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Direct yaw moment control of electric vehicle with 4 in-wheel motors to improve handling and stability

China FAW Group Corporation-Jinlong Cui, Zehui Zhou, YANG FANG, deping wang, tianqiang zhang, aibin wu, Qichun Sun, Yang Zhao
Jilin University Automotive Engrg Colleg-Yongqiang Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0993
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
More and more OEMs are studying the in-wheel motor driven vehicle. One of the in-wheel motor driven vehicle key technologies is multi-motor torque distribution and control. This paper proposes a direct yaw moment control strategy to improve 4 in-wheel electric vehicle handling and stability. The control method consists of three components: feedback control based on target yaw rate, feedforward control based on current lateral acceleration and deceleration control based on under/oversteer situation. Feedback control is used to follow the driver’s target yaw rate and improve the vehicle yaw rate response and stability. The target yaw rate is calculated by two-freedom vehicle model and limited by lateral acceleration and vehicle current steering condition. So we don’t need the vehicle side slip angle or road adhesion coefficient information to prevent excessive target yaw rate, which are very different to obtain. The feedforward control is used to reduce the vehicle understeer characteristic when accelerating in a curve and increase the vehicle yaw rate. The deceleration control can reduce the driven torque of each motor to slow down the…
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Autonomous Lane Change Control Using Proportional-Integral-Derivative Controller And Bicycle Model

Kettering Univ-Ajinkya A. Joshi, Diane Peters, Jennifer Bastiaan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0215
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As advanced vehicle controls and autonomy become mainstream in the automotive industry, the need to employ traditional mathematical models and control strategies arises for the purpose of simulating autonomous vehicle handling maneuvers. This study focuses on lane change maneuvers for autonomous vehicles driving at low speeds. The lane change methodology uses a PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controller to command the steering wheel angle, based on the yaw motion and lateral displacement of the vehicle. The controller was developed and tested on a bicycle model of an electric vehicle (a Chevrolet Bolt 2017), with the implementation done in MATLAB/Simulink. This simple mathematical model was chosen in order to limit computational demands, while still being capable of simulating a smooth lane change maneuver under the direction of the car’s mission planning module at modest levels of lateral acceleration. The simulation indicated that the lane change control system performed well for low speeds and at moderate steering wheel angles. After the simulation phase, the model was converted to implementable vehicle code and integrated into a vehicle for on-road testing of…
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Study on Impact of SUV chassis stiffness on vehicle dynamics through CAE

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-VISWESWARA LENKA.
Mahindra Research Valley-Baskar Anthonysamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1004
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Now a day’s automotive industry is a highly competitive market where continuous innovation in design and production of vehicles is required to gain market share and survive in the market. This resulted in the reduction of the life cycle of the design process and design tools. Identifying, understanding and refining these details is significant to develop sustainable cars. Body and Chassis stiffness are important specifications of a passenger car which affects handling, steering and ride characteristics of the vehicle. It has been proved that torsional, lateral and local chassis stiffness can play a role in giving the customer a premium feeling by affecting key metrics in the vehicle dynamics behaviour of a passenger car. In this paper, the effect of chassis stiffness on vehicle dynamics performance is studied using CAE. Different attributes of vehicle dynamics like vehicle handling, On-Center feel and vehicle ride are considered as performance characteristics. The chassis stiffness is varied by varying the material characteristics and evaluated the different performance attributes. It has been found the chassis stiffness influenced differently on On-center…
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A Study on the Effect of Tire Temperature and Rolling Speed on the Vehicle Handling Response

Eindhoven University of Technology-Abhijeet Behera
Siemens Digital Industries Software-Carlo Lugaro, Mohsen Alirezaei PhD, Ioannis Konstantinou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1235
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rubber is a non-linear viscoelastic material which properties depend upon several factors. The temperature and excitation frequency are the most dominant factors in a tire which are significantly influenced by the vehicle operating conditions. In the past years, applied research has been carried out on the effect of rubber viscoelastic characteristics on structural and frictional tire properties. The present study focuses on how these effects interact with the vehicle handling performance. Based on state of the art theory of friction and structural properties of rubber along with experimental evidence, the dependency of key tire parameters on temperature and tire rolling speed is established. These results are then used in combination with a single-track vehicle model to determine their impact on key vehicle parameters; as an example, the understeer coefficient, yaw resonance peak / damping and maximum acceleration are studied. Furthermore, to produce accurate results in realistic situations, a novel tire thermodynamic model is used in combination with a detailed 14 degrees of freedom vehicle model in a numerical simulation environment. The simulation environment provides possibility…
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A Tire Work Load (TWL) Based Controller for Active Independent Front Steering System (AIFS)

Helwan University-Mohab Bahnasy, Mahmoud Atef Aly, Walid Oraby
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0648
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle Handling performance depends on many parameters. One of the most important parameters is the dynamic behavior of the steering system. However, steering system had been enhanced thoroughly over the past decade where Active Front Steering (AFS) is now present and other system as Active Independent Front Steering (AIFS) is currently in the research phase. Actually, (AFS) system adopt the front wheels’ angles base on the actual input steering angle from the driver according to vehicle handling dynamics performance. While, the AIFS controls the angle of each front wheel individually to avoid reaching the saturation limits of any of the front wheels’ adhesion. In this paper modeling and analysis of an AIFS is presented with Tire Work Load (TWL) based controller. Magic formula tire model is implemented to represent the tire in lateral slip condition. A specially derived 3-DOF vehicle handling model longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion with four wheels is capable for studying AIFS implementing proposed control strategy. AIFS system is proposed to implement two main control strategies, which are PI controller only for…
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Study of Handling Behavior of a Passenger Vehicle after Addition of CNG Tank

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Lakshmi Narasimha Varma Jelli, Raghav Budhiraja, Akash Goel, Deepak Bakshi, Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2405
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this paper is to study the change in handling behaviour of the dual-fuel vehicle fitted with a CNG tank to that of its single fuel (gasoline) counterpart. A validated CarSim model is run through steady state and transient state handling tests before and after the addition of CNG tank. The simulation results are used to compare the handling characteristics of the CNG vehicle with the reference vehicle. Further based on these results the suspension parameters are changed to find an optimum set-up for the actual CNG vehicle.
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Evaluating Effects of Roll Stiffness Change at Front and Rear Axles on Vehicle Maneuverability and Stability

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Eric Pranesh Reuben, Raghav Budhiraja, Sreeraj N, Rakesh K, Amardeep Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2406
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To cater the push towards “Vehicle Light Weighting”, both sprung and unsprung mass are being reduced. This results in reduced stiffness and thus has a profound undesirable effect on the overall vehicle handling. To understand the effect of different reduction ratios of sprung to unsprung mass; it is desired to understand how changes in stiffness affect the overall vehicle handling characteristics. Therefore, the study was conducted to experiment with different values of roll stiffness, at both front and rear axles and comparing the frequency response and phase change of Yaw Gain observed through a Pulse Input test. The present work is further correlated with subjective feedback to predict the shift in vehicle balance and handling characteristics.
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Axle Torque Distribution to Improve Vehicle Handling and Stability

First Automobile Works Group Corporation Research and Develo-Aibin Wu, Chao Li, Yongqiang Zhao, Jinlong Cui
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
The majority of the fully electric vehicles currently on the market have a basic drivetrain configuration, consisting of multiple electric motors, which promise considerable performance enhancements in terms of vehicle behavior and active safety. A significant advantage was achieving measurable benefits in terms of vehicle cornering response through controlling the individual drivetrains. This paper presents an axle torque distribution method to improve a 4WD vehicle steering performance. The method can automatically adjust the output drive torque of the front and rear motors of the vehicle to change the vehicle yaw rate before ESP intervention, and at the same time remain the driver torque demand unchanged. In this paper we present a feedback yaw rate controller. When the estimated yaw rate differs from the actual yaw rate with a pre-defined small threshold, a yaw rate control is active, the purpose of the controller is to reduce the vehicle understeer characteristic. The simulation and experimental test results shows that this proposed method can reduce the vehicle understeer characteristic and improve the vehicle handling and stability performance.
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WHAT WE'RE DRIVING

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_08
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

While I'm among the first media to have driven the mid-engine 2020 Stingray, my time in the car (during the North American Car, Truck and Utility of the Year judging) was but 45 minutes. A very invigorating 45 minutes.

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Modelling and Validation of a Control Algorithm for Yaw Stability & Body Slip Control Using PID & Fuzzy Logic Based Controllers

SITAMS-Chellappan Kavitha
VIT University-Umashankar Lath, Sanyam Kakkar, Aman Agarwal, Bragadeshwaran Ashok, Vemuluri Ramesh Babu, Sathiaseelan Denis Ashok
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) are becoming an essential part of the modern commercial automobile industry. Vehicle handling and stability are determined by the yaw rate and body slip of the vehicle. This paper is a comparative study of a nonlinear vehicle stability control algorithms for steering control based on two different controllers i.e. fuzzy logic based controller and PID controller. A full vehicle 14DOF model was made in Simulink to simulate an actual vehicle. The control algorithms are based on a two-track 7-DOF model with a non-linear tire model based on Pacejka “Magic tire formula”, which was used to establish the desired response of a full vehicle 14DOF model. It was found that the fuzzy logic-based control algorithm demonstrated an overall superior performance characteristic than a PID based control algorithm; this includes a significant decrease in time lag and overshoot. The proposed control algorithms were validated through the co-simulation of Carsim and Simulink in real time.
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