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An Effect of Cooled-EGR on Diesel Engine Performance Fueled with Coconut-oil Methyl Ester

Nihon University-Koji Yoshida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0618
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The purpose of this study is to explore an effect of cooled-EGR on the diesel engine performance fueled with coconut-oil methyl ester (CME). The exhaust gas was cooled by the water at room temperature and was fed to the intake manifold, and the EGR rate was changed from 0 % to 30 % at every 10 %. The engine performances were measured at several EGR rates, fuel injection pressures and timings. Test fuels were CME and commercial diesel fuel. In the case of high EGR rate at which the compression ignition was deteriorated, the ignition timing of CME was always earlier than that of diesel fuel, therefore CME had good ignitability as compared with diesel fuel under EGR application. When the fuel injection pressure was increased at high EGR rate, the ignition delay was improved by the fuel atomization and air-fuel mixing effect. The COV of indicated mean effective pressure was not so influenced by the EGR rate for CME and diesel fuel and the brake thermal efficiency of CME was almost the same as…
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Water Avoidance Design Strategy for Capacitive Exterior Handles

Ford Motor Company-Douglas Demori, Júlio Magalhães, Anderson Ferreira, Filipe Camargo, Bruno Freitas
Huf Hülsbeck & Fürst-Pedro Dias, Michel Turbiani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0187
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, capacitive handles are increasing their use in high-end commercial vehicles. This particular handle applies a technology that permits to unlock and even lock the vehicle without a key. As benefit for current life, the customer has the possibility to access and close the vehicles more efficiently and faster, just possessing the key in the pocket or any close compartment that the user is carrying, for example, bag, purse, backpack. Even though, the design of capacitive exterior handle must follow several design strategies to avoid nonfunctional in rainy climate. Water could work as a blocker for the sensor signal captured, special design strategies that must be taken in order to minimize that the liquid could ingress the handle and even be retained on the region that sensor is located. On this two-piece handle not only the parting line location, drain holes and a favorable drainage for liquids inside the handle must be designed, but also a control on the painting capacitance is hugely important for a successful project. Overall, to validate physically the design, test…
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Combined Scattering and Imaging Diagnostics to Detect and Quantify Fuel Contaminants

Artium Technologies, Inc.-Julien Manin, William D. Bachalo, Reza Karami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2347
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Contamination from water and particulate matter in diesel or aviation fuel can cause complications even under normal operating conditions. Fuel contamination becomes a major problem in air transportation, where engine flame-out due to injection system blockage or malfunction might have catastrophic consequences. The presence of contaminants in fuel has been linked to several incidents including commercial and military aircraft over the past decade. Unless they are detected and separated from the fuel, water or solid particles have several ways to reach the engine and cause troubles. Aviation fuel is commonly stored in large tanks and transferred frequently before it reaches the aircraft, increasing the risk for contamination. At the same time, gas bubbles may be present in the system. While harmless to the aircraft, gas bubbles have been the reason why contamination monitoring systems would fail, as the system would be triggered by gas bubbles, instead of detrimental contaminants. We developed a set of optical diagnostics to detect the presence of contaminants in fuel, and quantify their size and concentration. The system consists of a…
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Verification of deterioration properties of engine oil under water-rich condition

Honda R&D Co., Ltd. Automobile R&D Center-Shiro Takakura
Lubricants Research Laboratory, Idemitsu Kosan Co, Ltd.-Hiroshi Oki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2298
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In general, metal-based detergents are used in engine oil to prevent the adhesion and accumulation of deposits and sludge. Because metal-based detergents are additives composed of fatty acid metal salts and carbonates, such as calcium, they are known to be easily affected by water. In particular, over-based metal-based detergents containing a large number of carbonates, which are excellent in terms of detergency, have been used often in recent years. Following the increasing use of biofuels and the diffusion of hybrid vehicles, the risk of water being mixed into engine oil has increased. For example, in hybrid vehicles, it is assumed that the engine oil temperature decreases and it becomes difficult for water to volatilize. Also, the E100 fuel contains several percent of water. Therefore, it has become important to understand the degradation characteristics of engine oil when water is immixed, which is the aim of this study.1) In this study, we operated an engine while intentionally introducing water into its combustion chamber. Based on the evaluated degradation characteristics, we examined a laboratory test method and…
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Life Cycle Assessment of a Passenger Vehicle to Analyze the Environmental Impacts Using Cradle to Grave Approach

Mahindra Research Valley-Rahul Lalwani, Saravanan N, Arunmozhi Veeraputhiran, IlavarasIi D
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2581
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Climate change is primary driver in the current discussions on CO2 reduction in the automotive industry. Current Type approval emissions tests (BS III, BS IV) covers only tailpipe emissions, however the emissions produced in upstream and downstream processes (e.g. raw material sourcing, manufacturing, transportation, vehicle usage, recycle phases) are not considered in the evaluation. The objective of this project is to assess the environmental impact of the product considering all stages of the life cycle, understand the real opportunities to reduce environmental impact across the product life cycle. As a part of environmental sustainability journey in business value chain, lifecycle assessment (LCA) technique helps to understand the environmental impact categories. To measure overall impact, a cradle to grave approach helps to assess entire life cycle impact throughout various stages. LCA is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, disposal or recycling. A study was conducted on a passenger vehicle for life cycle assessment as…
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Vacuum Excavation and Sewer Cleaning Equipment Classification and Nomenclature

MTC9, Trenching and Horizontal Earthboring Machines
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3106_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This document lists common terminology for vacuum excavation and sewer cleaning equipment, including component names and specific work completed by these machines. This document also illustrates some common types of equipment.
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Development of a Novel Machine Learning Methodology for the Generation of a Gasoline Surrogate Laminar Flame Speed Database under Water Injection Engine Conditions

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

NAIS S.r.l., Italy-Claudio Forte
University of Bologna, Italy-Leonardo Pulga, Gian Marco Bianchi, Matteo Ricci, Giulio Cazzoli
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0001
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The water injection is one of the technologies assessed in the development of new internal combustion engines fulfilling new emission regulation and policy on Auxiliary Emission Strategy assessment. Besides all the positive aspects about the reduction of mixture temperature at top dead center and exhaust gases temperature at turbine inlet, it is well known that the water vapor acts as a mixture diluter, thus diminishing the reactants burning rate. A common methodology employed for the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Computational Fluid Dynamics (RANS CFD) simulation of the reciprocating internal combustion engines’ turbulent combustion relies on the flamelet approach, which requires knowledge of the Laminar Flame Speed (LFS) and thickness. Typically, these properties are calculated by means of correlation laws, but they do not keep into account the presence of water mass fraction. A more precise methodology for the definition of both the LFS and thickness is thus required. The interrogation of a previously computed look-up table of such properties during run time seems to be a suitable and more accurate method than using correlations. In order to…

2019 'Create the Future' Sustainable Technologies Category Winner: Wave-Powered Water Desalination

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35449
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Battery-Free Sensor for Underwater Use

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35443
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

To investigate oceans, researchers aim to build a submerged network of interconnected sensors that sends data to the surface. Supplying constant power to scores of sensors designed to stay for long durations underwater has been a major problem.

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Assessing the Combined Outcome of Rice Husk Nano Additive and Water Injection Method on the Performance, Emission and Combustion Characters of the Low Viscous Pine Oil in a Diesel Engine

Anna University Chennai-Mebin Samuel P, Devaradjane Gobalakichenin
University College of Engineering Villupuram-Gnanamoorthi V
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The research work intends to assess the need and improvement by using a low viscous bio oil, RH (rice husk) nano particles and water injection method in enhancing the performance, emission and combustion characters of a diesel engine. One of the major setbacks for using biodiesel is its higher viscosity. Hence, a low viscous oil (pine oil) which does not need transesterification process was used as a biofuel in this study. Further, to improve its characteristics a non-metallic nano additive produced from rice husk was added at 3 proportions (50, 100, 200 ppm) and the optimal quantity was found as 100 ppm based on the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) value of 30.2% at peak load condition. This efficiency value was accompanied by a considerable decrease in pollutants like HC (hydrocarbon)-34.8%, Smoke-31.6%, CO (carbon monoxide)-43.7%. On the contrary, NOx (oxides of nitrogen) emission was found to be increased for all load values. At peak load, when compared with diesel, pine oil with RH has 19.3% increased NOx emission. To reduce this increased NOx emission, water was…
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