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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it is challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the deceleration. This connotes that a fixed value of front and rear braking forces can be optimized for only a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lockup, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore, an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks…
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Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2430
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
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Impact of wheel-housing on aerodynamic drag and effect on energy consumption on an electric bus body

ARAI Academy-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of Wheel and underbody Aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a Bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption. Keywords: Wheel-housing, Drag Coefficient, CFD Simulation, Bus, Energy consumption
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Analysis of pressure variation in wheel with the aid of wheel speed sensor

College of Engineering-Pune-Ravindra Dattatray Marwadi, Rajiv Basavarajappa
HELLA India Automotive Pvt Ltd.-Abhishek Mandhana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions. The data obtained from the wheel speed sensor is analyzed through statistical methods and different determining values are calculated. These determining parameters are compared to see the variations in the pressure. To obtain…
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Development of PCX HEV

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2454
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the fourth-generation model of the 2018 PCX, the basic structure of frame was reviewed to make it lighter and rigid. Weight reduction was also adapted to its wheels. These enhancements contributed to its increased dynamic performances. The engine performances were enhanced as well, and all these features made it possible to provide a high-quality riding with composure of rider’s mind. In addition, we developed hybrid model PCX HYBRID that uses an ACG starter directly connected to a crankshaft as a drive assist system and realized pleasurable ride feeling with a more direct drive response.
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Composite Steering Strategy for 4WS-4WD EV Based on Low-Speed Steering Maneuverability

Tongji University-Yang Yang Wang, Zhi Guang Liu, Yuan Xing Jiang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
A composite steering control strategy, which combines four-wheel steering (4WS) and differential steering, is proposed in this paper, to optimize steering maneuverability in the conditions where the vehicle speed is below 15 Km/h, mainly for U-turning and parking conditions. A dynamic model is developed for the steering system and the tire system. Taking different steering wheel inputs into consideration, a 4WS control strategy proportional to the front wheel steering angle is quoted to improve the steering maneuverability in the low speed conditions and guarantee the manipulability by controlling the side slip of the vehicle. Based on the 4WS system, this paper explores the possibility of further improving the low-speed maneuverability of the vehicle through differential steering. And the differential steering control strategy is developed, including four hub-motor output modes. A composite steering controller is designed based on the 4WS-4WD electric vehicle platform. Through the real vehicle calibration tests, the output torque distribution coefficient of the hub motor in the differential steering control strategy is obtained, and the composite steering control strategy optimal for maneuverability is…
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A Comparative Study on ESC Drive and Brake Control Based on Hierarchical Structure for Four-Wheel Hub-Motor-Driven Vehicle

Wuhan University of Technology-Chen Lin, Xiaofei Pei, Xuexun Guo
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is an important measure to proactively guarantee vehicle safety. In this paper, the method of four-wheel hub-motor torque control is compared with the traditional single-wheel hydraulic brake control in ESC system. The control strategy adopts the hierarchical structure. In upper controller, the stability of the vehicle is identified by threshold method, the additional yaw moment control uses a way to get the moment including feedforward and feedback parts based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR). The medium controller is tire slip rate control, in order to get the optimal target slip rate from the upper additional yaw moment, a method of quadratic programming to optimize the longitudinal force is proposed for each wheel. The inputs of tire state for the magic tire model is introduced so as to calculate the target slip rate from the target longitudinal force. The lower controller is wheel cylinder pressure control and motor torque control which is realized by Carsim ideal control. Finally, through Co-simulation of Carsim/Simulink in the condition of open steering wheel loop for…
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Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at Its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Karthik Senthi, Vignesh Natarajan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Toe setting is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. In the present scenario of automotive industry, toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost. Through this paper an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for deciding toe setting for any vehicle as a first time right approach to cut down on conventional expensive & time consuming iterative approach. In this new methodology…
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Develop the Methodology Using DOE Approach to Improve Steering Return Ability of a Vehicle through Virtual Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Baskar Anthonysamy, Naveen Medithi, Karthik Senthi
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In driving, Steering is the input motion to the vehicle. The driver uses steering input to change the direction of the vehicle. During Parking or U turn bends the Steering is locked and later released to follow the desired path. Steering return ability is defined as the ratio of difference between steering wheel position at lock condition and steering wheel angle after 3 seconds of release to the steering wheel angle at lock condition. Having proper steering return ability characteristics has an important effect on vehicle steering characteristics. In this study, a full vehicle ADAMS model is prepared, and virtual steering return ability have been simulated in ADAMS/CAR for a Pickup truck vehicle. Simulated responses in the steering wheel angle have been validated by comparison with measurements. A Design of Experiment study is setup and Iterations are carried out to find the effect of Hard points and friction parameters. The effect of different parameters in terms of their importance is plotted and discussed. The objective is to establish the methodology to predict correct steering return…
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Industrial and Agricultural Disc Wheels

MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J712_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this SAE Recommended Practice is to provide a selection of disc wheels for industrial and agricultural application with a maximum of interchangeability. This is accomplished by establishing five groups of disc wheels, in each of which the hub mounting elements are common. These groups are designated 4 bolt, 5 in bolt circle; 5 bolt, 4.5 in bolt circle; 5 bolt, 5.5 in bolt circle; 6 bolt, 6 in bolt circle; and 8 bolt, 8 in bolt circle. Further, this document establishes an SAE part number and the maximum rated radial load for each standard wheel. In addition, the document requires the wheel manufacturer's name or trademark to be impression stamped on the wheel with location at the discretion of the manufacturer.
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