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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it is challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the deceleration. This connotes that a fixed value of front and rear braking forces can be optimized for only a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lockup, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore, an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks…
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Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2430
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
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Impact of wheel-housing on aerodynamic drag and effect on energy consumption on an electric bus body

ARAI Academy-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of Wheel and underbody Aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing arrangements. Based on benchmarking, a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption of a Bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption. Keywords: Wheel-housing, Drag Coefficient, CFD Simulation, Bus, Energy consumption
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Analysis of pressure variation in wheel with the aid of wheel speed sensor

Abhishek Mandhana
College of Engineering Pune-Rajiv basavarajappa PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions. The data obtained from the wheel speed sensor is analyzed through statistical methods and different determining values are calculated. These determining parameters are compared to see the variations in the pressure. To obtain…
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Development of PCX HEV

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2454
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the fourth-generation model of the 2018 PCX, the basic structure of frame was reviewed to make it lighter and rigid. Weight reduction was also adapted to its wheels. These enhancements contributed to its increased dynamic performances. The engine performances were enhanced as well, and all these features made it possible to provide a high-quality riding with composure of rider’s mind. In addition, we developed hybrid model PCX HYBRID that uses an ACG starter directly connected to a crankshaft as a drive assist system and realized pleasurable ride feeling with a more direct drive response.
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Systematic Work Flow for Fatigue Life Prediction of Automotive Components

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Baskar Anthonysamy, Krishna Shettipally, Manohar Kalal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0021
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue life estimation of automotive components is a critical requirement for product design and development. Automotive companies are under tremendous pressure to launch new vehicles within short duration because of customer’s changing preferences. There is a necessity to have a comprehensive virtual simulation and robust validation process to evaluate durability of vehicle as per customer usage. Test track and field test are two of the most time-consuming activities, so there is a need of simulation process to substitute these requirements. This paper summarizes the overall process of Accelerated Durability Test with measured road loads. Based on category of vehicle, type road profiles and the customer usage pattern, the wheel forces, strains and acceleration are measured which is used to derive the equivalent duty cycles on proving ground. The wheel force transducers (WFT) are used to derive loads for fatigue life estimation. A full vehicle model is prepared in ADAMS CAR and validated through Physical testing. The loads on suspension hard points extracted from the validated MBD model. These loads at various hardpoint locations, are used…
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Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at Its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Karthik Senthi, Vignesh Natarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0105
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Toe setting is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. In the present scenario of automotive industry, toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost. Through this paper an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for deciding toe setting for any vehicle as a first time right approach to cut down on conventional expensive & time consuming iterative approach. In this new methodology…
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Develop the Methodology Using DOE Approach to Improve Steering Return Ability of a Vehicle through Virtual Simulation

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Baskar Anthonysamy, Naveen Medithi, Karthik Senthi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0012
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In driving, Steering is the input motion to the vehicle. The driver uses steering input to change the direction of the vehicle. During Parking or U turn bends the Steering is locked and later released to follow the desired path. Steering return ability is defined as the ratio of difference between steering wheel position at lock condition and steering wheel angle after 3 seconds of release to the steering wheel angle at lock condition. Having proper steering return ability characteristics has an important effect on vehicle steering characteristics. In this study, a full vehicle ADAMS model is prepared, and virtual steering return ability have been simulated in ADAMS/CAR for a Pickup truck vehicle. Simulated responses in the steering wheel angle have been validated by comparison with measurements. A Design of Experiment study is setup and Iterations are carried out to find the effect of Hard points and friction parameters. The effect of different parameters in terms of their importance is plotted and discussed. The objective is to establish the methodology to predict correct steering return…
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Study on Application Methods to Mitigate Galvanic Corrosion between Wheel Bearing and Aluminum Knuckle

Iljin Global-Sewoong Kim, Seonho Lee, Hyounsoo Park
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The substitution of aluminum for steel is an effective weight reduction solution where the application permits it; aluminum knuckles have been widely used for this reason. However, when an aluminum knuckle is assembled with the steel outer-ring of a wheel bearing without any means for galvanic corrosion prevention, the aluminum knuckle may severely corrode. Galvanic corrosion products can make it difficult to remove a wheel bearing from the aluminum knuckle during vehicle maintenance. Prevention of this problem is the focus of this paper. In this study, several concepts were examined to prevent or mitigate galvanic corrosion between a wheel bearing and its mating aluminum knuckle. One set of concepts involves using surface treated metal sleeves (using ferritic nitro-carburizing or a special coating). The sleeves were then inserted onto the outer-ring diameters of the wheel bearings prior to assembly into the steering knuckle. Another set of concepts that were investigated involves the application of thin coatings having high anti-corrosion properties. The coatings were applied directly to the bearing outer-ring knuckle piloting surfaces and bearing knuckle mounting…
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Stability of Wheel Tractors during Braking

Kharkiv Technical University of Agricult-Zadorozhnia Viktoriia
Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Mykhailo Kholodov, Dmytro Klets, Yevhen Dubinin, Borys Savchenkov, Alexander Koryak, Oleksandr Polianskyi
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic distribution of normal reactions between the axles of the wheeled tractor has a significant impact on the stability against skidding and the wheeled tractor braking effectiveness. At the same time, the clarification of the normal reactions distribution between the axles allows to choose more rational braking forces distribution between the axles.It is shown that the best way to ensure the highest braking efficiency is the braking mode when the rear wheels of the tractor are at the blocking limit. An assessment of the expediency of installing brake mechanisms on only one axle of the tractor was made.The increase of braking efficiency of wheeled tractors with all brake wheels provided that they ensure directional stability is considered. The laws of braking forces distribution between the axles of wheel tractors for different sequence of wheels locking are determined.Using the method of partial accelerations an improved method for estimating the effect of a brake system on the stability of wheeled tractor is proposed. The criterion in the form of angular acceleration in the road plane ώz,…
This content contains downloadable datasets
Annotation ability available