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Influence of Port Water Injection on the Combustion Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions in a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Yadong Fan, Tianbao Wu, Xuesong Li, Min Xu, David Hung
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It is well known that engine downsizing is still the main energy-saving technology for spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine. However, with the continuous increase of the boosting ratio, the gasoline engine is often accompanied by the occurrence of knocking, which has the drawback to run the engine at retarded combustion phasing. Besides, in order to protect the turbine blades from being sintered by high exhaust temperature, the strategies of fuel enrichment are often taken to reduce the combustion temperature, which ultimately leads to a high level of particulate number emission. Therefore, to address the issues discussed above, the port water injection (PWI) techniques on a 1.2-L turbocharged, three-cylinder, SIDI engine were investigated.Measurements indicate that the optimization of spark timing has a significant impact on its performance. The two factors of the water substance itself and spark advance caused by the knock mitigation are trade-offs, which eventually affect the combustion performance. Under knock limited spark advance (KLSA) condition, we find that the application of port water injection could effectively advance the combustion phasing and reduce exhaust gas…
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Effect of Geometry Variation in a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell

Siemens Digital Industries Software-Carlo Locci, Chris Lueth, Huong Nguyen, Karin Frojd
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1174
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water transport at high current densities is of main concern for polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells. The water content of the membrane must be high enough to provide maximum electrical conductivity and thus optimal stack performance. Dry-out may also lead to membrane degradation. However, a too high level of humidity leads to cell flooding, blocking the air and fuel flows to the catalyst sites and thus the reactions, resulting in a drop-in efficiency. Fuel cells water transport physics requires further investigation due to its complexity [1,2] and numerical modelling can improve the fundamental understanding of the phenomena. In this work, a 3D comprehensive model for fuel cells is presented. The PEM fuel cell is modelled in Siemens Simcenter STAR-CCM+ [3]. Anode and cathode GDL are modelled as porous media, with electrochemical reactions calculated in an infinitely thin catalyst layer. The membrane is modelled as a solid block including proton and water transport with electro-osmotic drag as well as ohmic heating. A two-phase approach is used to model the gas mixture and liquid water transport…
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Use of Partial Recirculation to Limit Build-Up of Cabin Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Safe Limits per ASHRAE Standard-62

Calsonic Kansei North America Inc.-Gursaran Mathur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1245
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation of HVAC unit in recirculation mode. The CO2 inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant’s health. ASHRAE Standard-62 (1999) specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over ambient conditions on a continuous basis. Based on the test data, at worst case scenario (idle condition where body leakage will be a minimal) results in CO2 concentrations of 1601, 2846, 4845 and 6587 ppm respective for 1 to 4 occupants in 30 minutes.Author has also conducted test by imposing ASHRAE standard-62. A controller was programmed for operating the blower unit’s intake door to go from recirculation to OSA mode when the measured carbon dioxide ppm level goes above 1100 ppm. The door stays in OSA mode until the cabin carbon dioxide falls to approximately 500ppm. By imposing these limits, the blower unit’s intake door cycles between 3 minutes to 6.5 minutes with four to one occupants…
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Cost-Efficient Cathode Air Path for PEM Fuel Cell Systems

MANN+HUMMEL GmbH-Michael Harenbrock, Alexander Korn, Andreas Weber
MANN+HUMMEL Innenraumfilter GmbH & Co.KG-Eva Hallbauer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1176
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell technology can play a major role in reducing transportation-related emissions, especially in heavy-duty, long-haul applications. Consequent transfer of technology from air supply systems for combustion engines to cathode air paths serves as an enabler for necessary system cost reduction. To achieve the required system lifetime, the supply of clean air is essential. Gases like NOx, SO2 and NH3 poison the catalyst, leading to increased stack degradation rates. Effective removal with functionalized activated carbons enhances the catalyst´s lifetime. Research on real-life concentrations of these contaminants under different driving patterns and road profiles enables knowledge-based design of cathode air filter elements. To prevent flooding of components like air filter, humidifier, or stack, water separators are integrated at different position inside the system. Plastic air ducts with integrated sensors and flaps required to manage the air flow connect the different functional components. Broadband silencers are applied to reduce noises inside the system, e.g. generated by the compressor. Essential components like humidifier and air-cooler can easily be incorporated into the system. In the cathode air exhaust path,…
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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Silver metallic colors with thin and smooth aluminum flake pigments have been introduced for luxury brand OEMs. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(NV) and high aluminum flake pigment contents are known as technology for high metallic appearance designs. However, there are two technical concerns. First is mottling which is caused by uneven distribution of the aluminum flake pigments in paint film and second is poor film property due to high aluminum pigment concentration in paint film. Therefore, current paint systems have limitation of paint design. As a countermeasure for those two concerns, we had investigated cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it has strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces in waterborne paint. The CNF shows similar viscosity result with conventional water borne paint though CNF contents is less than 1wt% and NV is less than 5wt%. Furthermore, CNF's surface bonds with isocyanate resin makes strong…
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History and Prospects for Electric Vehicles and Electric Bikes: Pathway to Sustainable Carbon Free Energy and Transportation

Electric Battery Bicycle Company-Frank E. Jamerson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0974
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Electric Transportation Revolution (ETR) began with the General Motors USA EV1 project and Yamaha Japan Pedal Assist System (PAS) electric bike, both in 1993. Worldwide EB annual sales are 40 million with 300 million on the road, mostly in China. Mandates and government incentives influence the EV market, customer demand drives EB growth. The EPA CO2 endangerment finding is forcing the auto industry to invest in EVs to help limit Mankind Made Carbon Dioxide Climate Change, MMCDCC, which is based on theoretical computer models that calculate global temperature. Measured temperature data, revised by modelers, used to validate these models has been challenged and so reported. Historical climatology data shows that Natural Climate Change, NCC, is more likely the CC cause. Known periodic variations of the sun’s orbit changes solar radiance and causes NCC. More CO2 in the atmosphere produces more plant growth, more food, thus CO2 is a beneficial gas. We propose a long term pathway to eliminate CO2 as an issue for energy and transportation. Fossil fuels may be depleted in 200 years.…
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Numerical Optimization of a SCR System Based on the Injection of Pure Gaseous Ammonia for the NOx Reduction in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

Politecnico di Milano-Augusto Della Torre, Gianluca Montenegro, Angelo Onorati, Tarcisio Cerri, Enrico Tronconi, Isabella Nova
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0356
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems are nowadays widely applied for the reduction of NOx emitted from Diesel engines. The typical process is based on the injection of aqueous urea in the exhaust gases before the SCR catalyst, which determines the production of the ammonia needed for the catalytic reduction of NOx. However, this technology is affected by two main limitations: a) the evaporation of the urea water solution (UWS) requires a sufficiently high temperature of the exhaust gases and b) the formation of solid deposits during the UWS evaporation is a frequent phenomenon which compromise the correct operation of the system. In this context, to overcome these issues, a technology based on the injection of gaseous ammonia has been recently proposed: in this case, ammonia is stored at the solid state in a cartridge containing a Strontium Chloride salt and it is desorbed by means of electrical heating.In this work, an after-treatment system based on the injection of gaseous ammonia in the SCR system is considered. Numerical 1D and 3D CFD simulations are applied in…
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Investigation of wave stripping models on a generic wing-mirror using a Coupled Level-set Volume of Fluid simulation

Dassault Systemes-Jose Escobar, Jonathan Jilesen
Jaguar Land Rover-Adrian Gaylard
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0682
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Predicting Exterior Water Management is important for developing vehicles that meet customer expectations in adverse weather. Fluid film methods, with Lagrangian tracking, can provide spray and surface water simulations for complex vehicle geometries in on-road conditions. To cope with this complexity and provide practical engineering simulations, such methods rely on empirical sub-models to predict phenomena such as the film stripping from the surface. Experimental data to develop and validate such models is difficult to obtain therefore here a high-fidelity Coupled Level-set Volume of Fluid (CLSVOF) simulation is carried out. CLSVOF resolves the interface of the liquid in three dimensions; allowing direct simulation of film behaviour and interaction with the surrounding air. This is used to simulate a simplified wing-mirror, with air flow, on which water is introduced. The film shows very different behaviour on the in-board section, where a film is developed which eventually breaks to rivulets, and the end of the mirror, where the water is rapidly stripped off the surface due to the higher shear stress from the air. The same case is…
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Detailed Chemistry based Analysis of the Water Effect on Auto-Ignition of different Octane Number Fuels

Brandenburg University of Technology-Tim Franken, Fabian Mauss
Chalmers University of Technology-Andrea Matrisciano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0551
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water injection can be applied to spark ignited (SI) gasoline engines to increase the Knock Limit Spark Advance (KLSA) and improve the thermal efficiency. The KLSA potential of 6°CA to 11°CA is shown by many research groups for EN228 gasoline fuel using numerical tools and experimental methods. The influence of water is multi-layered since it reduces the in-cylinder temperature by vaporization and higher heat capacity of the fresh gas, it changes the chemical equilibrium in the end gas and prolongs the ignition delay and laminar flame speed. The aim of this work is to extend the investigation of water injection to different octane number fuels (RON0, RON20, RON50, RON80, RON90 and RON100). The investigation is performed for high load operating conditions at three different engine speeds at 1500rpm, 2000rpm and 2500rpm. The numerical toolbox used for the analysis consists of a detailed reaction scheme for gasoline fuels that was previously used to evaluate the water effect on thermodynamics and chemistry, the quasi-dimensional Stochastic Reactor Model and the Detonation Diagram. The detailed reaction scheme is used…