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Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-in/Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2954_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-23 by SAE International in United States
The Recommended Practice SAE J2954 establishes an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless charging of light-duty electric and plug-in electric vehicles. The specification defines various charging levels that are based on the levels defined for SAE J1772 conductive AC charge levels 1, 2, and 3, with some variations. A standard for wireless power transfer (WPT) based on these charge levels enables selection of a charging rate based on vehicle requirements, thus allowing for better vehicle packaging and ease of customer use. The specification supports home (private) charging and public wireless charging. In the near term, vehicles that are able to be charged wirelessly under Recommended Practice SAE J2954 should also be able to be charged by SAE J1772 plug-in chargers. This Recommended Practice is planned to be standardized after the 2018 timeframe after receiving vehicle data. The contents, including frequency, parameters, specifications, procedures, and other contents of this Recommended Practice, are to be re-evaluated at that time to allow for additional developments and…
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Highly Decorative, Lightweight Flexible Solar Cells for Automotive Applications

Ritsumeikan University-Mikiya Inoue, Jakapan Chantana, Takashi Minemoto
Toyota Motor Corporation-Taizo Masuda, Yuki Kudo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The strict CO2 emission limit for passenger cars have been set by US, EU, Japan, China and other countries. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar panels is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar panels. The requirements for the solar panels are paintable with desired color and to be lightweight. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful and lightweight Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for future automotive application. Our measurements show that the developed lift-off process can provide the lightweight solar panel that have nearly identical performance compared to that of the cell before the lift-off process. The colors were generated on the cells by coating the highly transparent automotive paint. We demonstrate a bright, uniform, and solid appearance on the solar cells with small output power reduction…
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Comparative Analysis of Power Pad for Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles

Aligarh Muslim University-Aqueel Ahmad, M. Saad Alam
Florida International University-Ahmed Mohamed
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wireless charging of Electric Vehicle adhere the mutual induction to transmit power to the battery and eliminates need of wire and physical connection. Power pad design, frequency of power transfer, distance between transfer coils and alignment of transfer coils are critical challenges of EV wireless charging. Power pad design entails optimization of coil shape and size, core shape, and material of coil and core along with economic analysis. The manuscript compares the already available coil shapes, with the introduction of ferrite core across the coils to design an extremely efficient power pad for the wireless charging of EV. A 3D finite element method (FEA) is being used for analysis, due to the unconventional distribution of the flux. Only three types of coils, D, DD, and DDQ, are taken to analyze the effect of magnetic ferrite core. The comparison is made based on simulation results, magnetic flux pattern as well as data imported from the results. Ansys 3D Maxwell simulation software is used to simulate the magnetic pattern of the power pad coils. Finally, the results…
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Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Graz University of Technology-Bernhard Walzel, Mario Hirz, Helmut Brunner
representing BMW Group-Nico Kreutzer
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both, the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Especially by the use of heavy and unhandy cables for fast charging, these systems offer user friendly vehicle charging - in particularly in combination with autonomously driving and parking vehicles. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations with standard charging connectors and vehicle inlets and the development of a fully-automated charging robot for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, MAGNA Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded research project titled “Comfortable Mobility by Technology Integration (KoMoT)”. The charging system basic design and experiments on sensor technologies were carried out as part of contract research commissioned by the Austrian Society of Automotive Engineers (ÖVK).In the present approach, the entire docking and undocking process of the…
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Feasibility Analysis of Taxi Fleet Electrification using 4.9 Million Miles of Real-World Driving Data

National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Matthew Moniot, Clement Rames, Erin Burrell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Ride hailing activity is rapidly increasing, largely due to the growth of transportation network companies such as Uber and Lyft. However, traditional taxi companies continue to represent an important mobility option for travelers. Columbus Yellow Cab, a taxi company in Columbus, Ohio, offers traditional line-of-sight hailing as well as digital hailing through a mobile app. Data from Columbus Yellow Cab was provided to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to analyze the potential for taxi electrification. Columbus Yellow Cab data contained information describing both global positioning system trajectories and taxi meter information. The data spanned a period of 13 months, containing approximately 70 million global system positioning system points, 840 thousand trips, and 170 unique vehicles. A variety of scenarios were evaluated using Columbus Yellow Cab data and the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection Tool (EVI-Pro) to understand challenges and opportunities associated with operating an electrified taxi fleet. Two main factors-access to home charging and vehicle specifications-are shown to be major variables affecting successful electric fleet operation. The analysis indicates that 95.7% of taxi travel days can…
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An Approach for Mutual Inductance Identification of Wireless Power Transfer System in Electric Vehicle Charging Applications

Tongji University-Xiong Meng, Xuezhe Wei, Haifeng Dai
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As a key parameter of fundamental electrical, mutual inductance always used to characterize the overall performance of wireless power transfer (WPT) system in electric vehicle charging applications. However, in real case, factors such as parking misalignments, load variations and intrusion of foreign objects would result in a variation of mutual inductance between both coils, which may adversely impact on transmitted power and transmission efficiency. Therefore, in this paper, we propose to identify mutual inductance parameter with the least square method (LSM) based on the equivalent circuit model. In section II, COMSOL is adopted to simulate mutual inductance variation with the change of lateral offset. In section III, the differential equation is derived from the state space equation of the WPT system. Through identifying the process parameters, the mutual inductance of coils can be obtained by the functional relationship between them. In section IV, by means with simulation used MATLAB/Simulink, we verified the feasibility of mutual inductance identification with LSM. Compared with the numerical value of COMSOL simulation, the MATLAB result shows that the identification accuracy…
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Smart DPF Regenerations - A Case Study of a Connected Powertrain Function

Ford Motor Company-Michael Hopka, Devesh Upadhyay, Michiel Van Nieuwstadt
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The availability of connectivity and autonomy enabled resources, within the automotive sector, has primarily been considered for driver assist technologies and for extending the levels of vehicle autonomy. It is not a stretch to imagine that the additional information, available from connectivity and autonomy, may also be useful in further improving powertrain functions. Critical powertrain subsystems that must operate with limited or uncertain knowledge of their environment stand to benefit from such new information sources. Unfortunately, the adoption of this new information resource has been slow within the powertrain community and has typically been limited to the obvious problem choices such as battery charge management for electric vehicles and efforts related to fuel economy benefits from adaptive/coordinated cruise control. In this paper we discuss the application of connectivity resources in the management of an aftertreatment sub-system, the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF). Standard DPF regenerations are scheduled on an inferred soot load based on indirect indicators of system state, such as exhaust gas flow rate and pressure drop across the DPF and/or empirical models of engine…
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Validation of Wireless Power Transfer up to 11kW Based on SAE J2954 with Bench and Vehicle Testing

Argonne National Laboratory-Theodore Bohn
Boston Scientific Corporation-Ron Reitan
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) promises automated and highly efficient charging of electric and plug-in-hybrid vehicles. As commercial development proceeds forward, the technical challenges of efficiency, interoperability, interference and safety are a primary focus for this industry.The SAE Vehicle Wireless Power and Alignment Taskforce published the Recommended Practice J2954 to help harmonize the first phase of high-power WPT technology development. SAE J2954 uses a performance-based approach to standardizing WPT by specifying ground and vehicle assembly coils to be used in a test stand (per Z-class) to validate performance, interoperability and safety. The main goal of this SAE J2954 bench testing campaign was to prove interoperability between WPT systems utilizing different coil magnetic topologies. This type of testing had not been done before on such a scale with real automaker and supplier systems. Several automakers, suppliers and government employees worked together to create a test plan, perform the testing and analyze the results.To evaluate the interoperability, performance, and electromagnetic emissions of this technology, a bench test program was created, supported by the SAE J2954 WPT and Alignment…
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EDITORIAL: Bigger barrier to CBEVs: Batteries or infrastructure?

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: April 2019

Editor-in-Chief-Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP04_06
Published 2019-04-01 by SAE International in United States

Batteries have long been considered the main barrier to deployment of commercial battery-electric vehicles (CBEVs), but many industry insiders now say charging infrastructure is a bigger impediment as battery costs continue to decline.

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Electric Vehicle Fast Chargers Present Some Overlooked Circuit Protection Challenges

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34153
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The first mass-produced electric vehicles (EVs) hit the road late in 2010 with the introduction of the Nissan Leaf, which remains the world’s top-selling, highway-capable, all-electric car. In the United States, sales of EVs are gaining momentum, with 2017 sales up by 25% over 20161. EVs, however, are still outnumbered by roughly 300 to 1 by vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. EVs are unlikely to become fully mainstream until there is a nationwide network of charging stations that can charge a vehicle quickly enough to get travelers back on the road in a matter of minutes rather than hours.