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Fatigue Behavior of Large Cast Components under Variable Amplitude Loading with Overloads

Fraunhofer Institute LBF-Christoph Bleicher, Rainer Wagener, Heinz Kaufmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0526
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the weight and to increase the power as well as to enable the utilization of nodular cast iron components, e.g. for wind turbines and heavy industry parts, locally higher stresses need to be withstood by the material. This becomes crucial, when additional overloads influence the structure of thick-walled components causing high local elastic-plastic deformations. In this case, the cyclic, elastic-plastic material behavior and its development under cyclic loading are important points to be considered during component design. To assess the material’s local elastic-plastic material behavior, strain-controlled fatigue tests were performed under alternating loading, Rε = -1, with unnotched specimens removed from cast blocks as well as from a hub and a planet carrier of wind turbines, made of EN-GJS-400-18U-LT, EN-GJS-700-2, ADI-800 and ADI-900. To determine the influence of constant and variable amplitude loading on the elastic-plastic material behavior, fatigue tests were performed based on constant amplitude as well as on variable amplitude loading. For the fatigue tests under variable amplitude loading, two real load-time histories, which were derived from a measured load-time series…
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Material Removes Ice Buildup Without Power or Chemicals

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33680
Published 2019-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

From airplane wings, to overhead power lines, to the giant blades of wind turbines, a buildup of ice can cause problems ranging from impaired performance all the way to catastrophic failure. Preventing that buildup usually requires energy-intensive heating systems or chemical sprays that are environmentally harmful.


Plasma Generator Using Spiral Conductors

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33703
Published 2019-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

NASA's Langley Research Center has developed a patented SansEC sensor technology for use in many different areas, including tall structures and wind turbines. The SansEC technology is a proven wireless sensing platform capable of measuring the electrical impedance of physical matter in proximity to the sensor based on a change in its resonance response. The SansEC sensor also exhibits a unique characteristic to disperse the lightning strike current to help mitigate lightning damage. In a turbine blade application, an array of SansEC sensors will cover the surface area of the composite blade, providing both lightning mitigation and damage sensing. NASA Langley is seeking industrial partners/licensees to commercialize this technology. The research team at NASA Langley is available to assist with further development.


Numerical and Experimental Second Law Analysis of a Low Thickness High Chamber Wing Profile

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Shivesh Sharma
Sheffield Hallam University-Michele Trancossi
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a coupled numerical and experimental study of an unconventional wing profile such as cp-180-050-gn (Cambered plate C = 18% T = 5% R = 0.78). This wing profile deals with low speeds. It is not currently used on any aircraft model. Otherwise, it presents interesting performances that can be exploited for the design of low-speed STOL or VTOL aircraft by mean of the very high lift that it can generate and can fit with different uses such as VAWT, cyclorotors drones, which are designed explicitly for low-speed operations. After a preliminary CFD assessment of the wing a complete experimental characterisation also at high angles of attack has been performed. The excellent agreement between CFD and experiments has allowed producing a complete analysis of the behaviour of the wing profile both before and after stall conditions. This study has the objective of analysing the viability of such an unconventional wing in traditional or over-stalling conditions. A complete modelling of the specific wing is produced with the definition of its potential deployment into unconventional…
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Mobile Power Distribution System

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29690
Published 2018-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Mobile or transportable power supply and distribution systems are needed for various types of work that require electrical power in a field or outdoor environment — such as construction and environmental remediation projects — to power tools, lights, and other devices. For many projects, this need is met by either running a power line from the nearest available power source (referred to as shore power) or through use of a generator. While generators provide a source of electrical power in a field environment, the limited number and type of electrical outlets on the generator and the preset configuration of a given generator may be insufficient for the operation.


Nano-Sized Actuator Lifts Many Times its Weight

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29037
Published 2018-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Actuators are used in a wide variety of electromechanical systems and in robotics, in applications such as steerable catheters, aircraft wings that adapt to changing conditions, and wind turbines that reduce drag.


“Intelligent” Rotor Blades React Quickly to Changing Conditions

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-29005
Published 2018-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The giant rotor blades are one central part of a wind turbine. Researchers developed a rotor blade that makes more efficient use of large fluctuations in wind strength using a passive bend-twist coupling (BTC) that adapts continuously to the wind forces acting on the rotor blade. When the wind loads become too high, the coupling reduces the forces affecting the structure.


Gear Interference-Fit Joint Considerations and Design for the Resultant Tooth Distortion

Cummins Inc.-Yashodhan V. Joshi
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Automotive timing gear trains, transmission gearboxes, and wind turbine gearboxes are some of the application examples known to use interference-fit to attach the gear to the rotating shaft. This paper discusses the interference-fit joint design and the finite element analysis to demonstrate the distortion. The mechanism of tooth profile distortion due to the interference-fit assembly in gear trains is discussed by demonstrating the before and after assembly gear profile measurements. An algorithm to calculate the profile slope deviation change is presented. The effectiveness of the computational algorithm to predict the distortion is demonstrated by comparing with measurements. Finally, steps to mitigate the interference assembly effects are discussed.
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Reliability and Cost Trade-Off Analysis of a Microgrid

Oakland University-Zissimos Mourelatos
US Army RDECOM-David Gorsich
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-0619
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Optimizing the trade-off between reliability and cost of operating a microgrid, including vehicles as both loads and sources, can be a challenge. Optimal energy management is crucial to develop strategies to improve the efficiency and reliability of microgrids, as well as new communication networks to support optimal and reliable operation. Prior approaches modeled the grid using MATLAB, but did not include the detailed physics of loads and sources, and therefore missed the transient effects that are present in real-time operation of a microgrid. This article discusses the implementation of a physics-based detailed microgrid model including a diesel generator, wind turbine, photovoltaic array, and utility. All elements are modeled as sources in Simulink. Various loads are also implemented including an asynchronous motor. We show how a central control algorithm optimizes the microgrid by trying to maximize reliability while reducing operational cost. The performance of the proposed central control algorithm will be validated through simulation results for different scenarios and the results will be compared.
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Design and Optimization of Composite Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (Hawt) Blade

Delhi Technological University-Rohan Brella, Mayank Sehgal, Naveen Kumar
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Wind energy is clean and renewable source of energy that is an attractive alternative to non-conventional sources of energy. Due to rapid increase in global energy requirements, this form of energy is gaining its share of importance. Unlike nuclear power or tar sand oils, wind energy does not leave a long-term toxic legacy. Using MATLAB algorithms, multi-optimization of wind turbine design can be achieved. Therefore, an aerodynamic mathematical model is developed to obtain the optimal chord length and twist angle distribution along the blade span. Further, a promising generic blade design is used to initialize a detailed structure optimization wherein leading edge panel (LEP), Spar cap, Shear web, Trailing edge panel (TEP) reinforcement are sized using composite laminates so that the blade is according to the intended design standard. Initially blade airfoils are analyzed on 2D platform and then the results are used to construct 3D model of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine (HAWT) blade. The 3D designing of composite HAWT blade is done by CAD software Solidworks v16.0 through different airfoil for root, primary and…
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