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Use of Partial Recirculation to Limit Build-Up of Cabin Carbon Dioxide Concentrations to Safe Limits per ASHRAE Standard-62

Calsonic Kansei North America Inc.-Gursaran Mathur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1245
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Carbon dioxide exhaled by occupants remains within the cabin during operation of HVAC unit in recirculation mode. The CO2 inhaled by the occupants goes into their blood stream that negatively affects occupant’s health. ASHRAE Standard-621 specifies the safe levels of carbon dioxide in conditioned space for humans. The CO2 concentration limit per ASHRAE is 700 ppm over ambient conditions on a continuous basis. ASHRAE Standard-62 has an additional requirement for maintaining good air quality within the ambient condition. Per this requirement, we need to introduce a min of 15 cfm/person in the conditioned space to maintain good air quality. Even though this requirement is primarily for elimination the body odors, the author has investigated if this airflow requirement is also sufficient to maintain cabin CO2 concentrations as stated above. The author2 has conducted experimental studies by conducting tests on a vehicle to see if ASHRAE’s additional requirements to maintain good air quality is also sufficient to maintain cabin CO2 concentrations below ASHRAE Standard-62. Detailed results will be presented in the paper. REFERENCES 1. ASHRAE/ANSI, Standard…
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Multi-zone HAVC Development and Validation with Integrated Heated/Vented Seat Control

FCA US LLC-Murad Maghaireh, Michael Hoppe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1247
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle multi zone automatic Heating , Venting and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is the advanced form of the traditional air conditioning, the advantage of multi zone automatic HVAC is that it allows the passengers of a vehicle to set a desired temperature for their own zone within the vehicle compartment. This desired temperature is then maintained by the HVAC system, which determines how best to control the available environment data that leads to a higher comfort for the passengers. To achieve ultimate thermal comfort of the occupants in a vehicle, multi zone HVAC takes things a step further by adding heated, vented seats and, steering wheel to the HVAC controller hardware as well as strategies. The heating and cooling of the occupants by this more advance one integrated system is performed by complex control algorithms in form of embedded software programs and private LIN network. This paper describes the approach and tools used to develop, simulate and validate the one integrated climate control system. Included are 1- introduction of an integrated HVAC , steering wheel and…
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Evaluation of Near- and Far-Side Occupant Loading in Low- to Moderate-Speed Side Impact Motor Vehicle Collisions

Exponent Inc.-Megan Toney-Bolger, Sarah Sherman, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman, Alan Dibb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1218
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many side-impact collisions occur at speeds much lower than tests conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) and the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS). In fact, nearly half of all occupants in side-impact collisions experience a change in velocity (delta-V) below 15 kph (9.3 mph). However, studies of occupant loading in collisions of low- to moderate-severity, representative of many real-world collisions, is limited. While prior research has measured occupant responses using both human volunteers and anthropometric test devices (ATDs), these tests have been conducted at relatively low speeds (<10 kph [<6.2 mph] delta-V). This study evaluated near- and far-side occupant response and loading during two side impacts with delta-V of 6.1 kph and 14.0 kph (3.8 mph and 8.7 mph). In each crash test, a Non-Deformable Moving Barrier (NDMB) impacted the side of a late-model, mid-sized sedan in a configuration consistent with the IIHS side-impact crash-test protocol. Two instrumented Hybrid III 50th-percentile male ATDs were positioned in the vehicle, one in the driver's seat and one in the right, front passenger seat.…
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Evaluation of occupant kinematics during low- to moderate-speed side impacts

Exponent Inc.-Juff George, Mathieu Davis, Sarah Sharpe, Joseph Olberding, Stacy Imler, Robert Bove
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1222
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
While nearly 50 percent of occupants in side-impact collisions are in vehicles that experience a velocity change (delta-V) below 15.0 kph (9.3 mph), full scale crash testing research at these delta-Vs is limited. Understanding occupant kinematics in response to these types of side impacts can be important to the design of side-impact safety countermeasures, as well as evaluating potential interactions with interior vehicle structures and/or with other occupants in the vehicle. In the current study, two full-scale crash tests were performed utilizing a late-model, mid-size sedan with disabled airbags. The test vehicle was impacted by a non-deformable moving barrier on the driver side at an impact speed of 10.0 kph (6.2 mph) in the first test and then on the passenger side at an impact speed of 21.6 kph (13.4 mph) in the second test. As can occur in real-world collisions, the initial impacts to the vehicle were followed by subsequent lower severity contacts. In both tests, Hybrid III 50th-percentile male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) were restrained in the driver and right front passenger seats.…
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The Effect of Crash Severity and Structural Intrusion on ATD Responses in Rear-End Crashes

Exponent Inc.-Chantal Parenteau, Jeffrey Croteau, John Zolock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1224
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study assesses the vehicle and occupant responses in six high-speed rear impact crash tests. The instrumented vehicle-to-vehicle tests included a lap-shoulder belted Hybrid III ATD. Four tests were with a 50th male in the driver seat, one with a 95th male in the driver seat and one with a 5th female in the left rear seat. Three ATDs had instrumentation which was analyzed and compared to corresponding IARVs (injury assessment reference values). As part of the analysis, the ground based and onboard vehicle videos were synchronized with the vehicle kinematics and ATD measurements. The delta Vs ranged from 48 to 76 km/h in the five tests with the driver ATD. The timing of the crush, intrusion, driver seat back motion and occupant motion was assessed. The results indicated that the rear structures of the struck vehicle were crushed by the striking vehicle rear and over-ride impact. The 2nd row seat intrusion supported and then pushed the driver seat forward, changing the ATD dynamics. The driver ATD neck forces exceeded the IARVs in two tests.…
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Characterization of Seat Lateral Support as a Mechanical Behavior

General Motors LLC-Bonita Thomas
OBannon Technologies-Terry O'Bannon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0870
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Seat lateral support is often talked about as a design parameter, but usually in terms of psychological perception. There are many difficulties in quantifying lateral support mechanically to the engineering teams: Anthropometric variation causes different people to interact with the seat in different places and at different angles, BPD studies are usually planar and don’t distinguish between horizontal support and vertical resistance to sinking in, most mechanical test systems are typically single-DOF and can’t apply vertical and horizontal loads concurrently, and there is scant literature describing the actual lateral loads occupants. In this study, we characterize the actual lateral loading on example seating (both driver and passenger, as passenger experience will become more important as autonomous vehicles evolve) from various sized/ shaped occupants according to dynamic pressure distribution. From this information, a six-DOF load and position control test robot (KUKA OccuBot) is used to replicate that pressure distribution. The effect of various sizes and shapes of indenters is explored. In the spirit of the appendix of SAE standard J2896, we suggest some standard mechanical test…
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A Human Body Model Study on Restraints for Side-Facing Occupants in Frontal Crashes of an Automated Vehicle

Joyson Safety Systems-Maika Katagiri, Sungwoo Lee
Joyson Safety Systems, NA-Jay Zhijian Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0980
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This study is to investigate kinematics and responses of side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes of an automated minivan using Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) simplified occupant models (50th%ile male and 5th%ile female), and to develop new restraint concepts to protect the occupants. The latest GHBMC M50-OS and F05-OS models (version 2.1) were further validated with the Postmortem Human Subject (PMHS) side sled tests [Cavanaugh 1990] and the PMHS far-side sled tests [Formen 2013], with detailed correlations of the kinematics and the injury measures. Robustness and biofidelity of the GHBMC human models, especially for the pelvis and knee body regions, were further improved. Using the improved M50-OS and F05-OS models, we evaluated the body kinematics and injury measures of the side-facing seated occupants in frontal crashes at severities ranging from 15 mph to 35 mph. Three restraint conditions were studied: 1) no restraint; 2) lap belt only; 3) lap belt and conceptual inflatable device. An additional parametric study on the restraint design parameters of the #3 restraint concept was performed to “optimize” the restraint…
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Determination of Seatbelt Use Following a Crash

DJS Associates-John R. Yannaccone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0643
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
When investigating a vehicle crash, the issue of seatbelt usage is frequently part of the information needed to perform an analysis related to occupant kinematics or injury. A physical inspection of the vehicle is the preferred method to investigate seatbelt usage. However, if the vehicle is no longer available or the condition has changed since the time of the crash, preventing analysis of seatbelt usage by an occupant, the investigator must rely on other available evidence to assess seatbelt usage by an occupant. This other evidence includes the police report, scene photographs, physical marks on the occupant noted in medical records and witness statements. More recently, event data recorders (EDR) may provide data regarding seatbelt status for front seat occupants, and occasionally, rear seat occupants. However, the EDR data must have been previously recovered or the vehicle must be available. In cases where the available data is very limited or includes only subjective data, some investigators have used the post-crash seatbelt position to determine seatbelt usage at the time of the impact. The theory is…
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Comparison of Occupant Fatality Factors in Underride Passenger Car Accidents in India and USA

Mercedes-Benz R&D India Pvt. Ltd.-Muthukumar Muthanandam, B S Vishak Nandan Aathresh, Avinash Penumaka, Vijaya Prakash Kalakala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0984
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Underride accidents constitute around 5% and 4% of all accidents in India and the US respectively. Yet, the passenger car occupant fatality risk is the highest in this accident configuration when compared to other configurations. Especially in India, the fatality rate is even higher due to minimal usage of underride protection devices in the front, rear and sides of commercial vehicles. This study specifically aims to compare the factors influencing occupant fatality in the rear underride accident configuration, in India and the US. The influencing factors are identified by performing Principal Component Analysis (PCA), which is a linear feature extraction technique. The accident databases considered for this study are RASSI and NASS-CDS. After querying, a total of 88 cases from RASSI and 202 cases from NASS-CDS were extracted, where a passenger vehicle was involved in a rear underride accident with a commercial vehicle. The relevant variables involved in the rear underride accident configuration were initially identified for analysis, followed by an observation of their trends. The data corresponding to these variables were analyzed using PCA.…
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Analysis of Vehicle Front Impact Pulse Severity in US NCAP

FCA US LLC-Jianping Wu, Yibing Shi, Brian Beaudet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0986
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There have been multiple studies on the effect of vehicle impact pulses on occupant responses, and studies on the previous and current US NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) vehicle pulses. This paper analyzes 35 mph (56.3 kph) front impact vehicle impact pulses and occupant responses in US NCAP tests conducted by the NHTSA from 2011 to 2019. Based on the occupant response analysis, a simple generic occupant restraint force-relative displacement model has been created. This generic model captures the fundamental restraint characteristics of the vehicles in the recent years, and together with the vehicle pulse, they provide several occupant response predictors. Furthermore, this paper proposes a new pulse severity metric PSD based on the vehicle impact data statistics, and uses the pulse severity to compare with other pulse severity definitions. It explains the shortcomings of using the vehicle dynamic crush and TTZV as pulse severity metrics, and shows how improvements can be made with simple modifications. Data regression methods are used to assess relationships among different metrics and variables. The paper also provides statistics of…