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Hybrid Powertrain Technology Assessment through an Integrated Simulation Approach

Continental-Naroa Zaldua-Moreno, Lorenzo Pace
Ford Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Global automotive fuel economy and emissions pressures mean that 48 V hybridisation will become a significant presence in the passenger car market. The complexity of powertrain solutions is increasing in order to further improve fuel economy for hybrid vehicles and maintain robust emissions performance. However, this results in complex interactions between technologies which are difficult to identify through traditional development approaches, resulting in sub-optimal solutions for either vehicle attributes or cost. The results presented in this paper are from a simulation programme focussed on the optimisation of various advanced powertrain technologies on 48 V hybrid vehicle platforms. The technologies assessed include an electrically heated catalyst, an insulated turbocharger, an electric water pump and a thermal management module. The novel simulation approach undertaken uses an integrated toolchain capturing thermal, electrical and mechanical energy usage across all powertrain sub-systems. Through integrating 0-D and 1-D sub-models into a single modelling environment, the operating strategy of the technologies can be optimised while capturing the synergies that exist between them. This approach enables improved and more informed cost/benefit ratios for…
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Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance Costs A Best Practices Guide

HM-1 Integrated Vehicle Health Management Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • JA6097_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-07 by SAE International in United States
SAE JA6097 (“Using a System Reliability Model to Optimize Maintenance”) shows how to determine which maintenance to perform on a system when that system requires corrective maintenance to achieve the lowest long-term operating cost. While this document may focus on applications to Jet Engines and Aircraft, this methodology could be applied to nearly any type of system. However, it would be most effective for systems that are tightly integrated, where a failure in any part of the system causes the entire system to go off-line, and the process of accessing a failed component can require additional maintenance on other unrelated components.
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Glossary of Engine Cooling System Terms

Cooling Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1004_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-22 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this glossary is to establish uniform definitions of parts and terminology for engine cooling systems. Components included are all those through which engine coolant is circulated: water pump, engine oil cooler, transmission and other coolant-oil coolers, charge air coolers, core engine, thermostat, radiator, external coolant tanks, and lines connecting them.
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Effects of Compression Ratio and Water Vapor Induction on the Achievable Load Limits of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Operated in HCCI Mode

Indian Institute of Technology-Murugesa Pandian M
Indian Institute of Technology - Madras-Anand Krishnasamy
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Among the various Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategies, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is most promising to achieve near zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter emissions owing to higher degree of homogeneity and elimination of diffusion phase combustion. However, one of its major limitations include a very narrow operating load range owing to misfire at low loads and knocking at high loads. Implementing HCCI in small light duty air cooled diesel engines pose challenges to eliminate misfire and knocking problems owing to lower power output and air cooled operation, respectively. In the present work, experimental investigations are done in HCCI mode in one such light duty production diesel engine most widely used in agricultural water pumping applications. An external mixture preparation based diesel HCCI is implemented in the test engine by utilizing a high-pressure port fuel injection system, a fuel vaporizer and an air preheater. With an existing compression ratio of 17.5, the engine could not be operated beyond 20% of rated BMEP owing to severe knocking. The existing bowl shaped piston is…
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Experimental Investigations to Extend the Load Range of Premixed Charge Compression Ignited Light Duty Diesel Engine through Fuel Modifications

Indian Institute of Technology - Madras-Saurabh K Gupta, Anand Krishnasamy
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) is one of the most promising low temperature combustion (LTC) strategies to achieve near zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions along with higher thermal efficiency. One of the major problems in diesel PCCI is a narrow operating load range because of very early ignition and knocking combustion at higher loads owing to higher reactivity of diesel fuel. Further, low volatile diesel resist vaporization, resulting in fuel spray wall wetting and higher unburned emissions in PCCI. Thus, high reactivity and low volatility of diesel fuel make it not suitable for PCCI combustion. The present work attempts to address these limitations, by blending diesel with high volatile and low reactive fuels, viz. gasoline and butanol at 10% and 20% blend levels by volume. A production light duty air cooled diesel engine most widely used in agricultural water pumping applications is modified to run in PCCI mode by replacing an existing mechanical fuel injection system with a flexible common rail injection system. The test engine is initially run in…
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Homogeneous Charge Reactivity-Controlled Compression Ignition Strategy to Reduce Regulated Pollutants from Diesel Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India-Murugesa M. Pandian, Anand Krishnasamy
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-02-0012
Published 2019-03-14 by SAE International in United States
Reactivity-controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a dual fuel low temperature combustion (LTC) strategy which results in a wider operating load range, near-zero oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) emissions, and higher thermal efficiency. One of the major shortcomings in RCCI is a higher unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. Unlike conventional combustion, aftertreatment control of HC and CO emissions is difficult to achieve in RCCI owing to lower exhaust gas temperatures. In conventional RCCI, an early direct injection (DI) of low volatile diesel fuel into the premixed gasoline-air mixture in the combustion chamber results in charge stratification and fuel spray wall wetting leading to higher HC and CO emissions. To address this limitation, a homogeneous charge reactivity-controlled compression ignition (HCRCCI) strategy is proposed in the present work, wherein the DI of diesel fuel is eliminated. HCRCCI strategy is achieved by inducting diesel and gasoline vapor along with inlet air in the intake manifold during the suction stroke, and the premixed diesel-gasoline-air mixture is autoignited during the compression stroke. Unlike RCCI, the…
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Application of Electrically Driven Coolant Pumps on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

FVT mbH-Christina Granitz
Graz University of Technology-Josef Ratzinger, Helmut Eichlseder
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
A reduction in CO2 emissions and consequently fuel consumption is essential in the context of future greenhouse gas limits. With respect to the thermodynamic loss analysis of an internal combustion engine, a gap between the net indicated thermal efficiency and the brake thermal efficiency is recognizable. This share is caused by friction losses, which are the focus of this research project. The parasitic loss reduction potential by replacing the mechanical water pump with an electric coolant pump is discussed in the course of this work. This is not a novel approach in light duty vehicles, whereas in commercial vehicles a rigid drive of all auxiliaries is standard. Taking into account an implementation of a 48-V power system in the short or medium term, an electrification of auxiliary components becomes feasible. The application of electric coolant pumps on an Euro VI certified 6-cylinder in-line heavy-duty diesel engine regarding fuel economy was thus performed. The engine has two cooling circuits, one low temperature circuit for the charge air coolers and one high temperature circuit as main circuit,…
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Development of Horizontal Water Cooled Diesel Engine to Achieve High Power Density

KUBOTA Corporation-Yoshinobu Komai, Yusuke Takashima, Tsukasa Fujiwara, Hisao Okamoto, Minoru Kawahara
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
The horizontal water cooled diesel engine has a structure including all component parts such as a fuel tank that are necessary to drive engine, and is often a single cylinder engine. It is mounted on many applications such as power tiller and water pump because of high general versatility of installing owing to belt drive. It has a simple structure because of single cylinder, and is active mainly in Southeast Asia. At the same time, the market requires this type of engine higher power while a compact structure is also required from the viewpoint of easy to supply and use. In other words, “High power density” that is improving the output per body size has been required. We have responded to the demand of “High power density” by increasing output without changing the engine size. In order to keep the engine size, we have been enlarging displacement by using our peculiar stroke-up expertise and original bore-up contrivance. In addition to those techniques, we introduced analytic technology for early approach to optimal solution. While we had…
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Energy Consumption Test and Analysis Methodology for Heavy-Duty Vehicle Engine Accessories

SAE International Journal of Engines

Dongfeng Commercial Vehicle Technology Center, China-Liang Zhong
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-05-0036
Published 2018-10-03 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is a crucial parameter in long-haulage heavy-duty vehicles. Researchers tended to focus initially on engine combustion efficiency, while modern researchers turn their attention to the energy consumption of engine accessories in an attempt to enhance fuel economy. The accessories investigated in this study include the cooling fan, water pump, air compressor, power steering pump, air-conditioning (AC) compressor, and generator. Normally, accessory energy consumption analysis is based on rig data and simulation results. Here, we focus on the disparate test environments between the rig and vehicle to establish a novel constant power test method; the proposed method provides accurate accessory power data under different working conditions. A typical highway driving cycle is selected to collect accessory duty-cycle. The heavy-duty vehicle accessories’ energy consumption distribution under highway road conditions is obtained through the repeated road tests. Accessories comprise energy consumption proportions of 4.7%-6.4% of the engine in winter and 10.3%-12.6% in summer; they show different characteristics under different temperature or road conditions. The two influence factors of accessory energy consumption, constant power and duty-cycle, are…
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A Method for Turbocharging Single-Cylinder, Four-Stroke Engines

SAE International Journal of Engines

Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Michael Buchman, Devarajan Ramanujan, Amos G. Winter
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-04-0028
Published 2018-07-24 by SAE International in United States
Turbocharging can provide a low cost means for increasing the power output and fuel economy of an internal combustion engine. Currently, turbocharging is common in multi-cylinder engines, but due to the inconsistent nature of intake air flow, it is not commonly used in single-cylinder engines. In this article, we propose a novel method for turbocharging single-cylinder, four-stroke engines. Our method adds an air capacitor-an additional volume in series with the intake manifold, between the turbocharger compressor and the engine intake-to buffer the output from the turbocharger compressor and deliver pressurized air during the intake stroke. We analyzed the theoretical feasibility of air capacitor-based turbocharging for a single-cylinder engine, focusing on fill time, optimal volume, density gain, and thermal effects due to adiabatic compression of the intake air. Our computational model for air flow through the intake manifold predicted an intake air density gain of 37-60% depending on heat transfer rates; this density translates to a proportional to power gain. An experimental setup was constructed to measure peak power, density gain, and manifold pressure. With an…
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