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Assessment of Automotive Environmental Noise on Mobile Phone Hands-Free Call Quality

FEV North America, Inc.-Jeffrey Pruetz, Channing Watson, Todd Tousignant, Kiran Govindswamy
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Environmental noises such as wind, road, powertrain, and HVAC noise are important aspects to consider when implementing a hands-free terminal for mobile phone calling from within a car. Traditionally, these environmental noises have been exclusively considered for driver comfort; however, with the introduction of the hands-free terminals (HFT) and increasing consumer demand relative to mobile phone call quality, a broader implication of high background noise levels should be considered. HFT algorithm development and implementation can and does provide a high level of background noise suppression to mitigate these concerns, but this is often done at the expense of computational power and cumulative delay during a phone call. The more advantageous solution would be to address the problem from a source and path perspective with emphasis on reduction of noise in the frequency bands which most influence call quality performance. The assessments shown throughout this paper establish a sensitivity of HFT call quality to background noise levels based on industry-standard metrics, including those defined by International Telecommunication Union (ITU) standards. These assessments were established based on…
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Determination of Vehicle Interior Noise due to Electric Motor

University of Michigan- Dearborn-John G. Cherng
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces an approach that uses a statistical energy analysis (SEA) method for prediction of noise in the vehicle cabin from an electric motor sound source placed in the engine compartment. The study integrates three different physics, namely, electromagnetics, harmonics, and acoustics. A 2004 Prius permanent magnet synchronous motor with an interior permanent magnet was used for performing the integrated CAE analysis, as the motor’s design details were readily available. The Maxwell forces on the stator teeth were first calculated by an electromagnetic software package. These forces were then mapped into a finite element model of the motor stator to predict the velocity profiles on the stator frame. Velocity profiles were considered as boundary conditions to calculate sound pressure levels and the equivalent radiated sound power level in the acoustic environment. The calculated sound power was used as an input sound source to perform SEA simulation to determine sound pressure level at the driver’s right ear in the passenger compartment. A sensitivity analysis of the motor design was performed on the sound power level…
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A Control Strategy to Reduce Torque Oscillation of the Electric Power Steering System

Concordia University Montreal-Subhash Rakheja
South China University of Technology-Duo Fu, Wen-Jun Yan
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a new evaluation method of analyzing stability and design of a controller for an electric power steering (EPS) system. The main purpose of the EPS system’s control design is to ensure a comfortable driving experience of drivers, which mainly depends on the assist torque map. However, the high level of assist gain and its nonlinearity may cause oscillation, divergence and instability to the steering systems. Therefore, an EPS system needs to have an extra stability controller to eliminate the side effect of assist gain on system stability and attenuate the unpleasant vibration. In this paper, an accurate theoretical model is built and the method for evaluating system quality are suggested. The bench tests and vehicle experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical analysis. The evaluation method proposed in this paper can not only guide the design of controller parameters, but also evaluate the control effect while the performance of several controllers are all excellent.
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Machining Titanium Aero-Frames

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_11
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

The rise of titanium for aerospace applications has been well documented in recent years. Equally, the challenges associated with the efficient, productive and high-quality machining of this popular material, have also been a topic of debate and scrutiny. Of course, every machine shop wants optimized performance from its cutters when milling titanium, but this can prove less than straightforward without the right technology and know-how in place. Today, however, thanks to a breakthrough in this area, things are beginning to change.

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Long time coming

Automotive Engineering: June 2019

Don Sherman
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP06_06
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

After six decades of teasing enthusiasts with intriguing concepts, Chevrolet is launching an all-new Corvette with its engine located where Zora intended-behind the driver.

In the Spring of 1957, while pondering the demise of Chevrolet's Corvette Super Sports racer at Sebring's 12-hour endurance race, legendary Corvette godfather Zora Arkus-Duntov concluded, “Heat source must be behind driver.” The official explanation offered for dropping out after 29 laps was a failed rear-suspension bushing-but the actual show-stopper was that driver John Fitch's feet were being cooked by the exhaust-header pipes snaking around the SS's sheet magnesium ‘firewall.’

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Open Access
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Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control with Receding Horizon of Traffic, Route Topology, and Traffic Light Information

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Alejandro Ferreira Parrilla, Stephen John Jones
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Anders Grauers
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0006
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Advanced and cooperative vehicle (semi-) autonomous driving systems will become a necessity in the future for sustainable, convenient, and safe mobility. By utilizing Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, a vehicle’s energy consumption can be reduced while maintaining safety and driving comfort. A holistic control strategy is presented, which in a novel way incorporates traffic lights, road speed limits, gradients, and curvature, as well as surrounding traffic and detailed powertrain characteristics into a single Model Predictive Control formulation. The performance of the system is evaluated using a realistic co-simulation toolchain representing the vehicle, driver, and road, including complex traffic conditions. The approach is valid for a wide range of scenarios, ranging from urban city driving to highways. Simulation results for a D-class passenger car with a diesel engine and an automatic transmission in an urban route show energy savings between 5% and 30% with an unchanged travel time, compared to a simulated human driver.
 
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Cooperative Ramp Merging System: Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation Using Game Engine

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Toyota Motor North America, USA-Kyungtae Han, BaekGyu Kim, Prashant Tiwari
University of California, Riverside, USA-Ziran Wang, Guoyuan Wu, Kanok Boriboonsomsin, Matthew J. Barth
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0008
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Agent-based modeling and simulation (ABMS) has been a popular approach for modeling autonomous and interacting agents in a multi-agent system. Specifically, ABMS can be applied to connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) since CAVs can operate autonomously with the help of onboard sensors, and cooperate with each other through vehicle-to-everything (V2X) communications. In order to improve energy efficiency and mobility of traffic, we have developed an online feedforward/feedback longitudinal controller for CAVs to cooperatively merge at ramps. Agent-based CAV models were built in the Unity3D environment, where vehicles are given connectivity and autonomy through C#-based scripting application programming interface (API). Agent-based infrastructure model is also built as a Unity3D simulation network based on the city of Mountain View, California. A simulation of cooperative on-ramp merging is carried out with a distributed consensus-based protocol, and then compared with the human-in-the-loop simulation where the on-ramp merging vehicle is driven by four different human drivers on a driving simulator. The benefits of introducing the proposed protocol are evaluated in terms of travel time, energy consumption, and pollutant emissions. The…
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Open Access
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Situational Awareness, Driver’s Trust in Automated Driving Systems and Secondary Task Performance

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

University of Michigan, USA-Luke Petersen, Lionel Robert, Xi Jessie Yang, Dawn Tilbury
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0009
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Driver assistance systems, also called automated driving systems, allow drivers to immerse themselves in non-driving-related tasks. Unfortunately, drivers may not trust the automated driving system, which prevents either handing over the driving task or fully focusing on the secondary task. We assert that enhancing situational awareness (SA) can increase a driver’s trust in automation. SA should increase a driver’s trust and lead to better secondary task performance. This study manipulated drivers’ SA by providing them with different types of information: the control condition provided no information to the driver, the low condition provided a status update, while the high condition provided a status update and a suggested course of action. Data collected included measures of trust, trusting behavior, and task performance through surveys, eye-tracking, and heart rate data. Results show that SA both promoted and moderated the impact of trust in the automated vehicle (AV), leading to better secondary task performance. This result was evident in measures of self-reported trust and trusting behavior.
 
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Evaluation of a Robust Haptic Interface for Semi-Autonomous Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

Clemson University, USA-Chengshi Wang, Yue Wang, John R. Wagner
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0007
Published 2019-05-15 by SAE International in United States
The advent of steer-by-wire technologies has changed the driving paradigm for drivers and vehicle autonomy. Such technologies integrate electric motors to actuate the tire-road plus human-machine interfaces. Steer-by-wire vehicles can benefit from haptic concepts through the provision of tunable force feedback, coupled with nonlinear control, to introduce lane keeping and pathway following technologies that minimize and possibly eliminate driver actions. In this article, two vehicle haptic interfaces, including a robotic grip and a joystick, both of which are accompanied by nonlinear sliding mode control, have been developed and studied on a steer-by-wire platform integrated with a virtual reality driving environment. An operator-in-the-loop evaluation that included 30 human test subjects investigated these haptic steering interfaces over a prescribed series of driving maneuvers through real-time data logging and post-test questionnaires. A conventional steering wheel with the robust sliding mode controller was used for all the driving events for comparison. Subjective and objective results from the tests demonstrate that the driver’s experience can be enhanced by up to 76.3% with a robotic grip steering input when compared to…
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New platform, chic sheetmetal for tech-centric 2020 Range Rover Evoque

Automotive Engineering: May 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_16
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

The new-generation Range Rover Evoque is loaded with luxury and lots of electronic safety systems to bring comfort, in every sense, to its driver. But why does it still need the outlandish offroad prowess Jaguar Land Rover demonstrated at its media launch when most examples are likely to spend their working lives in the city or cruising freeways?

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