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Employing natural plant based fiber in interior automotive parts for cost & weight benefit

Vivekanandhan-Vivekanandhan Venkatesan Balaguru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2559
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The Automotive industry is in ever more need for a lesser weight car due to progressively stringent emission norms and the demand of customer to have better mileage. It can be a gargantuan challenge for automotive manufacturers to search for lesser weight material to meet both customers as well as regulatory norms. But in some cases such lower weight material can increase the cost and adding a expensive material which increases overall cost to a price sensitive market like India is not favorable. One such solution is using the indigenous plant fiber (Jute) in combination with propylene (PP) to make Interior plastics components. Jute a vegetable fiber also referred to as "the golden fiber" has high tensile strength, low extensibility and is well established in fabric, packing, agriculture, construction industries. The biodegradable Jute lesser weight & abundance (India is the leading manufacturer of the Jute) can be utilized in making automobile trim parts in India. Through this paper we will have insight of the natural fiber based plastic components the benefits (lesser weight, Less GSM…
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Modeling and Simulation of Refueling Emissions from Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Jiangsu University, China-Shu Liu, Ren He
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0014
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicular evaporative emissions are an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Moreover, the engines of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may not start for a long time, causing the activated carbon canister to not purge well in-use and to become saturated with fuel vapor. Therefore, the problems of evaporative emissions and refueling emissions of PHEVs are still severe. The objectives of this article are to model and simulate the refueling emissions from PHEVs to shorten the design and development cycle. To achieve the goals, the release of refueling emissions is divided into two stages: the depressurization stage and the refueling stage. The mathematical model has been established by means of the ideal gas law and the gas mass transfer and diffusion law. Then, the numerical model is built and the volume of fluid (VOF) model was applied in the simulation. Moreover, the numerical model was validated by experiment on internal pressure increase of the fuel tank. The baseline case is conducted under the condition that the fuel dispensing rate is 50 L/min. Finally, different…
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On Soot Sampling: Considerations when Sampling for TEM Imaging and Differential Mobility Spectrometer

Brunel University London-Behzad Rohani
Norwegian Univ of Science and Technology-David Robert Emberson, Ragnhild Sæterli PhD, Terese Lovas
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Particulate matter (PM) has been sampled from a compression ignition engine using a differential mobility spectrometer (Cambustion DMS 500) and for imaging in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) with the aim of coupling these two measuring techniques. A known issue when coupling these two methods is that a devise like the DMS samples all PM, and the TEM only soot. To help resolve this issue, a thermal denuder was designed and built to remove all volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the sample prior to entering the DMS. For TEM imaging, soot was either collected directly onto a TEM grid using the thermophoretic effect or collected onto quartz filters with the soot then transferred onto the TEM grids. The direct to grid technique did not work after the denuder due to the gas temperature being too low for the thermophoretic effect; hence the reason to collect some soot using the quartz filters. Soot was removed from the filters using an ethanol wash/sonication technique. Morphology; diameter of gyration, projected area, primary particle size and fractal dimension have…
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Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds from a Combined Dual Port Injection/Direct-Injection Technology Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicle

Southwest Research Institute-Robert Fanick, Svitlana Kroll
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0051
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline direct injection (GDI) has changed the exhaust composition in comparison with the older port fuel injection (PFI) systems. More recently, light-duty vehicle engine manufactures have combined these two technologies to take advantage of the knock benefits and fuel economy of GDI with the low particulate emission of PFI. These dual injection strategy engines have made a change in the combustion emission composition produced by these engines. Understanding the impact of these changes is essential for automotive companies and aftertreatment developers.A novel sampling system was designed to sample the exhaust generated by a dual injection strategy gasoline vehicle using the United States Federal Test Procedure (FTP). This sampling system was capable of measuring the regulated emissions as well as collecting the entire exhaust from the vehicle for measuring unregulated emissions. For this study, the unregulated emissions included hydrocarbon speciation and semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC) in the form of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH), and oxygenated PAH (Oxy PAH). This novel sampling system allowed the quantification of the particulate-phase SVOC as part of…
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Hybrid Ultra-Low VOC and Non-HAP Rain Erosion Coatings

Aerospace & Defense Technology: August 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP08_12
Published 2019-08-01 by SAE International in United States

Developing a rapid-curing rain erosion coating based on a unique glycidyl carbamate (GC) hybrid resin chemistry that offers rapid reactivity and adhesion combined with the erosion, flexibility, weathering and mechanical properties of polyurethane systems.

Numerous military aircraft and shipboard surfaces, such as radomes, antennas, gun shields, wing leading edges, and helicopter blade leading edges, are coated with a specialized erosion-resistant protective coating possessing strict performance requirements. These protective coatings must provide excellent rain erosion resistance, superior mechanical properties, good adhesion to the substrate and meet a host of other metrics outlined in MIL-PRF-32239 and SAE AMS-C- 83231A.

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Hybrid Ultra-Low VOC and Non-HAP Rain Erosion Coatings

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34877
Published 2019-08-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Numerous military aircraft and shipboard surfaces, such as radomes, antennas, gun shields, wing leading edges, and helicopter blade leading edges, are coated with a specialized erosion-resistant protective coating possessing strict performance requirements. These protective coatings must provide excellent rain erosion resistance, superior mechanical properties, good adhesion to the substrate and meet a host of other metrics outlined in MIL-PRF-32239 and SAE AMS-C- 83231A.

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Heat Resistant Aluminized Paint

AMS G8 Aerospace Organic Coatings Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3604A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This specification establishes requirements for a heat resistant aluminized organic coating with sufficient corrosion and erosion resistance for the finished substrate.
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Primer Zinc Molybdate

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3117A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a zinc molybdate primer in the form of a liquid.
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Encapsulated Nanoparticles Offer Promise for Biomedical Applications

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34441
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The Polymerization Process Research Group of the Polymat Institute of the UPV/EHU–University of the Basque Country has efficiently encapsulated semiconductor nanocrystals or quantum dots of various sizes into polymer particles. Great stability in terms of their optical properties and good fluorescence control when combining different quantum dots have been achieved. The possible applicability of these materials as sensors of volatile organic compounds has also been explored.

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Combustion Characteristics in a Constant Volume Chamber of Diesel Blended with HTL

Beijing Institute of Technology-Ziming Yang
Chang'an University-Gang Li
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
There are a few different ways in which biofuels can be sourced, with the most popular coming from agricultural sources. An alternative approach is to utilize biowaste. An estimated 20 million dry tons of volatile organic compounds, or biowaste, is annually deposited in US municipal wastewaters. Most of this biowaste energy content is not recovered and, as a result, the biowaste could be a massive potential source of renewable energy. Biocrude diesel is converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL). Three types of feedstocks (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste) were converted into biocrude oil via HTL. From the previous experiments done in an AVL 5402 single-cylinder diesel engine, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend performed similarly during combustion to pure diesel. By studying these mixtures in a constant volume chamber, these observations could be compared to the results in the diesel engine. Additionally, the constant volume chamber provided more insights as how the HTL actually affected the combustion characteristics. The experiments were conducted at different…
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