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Improving robotic accuracy through iterative teaching

The University of Sheffield - AMRC-Daniela Sawyer, Lloyd Tinkler, Nathan Roberts, Ryan Diver
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0014
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Industrial robots have been around since the 1960s and their introduction into the manufacturing industry has helped in automating otherwise repetitive and unsafe tasks, while also increasing the performance and productivity for the companies that adopted the technology. As the majority of industrial robotic arms are deployed in repetitive tasks, the pose accuracy is much less of a key driver for the majority of consumers (e.g. the automotive industry) than speed, payload, energy efficiency and unit cost. Consequently, manufacturers of industrial robots often quote repeatability as an indication of performance whilst the pose accuracy remains comparatively poor. Due to their lack in accuracy, robotic arms have seen slower adoption in the aerospace industry where high accuracy is of utmost importance. However if their accuracy could be improved, robots offer significant advantages, being comparatively inexpensive and more flexible than bespoke automation. Extensive research has been conducted in the area of improving robotic accuracy through re-calibration of the kinematic model. This approach is often highly complex, and seeks to optimise performance over the whole working volume or…
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Experimental Study of Aerodynamic Drag Control on Bluff Body using Synthetic Jets

Utsunomiya University-Naoto Kato, Shunsuke Watanabe, Hiroaki Hasegawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0538
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Since flow separation causes increase of the drag on bluff bodies, its control method has been studied for many years. Active control methods are currently focused as an alternative to passive ones because they impose a larger drag penalty under certain conditions. Although the effectiveness of a steady jet using suction, blowing or pulsed jets has been demonstrated, it is difficult to obtain an effect commensurate with weight increase because the mechanism is complicated.One method of solving this problem is a synthetic jet. Synthetic jets are produced by periodic ejection and suction of fluid from an orifice induced by oscillation of a diaphragm inside a cavity. Small engine powered vehicles demand less drag, a compact package and light weight because the drivers expect fuel efficiency, load capacity and economy. Synthetic jets can supply them because they contribute drag reduction and require only simple components.In this study, the influence of synthetic jets on the drag of a simple bluff body representing a road vehicle is measured. Drag measurement was performed by varying synthetic jet parameters: jet…
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Aircraft Engine Technology Review - The Pathways for an Efficient, Cleaner and Quieter Aviation Industry

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0175
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The aviation industry has been submitted to a set of environmental and commercial drivers that have led it to pursue engine technologies focused on the efficiency improvement, greenhouse (CO2) and pollutant (NOx and PM) emissions reductions, as well as noise abatement.The effort to comply with the ambitious long term environmental and efficiency targets set by the regulatory authorities has driven the aeronautic industry in a technological research effort. In the medium term, the aviation industry's strategy for commercial aviation is to focus on the advanced, but rather conventional propulsion systems (mainly turbofan engines). In this scenario, technological efforts have focused basically on enhancing thermal efficiency, through advanced core engines, as well as improving propulsive efficiency, through the use of low pressure systems (basically reduced pressure ratio and increased engine bypass ratio). To reach these objectives, a set of technological platforms has been proposed, with some already on an operational/commercial level, while others still in a prototype category. In this context, engine manufacturers have given a special focus on some technological approaches, like Ultra High Bypass…
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Brake Pedal felling correlation with female shoe and feet position

(General Motors do Brasil)-Giorgia Buganza, Fernando Utyike, Fabio Raposo, Eduardo Godinho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0015
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The female market share has increase every year, for some segments we have a majority of female buyers. Working with this tendency we work to understand the impact and the dislikes that we may be facing in the near future due to the costumer habits, and also understand what can be done to improve this relationship.This paper will discuss the feeling correlation between the foot position, heel point, drivers knee and the feeling of the brake pedal.We need to consider the difference between different shoe sole design and the impact on the point of force apply and angles resulting a costumer perception of the brake feeling of the vehicle.Based on Market research, math model studies and simulation, experiments done at the vehicle and measurements considering different situations we will show that the felling can be affected using different shoes and the brake performance perception can be also affected.We conclude the paper with the comments on what should be consider guaranteeing the best driver experience feeling.
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More than a brake

Robert Bosch Ltda – Chassis Systems Control Unit-Emerson Batagini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0020
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The automotive world is battling every day to provide innovation and product development without compromising the environment. The electrification of the engines can be a factor that divides eras into the market. The conventional brake system links the act of apply the brake pedal with the stop or deceleration of the vehicle. This is now possible thanks to the long-term use of the vacuum generated by the combustion engine or by auxiliary equipment (vacuum pump). New brake system technologies provides, without a vacuum source, more efficient and safer braking than the current power brake system. Embedded in technological developments, these systems interacts with other vehicle components (cameras, radars, ABS, ESC) bringing the driver advanced safety conditions.
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Right Shifting for Fuel Economy

VW do Brasil / Centro Universitário FEI-Fernando Fusco Rovai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0095
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is one of the main drivers of the automotive industry. This subject is becoming more and more important showing a clear upraising relevance tendency. The automotive community is researching and developing many solutions and trending technologies to improve the internal combustion engine, realizing its existence is under risk due to strong greenhouse gas impact. Some innovative technologies focus on the internal combustion engines replacement by other energy conversion systems. Other new technologies improve internal combustion engines efficiency but, in most of the cases, impacts on its costs and consequently on its viability, especially considering the entry level passenger cars. In these applications, the cost impact is hardly acceptable by the customers and this market represents a considerable part of the global automotive industry. Any opportunity to improve the vehicle efficiency with minimum cost is welcome. This paper intends to assess the development and application of a gear shift indicator in an entry level passenger car. This technology represents a very low cost impact because the engine control unit should add just an improved…
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Commercial vehicle pedal feeling comfort ranges definition

Ford Motor Company-Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Silvia Faria Iombriller, Marco André Rodrigues da Silva, Lázaro Renato Oliveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0016
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The brake pedal is the brake system component that the driver fundamentally has contact and through its action wait the response of the whole system. Each OEM defines during vehicle conceptualization the behavior of brake pedal that characterizes the pedal feel that in general reflects not only the characteristic from that vehicle but also from the entire brand.Technically, the term known as Pedal Feel means the relation between the force applied on the pedal, the pedal travel and the deceleration achieved by the vehicle. Such relation curves are also analyzed in conjunction with objective analysis sheets where the vehicle brake behavior is analyzed in test track considering different deceleration conditions, force and pedal travel.On technical literature, it is possible to find some data and studies considering the hydraulic brakes behavior. However, for pneumatic brake systems, the pedal feel theoretical study is not usual, where is normally used for these developments, exclusively the subjective evaluation which become necessary to have more specialists to define the brake pedal behavior.Throughout this article will be revised the characteristics concepts…
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The influence of A-pillar obscuration/location on driver visibility

General Motors-Alex Cardoso Santos, Adalberto Gerez, Antônio Pádua, Piero Genaro, Rei Silva, Sonia Ferreira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0062
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
During the early phase of vehicle development, one of the key design attributes to consider is visibility for the driver. Visibility is the ability to see one’s surrounding environment while they are driving. Therefore, it is one of the key requirements to be considered during the vehicle design.Certain vehicle characteristics such as the size of windshield and the design of the pillars influence the perception of visibility for the driver. One specific characteristic influencing satisfaction is A-pillar obscuration and location, which is the subject of this paper.The objective of this project is to analyze the relationship between the A-pillar obscuration/location with the driver satisfaction under real world driving conditions, based on research, statistical data analysis and dynamic clinics. Other influences, such as the position of the occupant in the seat was also studied and captured in this paper.
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Comparison between the WLTC and the FTP-75 driving cycles applied to a 1.4 L light-duty vehicle running on ethanol

Federal University of Santa Maria-Maria F. P. Mazer, Leonardo S. Hatschbach, Igor R. dos Santos, Juliano P. Silveira, Roberto A. Garlet, Mario E. S. Martins, Macklini Dalla Nora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0144
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The forecast scenarios regarding the environmental pollution raises a question whether the current vehicle emission certification is reliable enough to assure fleet agreement with the legal limits. Type approval tests have been performed on chassis dynamometer in order to evaluate the emission factors and fuel consumption for passenger cars. Standardized procedures such as the FTP-75 proposed in the United States (currently incorporated in the Brazilian legislation) and the Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC), a transient driving cycle model designed by the European Union to overcome the shortcomings of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC), are discussed in this paper. Both cycles were performed in a chassis dynamometer with a flex-fuel passenger car running on ethanol blend (E92W08). The driver, vehicle and fuel were kept constant so the comparison between the cycles would not be compromised. The vehicle chosen was a 1.4 dm3 displaced volume FIAT sedan with maximum power of 60 kW at 5500 rpm and maximum torque of 122 Nm at 2250 rpm. The cycle dynamics and the engine operation points were…
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Vehicle Control History: Data from Driver Input and Pre-Collision System Activation Events on Toyota Vehicles

Toyota Motor North America-Lance Lewis
Toyota Motor North America, Inc.-Barry Hare, Harold Clyde, Robert Landis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5094
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Separate from the event data recorder (EDR), which records and stores data from qualifying vehicle crash events, the Vehicle Control History (VCH) on Toyota vehicles records and stores certain vehicle data based on select driver inputs, such as hard acceleration or braking, or upon the activation of certain vehicle dynamic control systems such as antilock braking system (ABS), traction control (TRAC), vehicle stability control (VSC), and the pre-collision system (PCS). In the United States, VCH was first equipped on the 2013 Toyota RAV4 and has been subsequently introduced into other Toyota and Lexus models. Most recently, in addition to VCH data, additional PCS operational data (PCS-O) and image data (PCS-I) may be recorded and stored. The image storage capability may record under certain conditions such as if the system has automatically applied the vehicle brakes. PCS-O and PCS-I data became available with the launch of Toyota Safety Sense (TSS), a grouping of advanced active safety features equipped on many Toyota vehicles generally available in 2017. Multiple dynamic tests with a 2017 Toyota Corolla were performed…
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