fraboulet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0607
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An examination of field-fractured windshields was conducted for the purpose of determining their principle fracture mechanisms experienced in-use. Parts for the study were gathered both in the United States (state of NY) and in Europe (France) to explore whether the primary causes of failure were similar or different for the different regions. In total, over two hundred individual field-fractures were obtained and examined for the study. Detailed fracture analysis of the parts was performed, and several different fracture mechanisms were identified and quantified. It was found that the two most dominant failure modes were common for both geographic regions. The most frequent cause (~70%) of windshield fracture was due to sharp particle impact of the exterior ply, while Hertzian cone cracking of the outer ply was the second leading cause (~20%). These and other observed failure modes are detailed below. Given that sharp impact fracture was the dominant failure mode observed, a new high-speed, sharp impact test method was developed and deployed to evaluate numerous laminate constructions for their resistance to this type of event.…
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Enhanced Windshield NVH Modeling for Interior Cabin Noise

FCA US LLC-Ahmad Abbas, Wael Elwali, Aravindhan Thirukonda, Syed Haider, Francisco Sturla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1100
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The windshield is an important component in vehicle NVH performance. It plays an integral role in affecting the interior cabin noise. The windshield acts as a large panel typically oriented near vertical at the front of vehicle’s acoustic cavity, hence modeling it appropriately is key to have a reliable prediction of cabin interior noise. The challenge of modeling the windshield accurately rises from the structural composition of different types of windshields. For automotive applications, windshield come in several structural compositions today. In this paper, we will discuss two types of windshield glass. First is a typical laminated glass with polyvinyl butyral (PVB) layer and second is a typical acoustic glass with PVB and vinyl layers. Acoustic glass improves acoustics characteristics of the glass in frequencies of ~ 1200 Hz to ~4000 Hz range. Low frequency interior cabin noise studied with FEA is typically below 500 Hz. The acoustic glass doesn’t provide any benefits in this range and in many cases we see an adverse contribution at lower frequencies since the acoustic windshield tend to be…
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Parametric Modelling and Performance Analysis of HVAC Defroster Duct Using Robust Optimization Methodology

FCA Engineering India Pvt,, Ltd.-Mohsin Khan
FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Nagababu Garikipati
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1250
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Thermal comfort and safety of automotive passengers are the most important factors in the development of the automotive HVAC system. HVAC system is responsible for the demisting and defrosting of the vehicle’s windows and for creating/maintaining a pleasant environment inside the cabin by controlling airflow and temperature. Fog or ice which forms on the windshield is the main reason for invisibility and leads to major safety issue to the customers while driving. It has been shown that proper clear visibility for the windshield could be obtained with a better flow pattern and uniform flow distribution in the defrost mode of the HVAC system and defrost duct. Defroster performance has received significant attention from OEMs to meet the specific global performance standards of FMVSS103 and SAE J902. Therefore, defroster performance is seriously taken into consideration during the design of HVAC system and defroster duct. The HVAC unit provides hot air to the defroster duct which is blowing high velocity air to the windscreen to clear the frosting. Currently as a traditional defrost duct design process, multiple…