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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it is challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the deceleration. This connotes that a fixed value of front and rear braking forces can be optimized for only a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lockup, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore, an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks…

Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2430
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.

Impact of wheel-housing on aerodynamic drag and effect on energy consumption on an electric bus body

Automotive Research Association of India-Amitabh Das, Yash Jain, Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2394
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Role of Wheel and underbody Aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing geometry and pattern. Based on benchmarking a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing- at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption on an Electric Bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption. Keywords: Wheel-housing, Drag Coefficient, ANSYS Fluent, Bus, Energy consumption

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel using statistical methods

Abhishek Mandhana
College of Engineering-Pune(COEP)-Ravindra Dattatray Marwadi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions. The data obtained from the wheel speed sensor is analyzed through statistical methods and different determining values are calculated. These determining parameters are compared to see the variations in the pressure. To obtain…

Development of PCX HEV

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2454
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the fourth-generation model of the 2018 PCX, the basic structure of frame was reviewed to make it lighter and rigid. Weight reduction was also adapted to its wheels. These enhancements contributed to its increased dynamic performances. The engine performances were enhanced as well, and all these features made it possible to provide a high-quality riding with composure of rider’s mind. In addition, we developed hybrid model PCX HYBRID that uses an ACG starter directly connected to a crankshaft as a drive assist system and realized pleasurable ride feeling with a more direct drive response.

Study on Applicable Methods to Mitigate Galvanic Corrosion between Wheel Bearing and Aluminum knuckle

Iljin Global-Sewoong Kim, Seonho Lee, Hyounsoo Park
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2136
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The substitution of aluminum for steel is an effective weight reduction solution where the application permits it; aluminum knuckles have been being widely used for this reason. However, when an aluminum knuckle is assembled with the steel outer-ring of a wheel bearing without any means for galvanic corrosion prevention, the aluminum knuckle may severely corrode. Galvanic corrosion product can make it difficult to remove a wheel bearing from the aluminum knuckle during vehicle maintenance. Prevention of this problem is the focus of this paper. In this study, several concepts were examined to prevent or mitigate galvanic corrosion between a wheel bearing and its mating aluminum knuckle. One set of concepts involves using surface treated metal sleeves (using ferritic nitro-carburizing or a special coating). The sleeves were then inserted onto the outer-ring diameters of the wheel bearings prior to assembly into the steering knuckle. Another set of concepts that was investigated involves the application of thin coatings having high anti-corrosion properties. The coatings were applied directly to the bearing outer-ring knuckle piloting surfaces and bearing knuckle…

Stability of Wheel Tractors During Braking

Kharkiv Technical University of Agricult-Zadorozhnia Viktoriia
Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Mykhailo Kholodov, Dmytro Klets, Yevhen Dubinin, Borys Savchenkov, Alexander Koryak, Oleksandr Polianskyi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2142
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The inovative approach to the assessment of directional stability of two-axle wheeled tractors during braking is considered. Assessment of the feasibility to in-stall brake mechanisms only on one axle of the tractor are considered. The equations to determine rational choice of braking force distribution between the axles for two-axle wheeled tractor are obtained. The coefficients of braking forces distribution between the axles of two-axles wheeled tractors of classical construction are obtained. The influence of the braking forces distribution between the axles on stability of wheeled tractors are determined. It was determined that operation of the brake systems of wheeled tractors has a significant impact on their directional stability, which is also manifested by the lack of a tendency to skid during braking. There is proposed improved method for evaluating the impacts of braking system on wheeled tractors stability by using the method of partial accelerations. There is proposed the criterion in form of angular acceleration in a road plane ώz, which ac-cording to in value and in sign one we can say about a malfunction…

Analysis of the Tractor-Trailer Dynamics During Braking

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Mykhailo Kholodov, Valeriy Klimenko, Anton Kholodov
Zhytomyr State Technological University-Volodymyr Rudzinskyi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2144
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The tractor-trailer dynamics during braking and the effect of the dynamic distribution of normal vertical reactions between the axles on the brake properties of tractor-trailer is considered. A mathematical model of the process of braking the tractor-trailer (consisting of a wheel tractor and a two-axle trailer), without blocking the wheels was obtained. The conditions for simultaneously bringing to the verge of blocking the wheels of the tractor, trailer and tractor-trailer, as a whole, are determined. Using mathematical modelling methods, method of determine braking conditions of a tractor-trailer without blocking the wheels and the danger of folding is proposed. Obtained analytical expressions, allowing to determine the total normal reactions on the axes of the tractor-trailer and reactions in the connecting hinge of the links between the tractor and the trailer. Also obtained analytical expressions, allowing to determine maximum value of deceleration reached during braking corresponding to the beginning of the early blocking of the wheels of any of the axes of tractor-trailer. Using the obtained mathematical model, the results of the simulation of tractor-trailer dynamics during…

Orbital Forming of Automotive Wheel Bearings

Orbitform-Jake Sponsler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2133
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Orbital forming is considered an optimal assembly process for many designs of automotive wheel bearing assemblies. More specifically, this process involves forming the spindle over the inner race of the wheel bearing to retain the inner ring and to maintain bearing preload. The unique forming properties and precise controls allow orbital forming to produce an ideal finished retention feature and form for these types of bearings. This paper discusses the specific benefits of orbital forming of automotive wheel bearings. Forming basics, the physics behind the benefits of orbital forming, as well as pre-form lip geometry and other part design considerations are presented. Advanced machine control methodologies and historical machine process improvements are also reviewed concluding with next steps in process control and in-machine quality assurance.

Braking Performance of the One Side Wheels for the Realization of the Crab Motion for the Front-Wheel Vehicle

Kharkov National Auto and Highway University-Mikhail Podrigalo, Dmytro Klets, Oleksandr Boboshko
National Academy of National Guard of Ukraine-Ruslan Kaidalov, Andrey Nikorchuk, Maxim Adamchuk, Ihor Luhovskyi, Oleksandr Bilenko, Oleksandr Kriukov, Yuri Besedin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2147
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
A method of vehicle straight angle motion relative its axial axis by turning the front wheels and simultaneous braking of the external side wheels is offered. The equation describing the condition of four-wheel drive vehicle crab motion is obtained. The purpose of the research is to determine the law of control of torque on the wheels of the car, the realization of which makes crab motion possible. For realization of the aim, the following challenges were solved: the torque difference on the driving wheels (the braking torque on the outside wheel) that provides “crab motion" is determined; an analysis of the operational factors influences and design parameters of the vehicle, on the magnitude of the required torque difference, was conducted. The angle of rotation of the track wheels determines the direction of vehicle movement, and the torque difference on the driving wheels creates a moment stabilizing the position of the vehicle and ensures the straightness of the trajectory of motion. The linear velocity at which “crab motion " is possible without creating a torque difference…