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IC engine internal cooling system modelling using 1D-CFD methodology

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Dhananjay Sampat Autade, Amit Kumar, Tharunnarayanan Arthanari, Vaibhav Patil, Kamalakannan J
FCA US LLC-Fu-Long Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1168
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engine gets heated up due to continuous combustion of fuel. To keep engine working efficiently and prevent components damage due to very high temperature, the engine needs to be cooled down. Based on power output requirement and provision for cooling system, every engine has it’s unique cooling system. Liquid based cooling systems are majorly implemented in automobile. It’s important to keep in mind that during design phase that, cooling the engine will lower the power to fuel consumption ratio. Therefore, during lower ambient conditions, the cooling system should be able to uniformly increase the temperature of the engine components, engine oil and transmission oil. This is achieved by circulating the coolant through cooling jacket, engine oil heater and transmission oil heater, which will be heated by the combustion heat. The objective of this study is to build a steady state 1D-model of cooling system; comprising of water pump, cooling jacket, engine head, thermostat, radiator, cabin heater, engine and transmission oil heaters with plumbing system. This 1D model is used to simulate vehicle drive…
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Utilization of bench testing in vehicle thermal system development for extreme cold ambient condition

FCA US LLC-Masuma Khandaker, Ahmed Uddin, Vijay Sanikal, Kaji Fuad, Craig Lindquist, Gary Baker, Sadek Rahman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1390
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automotive thermal systems are becoming complicated each year. The powertrain efficiency improvement initiatives are driving transmission and engine oil heaters into coolant network design alternatives. The initiatives of electrified and autonomous vehicles are making coolant networks even more complex. The coolant networks these days have many heat exchangers, electric water pumps and valves, apart from typical radiators, thermostat and heater core. Some of these heat exchangers including cabin heaters deal with very small amount of coolant flow rates at different ambient conditions. This paper describes how viscosity can be a major reason for simulation inaccuracy, and how to deal with it for each component in the coolant network. Both experimental and computational aspects have been considered in this paper with wide range of ambient temperatures. Methods have been proposed to handle these issues in the simulation phase at the early phase of automotive thermal system development, especially during extreme cold ambient conditions.
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Development of Ultra-low-friction and Zero-leakage Mechanical Seal for High-Speed e-Mobility Shaft Sealing Applications

Eagle Industry Co., Ltd.-Yuichiro Tokunaga, Nobuo Nakahara, Masatoshi Itadani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1090
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By the year 2020, EU legislation limits CO2 emissions for new passenger cars to a maximum of 95 g/km, and further reductions to 68 g/km are expected. Electric motors with high power density often need shaft cooling in combination with increased rotational speeds to boost efficiency. Especially, the low friction and the durability of the sealing faces is essential to overcome the severe friction condition of the high-speed rotation. This challenge can be solved by using the revolutionary GlideXTM sealing technologies. These seals feature advanced texturing, a new surface technology that enables microscopic flow control in the dynamic sealing faces. Advanced texturing reduces leakage to the level of insignificance and up to 90% less friction, compared to a non-textured mechanical seal. The advanced texturing allows for a thin liquid-sealing film between the sealing faces. The liquid lubrication becomes dominant at low speeds; at high speeds, the gas lubrication becomes dominant by preventing the liquid from flowing into the sliding surfaces. As a result, the seal can keep low friction in both low- and high-speed rotations…
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A new approach for designing and testing engine coolant pump electrically actuated

University of L'Aquila-Marco Di Bartolomeo, Fabio Fatigati, Davide Di Battista, Roberto Cipollone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1161
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel consumption reduction and CO2 emissions saving are the present drivers of the technological innovation in Internal Combustion Engines for the transportation sector. Among the numerous technologies which ensure such benefits, the role of the cooling pump has been recognized, mainly referred to the possibility to improve engine performances during warm up. During engine homologation, an additional benefit on the fuel consumption can be also reached reducing the energy demand of the pump. In fact, during the cycle, propulsion power requested by the vehicle is low and the importance of the energy absorbed by the pump became significant, since the pump operates far from its maximum efficiency. Indeed, the pump is usually designed at high load working point (Best Efficiency Point, BEP), where the cooling request is maximum: starting from these design conditions, when the pump operates at lower engine coolant requests (as it happens very frequently and more specifically during the homologation cycle of the engine), its efficiency can be very low. This aspect invites pump designer to take care about the choosing of…
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Design and Development of Ultra-Low Friction High-Power Density Diesel Engine for the Indian Market

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Vikraman Vellandi, Prasad Namani, Suresh Bagavathy, Madhu Kishore Chalumuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0834
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are known for their excellent low-end torque, drivability, performance and fuel economy. The ever-increasing customer demands push the diesel engines continuously to deliver higher torque and power. However, the requirement of higher power and torque puts a great challenge on the mechanical friction which can greatly influence the vehicle level fuel economy in a negative way. This paper explains the methodology to design a high power-density diesel engine capable of 180 bar peak firing pressure yet achieving the lowest level of mechanical friction. The base engine architecture consists of 8mm crank-offset which is an optimized value to have the lowest piston side forces. The honing specification is changed from a standard plateau honing to an improved helical slide honing with optimized Rz, Rpk and Rvk values. The cumulative tangential force of the piston rings are reduced to an extreme value of 24 N. A rectangular special coated top ring and a low-friction architecture oil ring is used to reduce the friction without increasing the blow-by and oil consumption. A special low-friction coating is…
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A Comparative Study on Engine Thermal Management System

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center, Inc.-Yong Sun, Jason Hoon Lee, Jinho Ha, EunKyung Lee
The University of Alabama-Samuel Wilson, Hwan-Sik Yoon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0946
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As the automotive industry faces tighter fuel economy and emission regulations, it is becoming increasingly important to improve powertrain system efficiency. One of the areas to improve powertrain efficiency is the thermal management system. By controlling how to distribute the heat rejected by the engine, especially during the warm-up stage under cold temperatures, an engine thermal management system can improve the overall energy efficiency of the powertrain system. Conventionally, engine thermal management systems have been operated by a mechanical water pump and a thermostat. However, the recent introduction of electric water pumps and electrically-controlled flow valves allow for more sophisticated control of the thermal management system. In this study, these two different thermal management system architectures are investigated by conducting simulations. Specifically, a vehicle model with a high-fidelity thermal management system is developed in GT-SUITE and a simple rule-based control algorithm is applied to control the system. Using the system model, multiple drive cycle simulations are conducted and their performances are compared and discussed.
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Effect of Eccentric Imbalance of Various Crank Train Components on Vibrations in Single Cylinder Diesel Engines

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Puneet Julaha, Vasundhara Arde, Remesan Chirakkal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2417
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine is the main source of power for many agricultural applications such as water pump sets, compressors and tractors. At the same time it is also the main source of vibrations. Mechanical vibrations have instantaneous and long term effects on human body. Kinds of effects depend upon duration of exposure and frequency of vibrations. The increasing demands of improved comfort levels of operators are putting pressures on tractor manufacturers on reducing the vibration levels which thereby resulting in improving diesel engine vibrations.Vibration is the movement or mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium position of a machine or component. A Vibration analysis is about the art of looking for changes in the vibration pattern and then relating those changes. Vibration always occurs when there is unbalanced body in reciprocating or rotary motion. In an internal combustion engine there are many parts in reciprocating and rotary motion such as pistons, connecting rod, crankshaft, flywheel etc.This paper explains the study carried out to evaluate combined effect of location of unbalance in individual components when they are assembled and…
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Vacuum Excavation and Sewer Cleaning Equipment Classification and Nomenclature

MTC9, Trenching and Horizontal Earthboring Machines
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3106_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This document lists common terminology for vacuum excavation and sewer cleaning equipment, including component names and specific work completed by these machines. This document also illustrates some common types of equipment.
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Passenger Vehicle Windshield Demisting and Defrosting Systems

Interior Climate Control Vehicle OEM Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J902_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-25 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommend Practice establishes for passenger cars, light trucks, and multipurpose vehicles with GVW of 4500 kg (10000 pounds) or less, as defined by EPA, and M1 category vehicles as defined by the European Commission:
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Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
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