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Traffic Control Strategies for Congested Heterogeneous Multi-Vehicle Networks

University of North Carolina Charlotte-Pouria Karimi Shahri, Amir H. Ghasemi, Vahid Izadi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0086
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The primary goal of this paper is to pioneer and develop robust and adaptive algorithms for controlling autonomous vehicles in heterogeneous networks with the aim of maximizing the performance (in terms of mobility) and minimizing variation in the network. While the fundamental approaches and models proposed in this research can be applied to any heterogeneous multi-agent system, we select heterogeneous traffic networks as a set-up for exploring the proposed research. We consider the heterogeneity in the system in the form of a mix of autonomous and human-driven vehicles (different levels of autonomous vehicle penetration). We propose a two-level hierarchical controller wherein the upper-level controller, an optimization problem using the concept of macroscopic fundamental diagram is formulated to deal with the traffic demand balance problem. At the lower level, using the microscopic models of the network, the control actions for each vehicle will be determined such that he optimal flow received from the upper-level controllers can be tracked.
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Utilization of vehicle connectivity for improved energy consumption of a speed harmonized cohort of vehicles.

Michigan Technological University-Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Pruthwiraj Santhosh, John Bloom-Edmonds
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0587
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Improving vehicle response through advanced knowledge of traffic behavior can lead to large improvements in energy consumption for the single isolated vehicle. This energy savings across multiple vehicles can even be larger if they travel together as a cohort in harmonization. Additionally, if the vehicles have enough information about their immediate path of travel, and other vehicles’ in that path (and their respective critical forward looking information), they can safely drive close enough to each other to share aerodynamic load. These energy savings can be upwards of multiple percentage points, and are dependent on several criteria. This analysis looks at criteria that contributes to energy savings for a cohort of vehicles in synchronous motion, as well as describes a study that allows for better understanding of the potential benefits of different types of cohorted vehicles in different platoon arrangements. The basis of this study is a precursor to developing a connected vehicle application that safely allows for fully controlled platooning on open highway for multi-destination vehicles. In this study, two types of light duty passenger…
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Routing methods considering security and real-time of vehicle gateway system

FESCARO-Daehyun Kim
Infineon Technologies AG-Karel Heurtefeux
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1294
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, vehicle networks have increased complexity due to the demand for autonomous driving or connected devices and require high bandwidth. And vehicle manufacturers have begun applying Ethernet protocols, a new network that can replace existing vehicle network protocols. However, it is difficult to replace the entire CAN protocols with Ethernet protocols completely due to safety and reliability issues. Therefore, the vehicle manufacturer introduced a vehicle gateway system. The system uses Ethernet for the external network and the CAN network for communication between internal controllers. The vehicle gateway system provides an interface for constantly connecting and exchanging vehicle data in a heterogeneous communication environment between the existing CAN network protocol and the external Ethernet protocol. Therefore, it is necessary to design the minimum delay time considering the real time. In addition, since there is a risk of hacking due to external communication connection, a security function to ensure the integrity of the message is essential. This paper introduces routing methods considering security and real time. In the case of security, the Cipher-based message authentication code (CMAC)…
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Hypervisor Implementation in Vehicle Networks

Aptiv-Charles E. Parker, Jessica Wasen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1334
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As technology has grown in complexity, so have the use cases and applications. In particular, vehicle systems have evolved from the mechanically simple tool with the singular utility of transport to a transportation device embedded with computer systems, allowing for the vastly superior UX. As the technological advances and increased vehicular functionality, this has also increased the number of vulnerabilities and opportunity for a successful system breach. Any of these within the present architecture, when successfully exploited, may lead to a cascade of failures, or a limited number of critical failures. To mitigate this opportunity for the attackers, one non-obtrusive measure involves a method used in non-vehicle systems. The hypervisor implementation is recommended to assist with this mitigation. While this has not been researched at length in the present use case, the application of this well-versed tool is viable. The hypervisor offers many benefits to the vehicle architecture, both operationally and with cybersecurity. The proposed mitigant provides the structure to partition the various VMs. This allows for the different functions to be managed within their…
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J1939 Digital Annex

Truck Bus Control and Communications Network Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1939DA_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States

This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use.

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Entry Level Connected Infotainment Unit with Smartphone and Vehicle Integration

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Soundharya N, Tarun Aggarwal, Ritesh Khandelwal, Satish Pandey, Satish Kumar Pandey, Himanshu Kumar Ojha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2434
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
As we transition towards Internet of Things (IoT) - humans are connected to each other & outside world through the smartphone.Customers tend to use smartphones for varied purposes ranging from communication to entertainment. However, the concern of distraction exists due to poor visibility & accessibility of the phone’s screen in driving condition.One of the repercussion of being connected to smartphone particularly in driving condition includes higher number of road accidents due to distraction. This paper explains one of the key initiatives taken by Maruti Suzuki India Limited to address the same. This is done by offering an entry level connected infotainment system which comprises of the following three components:(a) An entry-level infotainment with basic display & vehicle connectivity, (b) A Dock mounted on infotainment panel enabling safe usage of smartphone due to its position i.e. accessibly and visibility in driving condition, (c) A Driving App specifically designed for driving usage where one can access calling, messaging, navigation on the go with a vibrant UI & easy to use gestures.The infotainment unit is connected to vehicle’s…
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Security Mechanism and Verification of Vehicle Network Based on Message Authentication

Nanjing University of Science and Technology-Benxiong Wang, Dawei Pi, Boyuan Xie, Hongliang Wang, Xianhui Wang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
In view of the relatively bare network environment of the current car controller area network (CAN) and the high-performance requirements of most existing security mechanisms for electronic control units (ECUs), based on a new and faster network transmission protocol, a lightweight car bus authentication method using Message Authentication Code (MAC) is proposed. In this case, the vehicle network is modularized in dependence on the different functional requirements of each part of the bus, calculation tasks are processed by the gateway of the corresponding network segment, the confidentiality and correctness of the vehicle network can be guaranteed by synchronizing the message authentication tables in all nodes, and the transmission rate gets obvious improvement under CAN FD (flexible data-rate) protocol as well. In this paper, the security and real-time performance of the vehicle network are verified by hardware experiments, and the impact of the encryption method on the performance in the network is verified by software simulation. The CAN FD bus is formally designed in the MATLAB environment with finite state machine. The state machine model can…
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Research on Electromagnetic Compatibility for Wireless Charging System of Electric Vehicles

CATARC-Li Jiang, Haiming Liu, Yifu Ding, Xu Zhang, Yue Zhang
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Currently, there are no specific standards on electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) test for wireless charging system of electric vehicles (EVs). However, the EMC test items have been summarized in some international standards. And the national standard is under developing. In order to support the formulation of corresponding national standards and regulations, promote the rapid development of EVs industry and support the implementation of the national strategy of new energy vehicles (NEVs) and intelligent network vehicle, we carry out the EMC test for wireless charging systems. In this paper, the wireless charging system of EVs is taken as the research object, which can also been called equipment under test (EUT). Firstly, an introduction of the research status was summarized. And then, the influence parameters such as output power and offset are analyzed. Based on the analysis, the EMC test was implemented to evaluate the EMC performance of EUT. Finally, the relevant research results will provide support for the formulation of national standard.
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J1939 Digital Annex

Truck Bus Control and Communications Network Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1939DA_201910
  • Historical
Published 2019-10-29 by SAE International in United States

This document is intended to supplement the J1939 documents by offering the J1939 information in a form that can be sorted and search for easier use.

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Handling of Data from Heterogeneity of Vehicular Devices through Inter-Networking

VIT Universtity-Gnanaprakasam Anuradha, Kalivaradhan Ramesh Babu
Vellore Institute of Technology-Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Collection of various data from sensed data or raw availability of data from transcript or interdependency of data from various sources is a tedious task in a real time scenario like an Indian context is considered. Planning to find a solution to collect the data from various vehicular devices about the information related to the pollution becomes a cumbersome job. The need of the data, under what time duration data has to be transmitted, how they are interconnected and whether data needs to be stored or how they are processed is a major question that arise when dealing with collecting data and internetworking with various vehicular devices. A study of two different types of approaches for internetworking between the devices is discussed. One related to real time setup of mobile application and other with the dynamic cluster approach when the nodes are moving in a region was considered. Eliminating the speed of the vehicle with the movement of human formation of cluster with the mobile application to identify the various devices in the vicinity was…
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