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Tool wear analysis on drilling process of Inconel 718 superalloy

Federal University of Sao Carlos-Pedro Cabegi Barros, Gustavo Franco Barbosa, Carlos Eiji Hirata Ventura
OSG Sulamericana-Gustavo Roberto Santos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0034
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The inconel 718 is an alloy based on nickel of high thermal and mechanical resistance, which allows its wide application in the aerospace industry, being generally implemented in aircraft tail cone and engine components. On the other hand, these features become a recurring problem when the machining of this material is performed. For example, in the drilling process of this superalloy, the cutting tools used exhibit excessive wear due to the high temperature and pressure at the cutting edge. However, there are numerous parameters that can influence the cutting tool life, and when analyzed and well defined, determine the types of modifications needed to enable less wear, and consequently an increase of its useful life in service. Given this context and knowing that the study of tool life in the inconel 718 drilling process is extremely relevant in the aerospace sector, this paper presents a wear study in order to evaluate the behavior of different types of cutting tools used to drill the Inconel 718. It was accomplished by the combination of different cutting parameters…
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Optimized Wet Clutch Design

Endurance Technologies Ltd., India-Nitin Bhone, Sachin Thakare, Ashutosh Jahagirdar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0553
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Multi-plate wet clutches used in motorbikes transmit the torque by friction under pressure between driving and driven Plates. The life & performance of the clutch for the friction material used, depends on amount of energy generated during clutch slip, amount & uniformity of heat dissipation amongst the plates and surface texture of mating surfaces.Above parameters if not properly considered during design stage may lead to higher temperature of rubbing surfaces. Higher temperature further reduces the friction coefficient and increases the wear rate of friction material leading ultimately to lower torque capacity of clutch. The temperature rise in a wet clutch is the balance between amount of heat generated and the amount of heat dissipated by oil flowing through clutch. The maximum amount of oil is limited by the requirement of clutch drag torque, Which decides the quality of neutral finding and gear shift feel on vehicle.Further, if roughness of rubbing surfaces is not controlled in mass production, it leads to fast wear of friction material during initial operating cycles. The rate of wear is faster…
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The effects of contamination on commercial trucks rear suspension springs durability

Ford Motor Company-Milton Monteverde Belli, Amilcar Tyrrell Tavares
Suspensys-Eugenio Noro, Graebin Matheus
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0083
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
On current competitive scenario for road load transportation in Brazilian market, the operational costs should be reduced as much as possible. The suspension system commonly used on road commercial trucks is based on leaf spring use and Hotchkiss concept for axle locating devices. The use of leaf springs without bolt attachment eyelets are still common for rear suspension systems. When using the leaf spring with direct contact to the brackets, wear plates are placed between them to work as wear elements due to the friction between the parts. The friction will cause wear on the parts, and the wear plate is designed to suffer the damages of this friction instead of the leaf spring, being the cheapest element and can be easily replaced. When the system works on a severe contamination environment with high levels of grit and dirt, the degradation of the parts are accelerated. With a considerable amount of grit between the wear plate and the leaf spring, the damage caused on the leaf surface is increased and lead to a spring failure…
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Buzz Avoidance on Sunroof Light Sunshades: Design and Validation

Ford Motor Company-Douglas Demori, Marcos Paulo de Oliveira, Rosiane Viegas
MSX International-Douglas França
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0148
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Sunroof is placed in certain high-end vehicles to give user a better driving experience. All automakers are searching alternatives to reduce weight and cost in the vehicle, in which sunroofs are also impacted. Some alternatives are already applied, as a honeycomb paper used in some sunshades that presents benefits, as less weight and with a good cost reduction. Although, due the reduced weight for this part produced in this material, it shows more susceptibility to reproduce the vibration that vehicle propagates in movement, especially in bad condition roads. The sunroof assembly is dependent of the roof reinforcement and roof skin, but in this special case, the validation could be done in the components itself because the interaction of the sunshades is directly dependent of the other sunroof parts, as rails and front frame. These buzz noise in lights sunshades is perceptible when it is almost or totally close, since lighter material vibrates freely without rail anchorage, then clashing against the front frame surface. Considering the package, the key point is to design the sunshade to…
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Validation of a numerical procedure for fatigue assessment of a 325mm brake shoe

Master Sistemas Automotivos-Vagner Nascimento, Giovanni Teixeira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0004
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The air brake system is still the most common brake system in use in heavy diesel vehicles. For safety and economic reasons it is imperative to understand the performance and durability (especially fatigue and wear) of every component of a drum brake, particularly the brake shoes. In applications where torque is lower than 20kNm brake shoes are made of ductile metals such as SAE 1030 steel. For such ductile materials Brown-Miller and Fatemi-Socie are the most recommended methods for fatigue crack initiation life prediction. The next pages discuss the validation of these fatigue methods in the case study of a 325mm brake shoe.
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Influence of Pads and Brake Disc wear on Brake Squeal Noise

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais / FCA - Fiat Chrysler A-Marco Túlio Batista dos Anjos, Juan Carlos Horta Gutiérrez, Cláudio Junior Ferreto, Felipe Dornellas Silva, Lázaro Valentin Donadon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0005
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The present work aims to investigate the influence of wear of the pads and brake disc on the brake squeal behavior with the help of the Finite Element tool. Brake discs basically work by the pressure of the brake pads against a rotating disc. The friction between the pads and the disc causes the latter to decelerate, but it can also cause dynamic instabilities of the system giving rise to noises. Among the main noise in vehicle brake systems, there is the squeal noise, which is usually associated with the coupling of two neighboring natural modes. One possible way to identify unstable modes is by extracting complex eigenvalues from the system. An unstable mode can be identified when, in the result of the extraction of the complex eigenvalues, the real part of the eigenvalue is positive. In the present work, a brake system (disc and positioned pads and their respective materials and friction coefficients) was duly modeled and validated. The validation was done by means of a correlation between the frequency of the noises found…
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Burst Pressure Study in Damaged Hydraulic Rigid Brake Pipes on Passenger Cars

PSA Groupe-Márcio Ciolfi, Celso Pacheco, Rodrigo Mathias
TI Automotive do Brasil-Adriano Souza da Silva, André Casagrande, Edilson Dias
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0001
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Hydraulic brake pipes are responsible for fluid flows and as consequence the proper functionality of the most important safety system in passenger vehicles. Even so, this component has no much development since it was applied in the 1930s. In fact, the brake pipes can be particularly vulnerable components, being mainly in an exposed condition under the vehicle and near of components with relative movement. Externally it needs to survive a wide range of environmental conditions whereas internally it must withstand pressurized brake fluid. Brake pipes failures is an obvious safety hazard. Using simulations with car body, burst and corrosion bench test and multiple linear regression, this paper attempts to present, basing the pipes lifetime in the burst bench test, how the pipes are really vulnerable or not to damages caused by interference with other components, corrosion or even in frequent abrasion. As well as pipes behavior during interference, how such as corrosion in spot exposed regions degrades the pipes, how such as quantity, type and bending location influence the lifetime, which are the most relevant…
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Increased resistance to dirt and staining on artificial leather

Ford Motor Company Brazil-Santana Sheilla, Yoshimura Patrícia, Marcal João, Hurtado Luiz, Montenegro Eloy, Neto Paulo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0123
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The design trend for interior parts of cars in light colors in shades of beige and grey is a global reality and has increased the demand in new models replacing traditional black color. One of the most important features for the appearance is to keep the color and stay clean the surface of the car interior parts. This development aims to improve the resistance to dirt and staining on artificial leather applied in seat cover with light colors. Comparative dirt and staining trials were conducted with soil, coffee and indigo jeans through abrasion testing by Crocking, followed by clean fabric removal. The performance evaluation was done by through microscopy assays, spectrophotometry to analyze color variation after dirt test in the original samples and dirt test in the same samples exposed to XENON and heat for aging. Finally, this development brings solutions that improves consumer satisfaction. The improved life cycle performance of the car seat surfaces kept clean is the core of this study. This improvement to protect surfaces and prevent it from staining on the…
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Development of Low Viscosity 0W-16 Fuel-Saving Engine Oil using a Synergistic Optimization of an Innovative Base Oil and Performant Additives while Maintaining Engine Durability in a ILSAC GF6-B Environment

INFINEUM-CONSIGNY Mathieu, HERRY Camille
TOTAL Marketing & Services-CHAMPAGNE Nicolas, USSA-ALDANA Paula
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2240
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Lowering fuel consumption whilst maintaining engine life continues to be a challenge for the lubricant industry. Forthcoming ILSAC GF-6 specification and new emission regulations make this challenge even harder to overcome. Knowledge concerning innovative polyalkylene glycol (PAG) chemistry combined with expertise in engine oil formulation (additives and mineral base oils) and a deep understanding of the friction within the engine were used to develop a 0W- 16 engine oil with better fuel economy performance than other 0W-16 oils present in the market.Indeed, to accurately measure the friction on several part of the engine, a 1.2 L supercharged gasoline engine was first dismantled to measure the lubricant friction and wear capabilities of different lubricant formulations (containing group III base oil, additives and OSP HVI) on different engine parts. An initial optimization of the individual formulation components was realized to reduce the friction as much as possible whilst still maintaining wear protection performance. Additives were chosen to interact synergistically with OSP HVI. A second optimization was subsequently carried out using the whole engine in a friction torque…
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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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