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Unsettled Issues in Determining Appropriate Modeling Fidelity for Automated Driving Systems Simulation

Silicon Valley Mobility-Sven Beiker
  • Research Report
  • EPR2019007
Published 2019-12-06 by SAE International in United States
This SAE EDGE™ Research Report identifies key unsettled issues of interest to the automotive industry regarding the challenges of achieving optimal model fidelity for developing, validating, and verifying vehicles capable of automated driving. Three main issues are outlined that merit immediate interest:First, assuring that simulation models represent their real-world counterparts, how to quantify simulation model fidelity, and how to assess system risk.Second, developing a universal simulation model interface and language for verifying, simulating, and calibrating automated driving sensors.Third, characterizing and determining the different requirements for sensor, vehicle, environment, and human driver models.SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are preliminary investigations of new technologies. The three technical issues identified in this report need to be discussed in greater depth with the aims of, first, clarifying the scope of the industry-wide alignment needed; second, prioritizing the issues requiring resolution; and, third, creating a plan to generate the necessary frameworks, practices, and protocols.NOTE: SAE EDGE™ Research Reports are intended to identify and illuminate key issues in emerging, but still unsettled, technologies of interest to the mobility industry. The goal of…
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Electronic Differential Control of Rear-Wheel Independent-Drive Electric Vehicle

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

China-Hang Yun
Jiangsu University, China-Ren He
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-01-0004
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
To track desired slip ratios and desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of driving wheels in the curve, this article proposes a hierarchical structured electronic differential control (EDC) of rear-wheel independent-drive electric vehicle (EV). In the high-level control, a fuzzy algorithm-based coefficient is computed according to the driver’s emotional intention of acceleration. The fuzzy algorithm-based coefficient is used to correct the desired driving torque of vehicle transmitting to the medium-level control. In the medium-level control, an optimization algorithm is developed to allocate the desired torques with requirement of as much accurate yaw moment as possible by the desired driving torque of the vehicle and yaw moment. And the desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of the rear left and right wheels are corrected twice, respectively, by Ackermann steering principle, considering the slip angle of the wheel and yaw moment. Based on the desired torques and desired longitudinal speeds at the centers of the rear left and right wheels from the medium-level control, desired slip ratios and desired angular speeds of the rear left and right…
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Location and Call Frequency Based Emergency Dial Enabler

Priyanka Marudhavanan, Sai Nadimpalli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2457
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Emergency calls made by in-vehicle systems in the event of a crash , serious incident or manually by a vehicle occupant assist in significantly reducing road deaths and injuries. But still there are more road accidents happen due to abnormality of driver and fatality rate tend to increase because of this. Drivers have a poor health issues, especially when they travel for long, they may get drowsiness and this leads to lack of concentration while driving and because of this concentration issue any serious issue can happen to the driver. This serious conditions can be totally unavoided. This invention provides the solution for contacting the people, who is known to victim very well. during emergency conditions. This may assist victim to get a immediate medical help.
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SMART HONKING

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Priyanka Marudhavanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2463
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Smart Honking Keywords-Safety, Connectivity, GPS M. Priyanka, Mahindra&Mahindra, India Sai Himaja Nadimpalli, Mahindra&Mahindra,India Keywords-Honking , Infotainment , GPS Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: In India unnecessary vehicular honking is the main reason for noise pollution. The problem is worst at traffic signals where drivers start honking without waiting for the signal to turn green or for traffic to move. Drivers show no respect to the law that prohibits the use of horn at traffic signals and other silent zones such as areas near hospitals, schools, religious places and residential areas. Vehicular honking in cities has reached at an alarming level and contributes approximately 70% of the noise pollution in our environment.The unwanted sound can affect human health and behavior, causing annoyance, depression, hypertension, stress, hearing loss, memory loss and panic attacks. Most of the drivers try to release their frustration and tension by blowing horns, possibly due to lack of awareness regarding the negative effects of noise but most likely it is because of the lack of civic sense.. Limitations: There is a provision of sign…
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In-Vehicle Directional Audio Streaming

Aptiv Components India Pvt Ltd.-Anitha Loganathan, Vijayalakshmi kr
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2448
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In-Vehicle Infotainment has evolved greatly over years from a simple tuner based radio with a small LED display to a complex system with highly intelligent interactive HMI which can mirror the smart phone. The full-fledged entertainment features like watching videos are restricted to only rear passengers. In drive mode, drivers are limited with access to only audio to avoid driver distraction. Rear passengers and drivers are classified into different audio zones. Each of the rear passengers are equipped with headsets so that audio merging with driver zone can be avoided. This leads to passenger discomfort, as many passengers would not prefer to hook up with headset all the time. Now the automotive world is envisioned to reach fully autonomous mode where there is no driver and every passenger is interested to listen to music/video of diverse interest. The audio zones in autonomous car need not be zonified or linear. Circular audio zone can also be a good choice for autonomous cars. There are situations in autonomous cars where passenger is asleep in vehicle and hence…
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Semi-autonomous parking assist system (SA-PAS)

Hella India Automotive Private Limited-Ankit Dilip Yawale
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2529
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the Semi-autonomous parking assist system (SA-PAS) developed using combination of high accuracy position sensing and electronic power steering. A real-time system that helps driver to identify the parking space and assist to perform maneuvers. Parking is often a difficult task, especially for inexperienced drivers. Starting with the problem of having to find a suitable parking spot, to then maneuvering in to it without colliding with anything or anyone, while trying avoiding disturbing the surrounding traffic. The numbers of vehicles are rapidly increasing as compared to the expansions of roads and parking spaces. Therefore, effective use of the existing spaces is needed (by making them narrower), which can cause inconvenience to many drivers. Semi-autonomous parking assist system searches for suitable space and steers the vehicle into it, while driver has to control the gear shifter, accelerator and brakes. If the driver presses the button to activate the park assist, a special sensor integrated into the side of the front bumper scans the side of the road as the vehicle drives past. The park…
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Analysis of Driving Performance Based on Driver Experience and Vehicle Familiarity: A UTDrive/Mobile-UTDrive App Study

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

University of Texas at Dallas, USA-Yongkang Liu, John Hansen
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-02-0010
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A number of studies have shown that driving an unfamiliar vehicle has the potential to introduce additional risk, especially for novice drivers. However, such studies have generally used statistical methods based on analyzing crash and near-crash data from a range of driver groups, and therefore the evaluation has the potential to be subjective and limited. For a more objective perspective, this study suggests that it would be worthwhile to consider vehicle dynamic signals obtained from the Controller Area Network (CAN-Bus) and smartphones. This study, therefore, is focused on the effect of driver experience and vehicle familiarity for issues in driver modeling and distraction. Here, a group of 20 drivers participated in our experiment, with 13 of them having participated again after a one-year time lapse in order for analysis of their change in driving performance. A clustering-based, outlier detection grading method was used to grade individual driver behavior, as well as discrepancy score, which is measured by the Euclidean distance in the vehicle dynamical feature space, to evaluate driving performance. Results show that the variation…
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A Comparative Study to Assess the Effect and Cause of Ride Quality and Comfort of Passenger Vehicle with Subjective Correlation

Advanced Structures India-Rahul Ramola, Anuj Jha
Vellore Institute of Technology-Aniruddha Deouskar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2410
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle Dynamics testing has its importance in the fields of benchmarking and the validation of mathematical models built in order to predict the ride performance of the vehicle. The importance of enhancing the ride comfort is increasing day by day in present day scenario because of the long hours of driving experience. In presented work, the ride testing is done for two hatchback vehicles on highway conditions in order to compare the ride quality and ride comfort. The parameters like Vibration Dose Value, SEAT factor and Ride Diagram values are used to evaluate the ride comfort. After successful evaluation of the vibration levels affecting the ride comfort of the driver as well as the passenger the next major task is to identify and study the cause of the discomfort. The cause of the discomfort is studied and analyzed in terms of the complex motion of the vehicle. Vehicle motions like choppiness produces higher levels of discomfort as compared to the vertical movement of the vehicle. In order to correlate the objective test results with driver…
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Study on effect of HVAC Air Flow Distribution on Windows Fogging

Hyundai Motor India Engineering-Santhosha Vigneshwaran, Eeshan Geel, G Sundrasekaran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2414
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Windshield & Windows fogging up in cars has long been a topic of interest & concern. Lot of research has already been put into Front/Rear windshield fogging up issue and, Defrosters, Heated Windshields have been designed to remove the fog effectively. However, Windows Fogging up is still one of the major concerns faced while driving, as it obscures the drivers' field of vision and raises safety concerns. Windows fogging up is a phenomenon in which Moisture is condensed on the glass of the window. It is classified into two categories - Inside Fogging and Outside Fogging. When Ambient temperature is lower than the cabin temperature, the moisture is condensed on the inside surface of the glass. In this case the moisture is added inside the cabin by the occupants when they exhale air. Similarly when the Cabin temperature is lower than the ambient temperature, the moisture from atmosphere is condensed on the outer surface of the glass. A Survey with 500 Indian Customers has been conducted to understand the occurrence of Windows fog up issue…
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Electrification System Modeling with Machine/Deep Learning for Virtual Drive Quality Prediction

General Motors Technical Center India-Brijesh Borkar, John Bosco Maria Francis, Pankaj Arora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2418
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A virtual 'model' is generally a mathematical surrogate of a physical system and when well correlated, serves as a basis for understanding the physical system in part or in entirety. Drive Quality (DQ) defines a driver's 'experience' of a blend of controlled responses to an applied input. The 'experience' encompasses physical, biological and bio- chemical perception of vehicular motion by the human body. In the automotive domain, many physical modeling tools are used to model the sub-components and its integration at the system level. Physical Modeling requires high domain expertise and is not only time consuming but is also very 'compute-resource' intensive. In the path to achieving 'vDQP (Virtual Drive Quality Prediction)' goal, one of the requirements is to establish 'well-correlated' virtual environments of high fidelity with respect to standard test maneuvers. This helps in advancing many developmental activities from a Analysis, Controls and Calibration standpoint. Recently, machine/deep learning have proven to be very effective in pattern recognition, classification tasks and human-level control to model highly nonlinear real world systems. This paper investigates the effectiveness…
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