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Direction Specific Analysis of Psychoacoustics Parameters Inside Car Cockpits: a Novel Tool for NVH and Sound Quality

University of Parma-Daniel Pinardi, Costante Belicchi, Angelo Farina, Marco Binelli
University of Parma / ASK Industries SpA-Lorenzo Ebri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1547
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Psychoacoustics parameters are widely employed in automotive field for objective evaluation of Sound Quality of vehicle cabins and their components. The standard approach relies on binaural recordings from which numerical values and curves are calculated and head-locked binaural listening playback can be performed. Recently, the Virtual Reality technology started to diffuse also in automotive field, bringing new possibilities for enhanced and immersive listening sessions. In this paper, we combine both solutions: the VR approach is adopted to calculate the principal psychoacoustics parameters. The acquisition system consists in a massive spherical microphone array featuring a camera for recording panoramic visual background. The acoustical information is encoded into High Order Ambisonics spatial format, that can be rendered on stereoscopic visors and Spatial PCM Sampling format that can be used to produce 360° colour maps. In this way, we are able to plot the psychoacoustics parameters adding their directivity information over the panoramic background, turning the array into a novel 360° diagnostic tool. At the same time, the playback can be performed inside Ambisonics listening rooms or binaurally…
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AR projection for driver assistance in autonomous vehicles

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram, Balasubramanian Achuthan
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1035
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Augmented Reality (AR), which involves the integration of digital information with our physical environment in real-time, has been steadily growing over the past few years, finding its way into multiple areas of our lives. Augmented Reality (AR) in automotive vehicles has contributed to revolutionizing the way passengers and drivers access information, acquire knowledge and integrate into the physical spaces and destinations visited. The studies produced concerning this field are still limited, particularly in the perception of how users adopt technology and what use they make of it. On the other hand, even more limited are the studies that consider the role of stakeholders in the implementation of AR technology. In this paper, we discuss and propose solutions for following ADAS applications using projection unit mounted on board projecting on the windshield. • 5G in your route (signal strength - android applications on HU to detect the signal strength and display it on projection unit)). 5G connectivity help to realize the future of connected cars through higher speeds (up to 10 Gbps), better coverage (capacity expansion…
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Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Autonomous Vehicles Considering Dynamic Stability Constraints

Tongji University-Xunjie Chen, Guangqiang Wu, Meng Ren
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1400
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicle performance is increasingly highlighted in many highway driving scenarios, which leads to more priorities to vehicle stability as well as tracking accuracy. In this paper, a nonlinear model predictive controller for autonomous vehicle trajectory tracking is designed and verified through a real-time simulation bench of a virtual test track. The dynamic stability constraints of nonlinear model predictive control (NLMPC) are obtained by a novel quadrilateral stability region criterion instead of the conventional phase plane method using the double-line region. First, a typical lane change scene of overtaking is selected and a new composited trajectory model is proposed as a reference path that combines smoothness of sine wave and comfort of linear functional path. Reference lateral velocity, azimuth angle, yaw rate, and front wheel steering angle are subsequently taken into account. Then, by establishing a nonlinear vehicle dynamics model where Magic Formula of nonlinear tire model is adapted, the quadrilateral vehicle stability region is defined in consideration of designed velocity, road adhesion coefficient, and front wheel steering angle. Working condition-variant constraints determined by the…
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A Safety and Security Testbed for Assured Autonomy in Vehicles

Ohio State University-Matthew Appel, Pradeep Sharma Oruganti, Qadeer Ahmed, Jaxon Wilkerson, Rubanraj Sekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1291
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the assurance of safety and security of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of customized models and algorithms. Real-time simulation and connectivity with external components are obtained using a Speedgoat real-time machine while ROS provides the link between the CARLA environment and the MATLAB simulation. Communication with external hardware can be achieved through different network protocols such as CAN, LIN, SAE J1939…
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A Decentralized Time- and Energy-Optimal Control Framework for Connected Automated Vehicles: From Simulation to Field Test

Robert Bosch LLC-Vasanthi Karri, Darshil Parikh, Shyam Jade
University Of Delaware-A M Ishtiaque Mahbub, Andreas A. Malikopoulos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0579
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The implementation of connected and automated vehicle (CAV) technologies enables a novel computational framework for real-time control aimed at optimizing energy consumption with associated benefits. In this paper, we implement an optimal control framework, developed previously, in an Audi A3 etron plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, and demonstrate that we can improve the vehicle’s efficiency and travel time in a corridor including an on-ramp merging, a speed reduction zone, and a roundabout. Our exposition includes the development, integration, implementation and validation of the proposed framework in (1) simulation, (2) hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing, (3) connectivity enabled virtual reality based bench-test, and (4) field test in Mcity. We show that by adopting such inexpensive, yet effective process, we can efficiently integrate and test the control framework, establish proper connectivity and data transmission between different modules of the system, and reduce uncertainty. We evaluate the performance and effectiveness of the control framework and observe significant improvement in terms of energy and travel time compared to the baseline scenario.
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Implementation and Comparison of Model Co-Simulation Methods in a Turbofan Model

Southwest Research Institute-Charles Krouse, Brendan Nelson-Weiss
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0003
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The process of developing, parameterizing, validating, and maintaining models occurs within a wide variety of tools, and requires significant time and resources. To maximize model utilization, models are often shared between various toolsets and experts. Model integration is typically divided into two categories: model exchange and model co-simulation. Of these two categories, model co-simulation is typically regarded as the more complex and difficult to implement. Co-Simulation provides the ability to integrate models between different toolsets or incompatible versions of the same software. Additionally, it provides the capabilities for real-time simulations and hardware-in-the-loop test scenarios. This paper reviews some of the common co-simulation data communication methods including pipes and file input/output. The differences between serial and parallel, aka synchronous and asynchronous, communication patterns are also discussed. A simple turbofan model was developed to demonstrate the aforementioned methods. The turbofan model was developed in a legacy version of NPSS, and this legacy model was integrated with a high-fidelity turbine model developed in a newer version of the NPSS software. The integration of the legacy turbojet model with…
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Augmented Reality System Lets Smartphone Users Interact with Virtual Objects

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35959
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A new software system turns cellphones into augmented reality portals, enabling users to place virtual building blocks, furniture, and other objects into real-world backdrops and use their hands to manipulate those objects as if they were really there. The system, called Portal-ble, could be a tool to experiment with augmented reality (AR).

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Development and analysis of a rotary wall crane design using CAD and CAE Tools

Unesp – Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá-Jessé de Jesus Silva, Fernando de Azevedo Silva
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0220
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Cranes and rigging equipment are important machines in industrial activities, construction, port operations and in many sectors that demand the lifting of high loads in a safe, controlled and efficient way. And the design of these equipment, in turn, requires the use of machine elements, mechanisms, and structures that are widely used in engineering, such as wire ropes, gears, pulleys, bolted connections, structural profiles, etc. In this work, a rotary wall crane was built in a virtual environment. The design was based mainly on the ABNT NBR 8400 standard. The software used for 3D modeling was Autodesk Inventor® and the main structure of the equipment was analyzed, according to its functionality, using numerical simulations based on the finite element method. Firstly, the structure of the crane, consisting of L and U structural profiles, bolted joints, structural reinforcements and other connections, was analyzed separately. Static structural simulations were conducted in this subassembly. Concomitantly, structural calculations were performed using statics and vector mechanics methods and by the finite element analysis. In this case, the Direct Stiffness Method…
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Powertrain Hardware In The Loop X Vehicle Hardware In the Loop: How to Optimize Their Use During the Software Development Cycle

FCA - Fiat Chrysler Automotive-Jeeves Lopes dos Santos, Elaine Cristina Guglielmoni Silva, Cleber Albert Moreira Marques, Gustavo Maximo Urquiza de Sá, José Henrique Silva, Mauricio Vianna de Resende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0311
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The advance of technology and the demand for new features on vehicles has been challenging the automotive industry to find ways to speed up its development process, while increases the robustness and quality of its products. On this context, the embedded software development for vehicles has been directly impacted. In other words, the number of Electronic Control Units (ECUs) considerably increased on the past few years and the number of lines of code, as well as their complexity, have been exponentially increased. In order to deal with this new reality, besides the automotive test prototypes used during the development, the automotive industry has been using different virtual environment to develop, verify and validate its products. As an example, we can see an increase in the use of different Hardware In The Loop system architectures (HILs) such as Powertrain HIL (with real Engine and Transmission Control Modules - ECM and TCM) and Vehicle HILs (with real ECM, TCM, several other ECUs, and also several electronic components that composes the vehicle). Each of these options has its…
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Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation for Functional Verification of Multiple Control Units in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA)-Ferdinando Ferrara, Luigi Milia, Vito Braca, Paolo Poletto, Salvatore Esposito, Donato Amoroso, Mario D'Agostino, Giancarlo Di Mare
University of Sannio-Domenico Natella, Silvio Baccari, Francesco Vasca
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5093
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) platforms are widely used in the automotive industry for testing strategies and functionalities of electronic control units (ECUs). This paper describes the HIL testbed developed in Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA) laboratories for the functional analysis of multiple control units in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). A case study including the ECUs dedicated to internal combustion engines (ICEs), transmissions, brakes, and electric motors (EMs) is being analyzed. Modeling construction procedures for the hardware (HW) and software components is described and their integration is characterized. HIL real-time simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed architecture for verifying the functionalities shared among the control units.
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