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Heartbeat Detection Technology for Monitoring Driver's Physical Condition

Aisin Seiki Co., Ltd.-Kento Tsuchiya, Kenta Mochizuki
Keio University-Tomoaki Ohtsuki, Kohei Yamamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1212
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, the number of reported traffic accidents due to sudden deterioration in driver’s physical condition has been increasing, and it is expected to develop a system that prevents accidents even if physical condition suddenly changes while driving, or reduces damage through vehicle body control.For this purpose it is necessary to detect sudden changes of the driver’s physical condition, and research is being conducted widely. Among them, it is reported that some of such changes may appear in the heartbeat interval. In other words, by acquiring the driver's heartbeat interval in real time, it may be possible to detect the sudden changes, and reduce traffic accident. Even if a traffic accident has occurred, the damage can be reduced by emergency evacuation immediately after detecting sudden changes. Therefore, we focused on the technology to detect the heartbeat interval wiht 24GHz microwave doppler radar, which can acquire heartbeat non-contactly while maintaining the interior design and passenger’s privacy. Doppler radar with microwave is sensitive enough to detect heartbeat, but vibration noise is also superimposed on the sensor…
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CARB Low NOX Stage 3 Program - Aftertreatment Evaluation and Down Selection

Southwest Research Institute-Bryan Zavala, Christopher Sharp, Gary Neely, Sandesh Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1402
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the conclusion of the California Air Resources Board (CARB) Stage 1 Ultra-Low NOX program, there continues to be a commitment for identifying potential pathways to demonstrate 0.02 g/bhp-hr NOX emissions. The Stage 1 program focused on achieving the Ultra-Low NOX (ULN) levels utilizing a turbo-compound (TC) engine, which required the integration of novel catalyst technologies and a supplemental heat source. While the aftertreatment configuration provided a potential solution to meet the ULN target, a complicated approach was required to overcome challenges from low temperature exhaust. The Stage 3 program leverages a different engine architecture more representative of the broader heavy-duty industry to meet the Phase 2 GHG targets and to simplify the ULN aftertreatment solution. The following work will discuss the aftertreatment technology evaluation, down selection criteria, and the emission results of the final demonstration aftertreatment system for a heavy-duty on-highway ULN application. As part of these efforts, the demonstration system was subjected to accelerated hydrothermal and chemical aging exposure utilizing the Diesel Aftertreatment Accelerated Aging Cycles (DAAAC) protocol. The accelerated aging methodology and…
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Comparative Analysis of Thermally Induced Seizure Regimes between Accelerated Simulation Test and Long Term Vehicle Operation in Metal V-belt CVT

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Kenji Matsumoto, Tatsuya Tokunaga, Jun Mori
Tokyo City University-Yuji Mihara
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0907
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Honda is currently developing and operationalizing a measurement device that allows the state of lubrication to be understood by measuring the in-oil particle distribution. This is a new attempt to detect burn-in and abnormal friction in advance, thus making it possible to suspend actual vehicle tests before breakdown and investigate causes. Seizure was therefore simulated, and in-oil abrasion powder was examined. The results showed that a large amount of scale-shaped abrasion powder was produced due to fatigue during normal operation, while little scale-shaped abrasion powder was detected following the simulation test. This suggests that when a high-load test is performed in order to shorten the test time, the test does not simulate driving conditions in the market, because the state of the loads on the sliding surfaces differs from market conditions.
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Comparative Study on the Effects of the Tread Rubber Compounds on Tire Tractive performance on Ice

Virginia Tech-Hoda Mousavi, Corina Sandu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical and thermal properties of the rubber compounds of a tire play an important role in the overall performance of the tire when it is in contact with the train. Although there are many studies conducted on the properties of the rubber compounds of the tire to improve some of the tire characteristics such as the wear of the tread, there is a limited number of studies that focus on the performance of the tires on ice. This study is part of a more comprehensive study to investigate the effect of rubber compounds on performance of the tire on ice. In this study three tires that are completely identical in terms of tire parameters (such as tire dimensions, treat pattern, tire structure, inflation pressure, etc., but have different tread rubber compounds have been investigated. Several tests have been conducted for the chosen tires in three modes: free rolling, braking, and traction using the Terramechanics Rig at TMVS at Virginia Tech. In this presentation we will only focus on the result for the traction tests. The…
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Modeling and Identification of an Electric Vehicle Braking System: Thermal and Tribology Phenomena Assessment

Siemens Industry Software NV-Thomas D’hondt, Bart Forrier, Mathieu Sarrazin
Università degli Studi di Firenze-Tommaso Favilli, Luca Pugi, Lorenzo Berzi, Riccardo Viviani, Marco Pierini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1094
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A rapidly shifting market and increasingly stringent environmental regulations require the automotive OEMs to produce more efficient and low-emission electric vehicles. Regenerative braking has proven to be a major contributor to both objectives, enabling the charging of the batteries during braking on one side, and a reduction of the load and wear of the brake pads on the other side. The optimal sizing of such systems requires the availability of good simulation models to improve their performance and reliability at all stages of the vehicle design. This enables the designer to study both the integration of the braking system with the full vehicle equipment and the interactions between electrical and mechanical braking strategies. The present paper presents a generic simulation framework for the thermal and wear behavior of a mechanical braking system, based on a lumped parameter approach. The thermal behavior of the system is coupled back to the friction coefficient between the pad and the disc to assess its effect on braking performance. Additionally, the effect of wear and temperature on the generation of…
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Improved Wear Resistance of Austempered Gray Cast Iron Using Shot-Peening Treatment

Oakland University-Yu Liu, Gary Barber
Zhejiang Sci-Tech University-Weiwei Cui, Bingxu Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1098
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, ball-on-plate reciprocating sliding wear tests were utilized on austempered and quench-tempered gray cast iron samples with and without shot-peening treatment. The wear volume loss of the gray cast iron samples was compared under equivalent hardness. The microstructure transformations in the matrix was studied using metallurgical evaluation and hardness measurement. It was found that thin needle-like ferrite became coarse gradually with increasing austempering temperature and was converted into feather-like shape when using the austempering temperatures at or above 343°C (650°F). No martensitic structure could be observed since full transformation to ausferrite has achieved. The residual stress on the surface and sub-surface before and after shot-peening treatment was analyzed using x-ray diffraction. Compressive residual stress was produced after shot-peening treatment and showed an increasing trend with austempering temperature. In sliding wear tests, austempered gray cast iron had lower wear volume loss than quench-tempered gray cast iron before and after shot-peening treatment. The wear tracks were examined using scanning electron microscopy. Abrasive wear and adhesive wear were believed to be the main wear mechanisms on…
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Flexible Anti-Vibration Stability Cab Mount System for Commercial Vehicles

VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Krishna Achanta, Bhuvaneshwar Sharma, Subrat Bhanja, Narendra Behera
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1087
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Present day truck cab suspension comprises fully floating linkage type cab suspension to facilitate ride comfort. Fully floating cab has certain limitations in terms of stability of cab in dynamic articulations during vehicle running especially in off-road terrain applications. Presence on linkages leads to more wear and tear of joints and bushes which will in turn provide detrimental effect on vibration levels of cab that affects ride comfort and of cab for occupants. There is a dire need to develop a system that provides improvement in lateral and vertical stability of cab without compromising ride comfort of occupants. Durability of the product also to be met till life of vehicle. Anti-Vibration Stability Cab Mount is a unsymmetrical mount designed by compounding of elastomeric(rubber) metal bonded outer sleeves sandwiched between multistage inner mount bonded on aluminum casing. Cabin front supports are hinged to mount along with housing providing proper alignment to cab after assembly. This mount is assembled under pre-compression to felicitate sufficient stiffness in roll, pitch and yaw motions of cab during dynamic motions. Polymer…
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A Study of Wear Mechanism on Upper Surface of Piston Top Ring Groove

Honda R&D-Kenji Sato, Katsuyuki Takahashi, Ryo Wakabayashi, Kenta Yoshii, Shinichi Takahashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1337
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
During engine durability tests conducted in the development process, it has been the case that excessive wear has occurred to the upper surfaces of the piston top ring grooves, despite the fact that contact pressure due to combustion pressure has been low. This has resulted in considerable increases in development man-hours. The research discussed in this paper therefore set out to conduct a factor analysis of wear on the upper surfaces of piston top ring grooves in order to elucidate the wear mechanism. This paper will discuss the test method employed in the factor analysis and the mechanism of wear demonstrated by the analysis. First, the form of the wear was analyzed, and a rig test method able to reproduce wear was developed. With regard to the form of wear, both sliding and impact modes were observed. Sensitivity analyses for each form of wear were conducted using rig tests. Quality engineering was employed in the tests, and sensitivity was analyzed based on the design of experimental method. Following this, an engine motoring test method was…
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Model-based brake disc temperature prediction on high speed testing mode and circuit

AVL LIST GmbH-Mario Oswald, Stefan Kellner
Hyundai & Kia Corp.-PilYoung Jeong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0214
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Brake force of vehicle generated by the kinetic energy of vehicle is transformed into heat energy by using the brake pad materials and friction of disc and heated temperature reflect the disc. At the same time, it is transmitted into the air or around components. Heated temperature cause the problem of fade performance which is happened degradation of friction coefficient between disc and pad materials and cause dramatic pad wear. Therefore, to develop sufficiently obtained thermal capacity of disc dimension is quite important process in initial concept development. In order to approach well concept of development in brake, Thermal capacity of disc should be predicted reliably and precisely. This paper built the brake thermal simulation modeling which is possible to predict the disc capacity based on parameterization of front and rear disc development. And it predicted analytically by using brake thermal simulation modeling for European brake mode generally called by AMS mode which affect big influentially for brake disc capacity design as well as consider the characteristics of high performance vehicle on the circuit. Study…
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A holistic Development Method based on AVL FRISC as Enabler for CO2 Reduction with Focus on Low Viscosity Oils

AVL LIST GmbH-Mirko Plettenberg, Julian Schäffer, Josef Edtmayer, Sigfried Loesch, Heinz-Georg Flesch
Graz University of Technology-Hannes Hick, Simon Walch
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1060
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To achieve future fleet CO2 emission targets all kind of powertrains including thus with internal combustion engines need to achieve highest efficiency. Next to others the reduction of friction is one contributor to increase powertrain efficiency. The piston bore interface (PBI) is responsible for up to 50% of total engine friction losses. Optimizations in this area combined with use of low viscosity oil, which can reduce the friction of further engine sub-systems, will have the highest positive impact. To assess the friction of PBI under consideration of cross effects on other relevant parameters for mechanical function (e.g. blow-by & wear) and emissions (e.g. oil consumption) AVL has established a holistic development method based on the AVL FRISC (FRIction Single Cylinder) engine with floating liner measurement concept combined with synchronous online oil consumption and wear measurement supported by advanced simulation models, which were validated with further advanced measurement techniques. This paper will present the development method approach based on selected exemplary results and the possible transfer of results to multi cylinder engine development. Alternative Session: M203…