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General Motors India, Ltd.-Anup Ganesh
General Motors Technical Center India-Rudrappa Madagunki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2477
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ABSTRACT – Objective: Objective of the paper is to study and explore the electric vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure enhancing options. The automotive industry today is at the junction of many disruptive technologies. Electric vehicle technology is one of the leading disruptive technologies. While automotive companies are embracing the electric vehicle technology by investing significantly in the field of research, technology and training, the question that is still largely un-answered is what will be the structure of the charging infrastructure. One reason for this ambiguity is that majority of investors believe that the responsibility for development of charging infrastructure is owned by government or government bodies. Methodology: In this paper we will discuss about other alternates to charging infrastructure developed by government or government bodies. Also, ways in which the charging infrastructure creation can be made independent of the Government spending or less Government intervention. Ways in which the automotive companies can come together and collaborate and co-operate to provide avenues for the charging of the electric vehicles. Ways in which a fluid infrastructure can be…

EV Charging Concept for the Indian Market

Robert Bosch Engg & Buss Soln Ltd.-Tarang Garg, Viswanatha Lingala, Prabhakar G
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2502
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Predominantly the biggest question that haunts the EV Market is the charging infrastructure that should eventually ease the nervousness of the consumers and allowing EV to penetrate the Indian market with changes done within urban areas and highways. There are multitude of options available ranging from onboard charging via home charging point to a Fast DC off board charger that can be used to charge an EV. There are multiple factors that can be used to evaluate the options and their pros / cons. Some of these factors are: • Cost, time to charge, health of battery, charging and discharge rate of the battery, etc… • Convenience and availability of charging point • Ease of operation including payment • Safety and Security • Ambient temperature in which charging is done There are mainly these categories of charging options: • Residential charging based on a home charging point. The charger is mounted on the vehicle (onboard) and the EV cable can be connected to the home plug point. This method of charging could result in heating…

An analysis of the Fuel Cell Pack with different Drive cycles

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-C Venkatesh Chandrasekar, L R Amruth Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2510
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
An analysis of the Fuel Cell Pack with different Drive cycles Abstract: In the view of the Environmental friendly future, every automotive manufacturer is making a move towards electric mobility. Zero emission can be achieved with the help of electric vehicles. However, there are some limitations too. Battery electric vehicle (BEV) gives a limited range in the vehicles and even their market penetration is difficult because of their energy storage capability. A fuel cell unit can be added to the system, which increases the range and the energy capacity of the system. Hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) system is faster to refill compared to plugin charging in the Battery electric vehicle (BEV). This study deals with the behavioural analysis of the Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel cell based on the different drive cycles. Fuel cell model has been developed and simulated in the SIMULINK environment. Simulation results were obtained for the different drive cycles. Fuel cell controls were even observed for the city start/stop cycle. The results obtained from the simulation for the different…

IOT based Battery Diagnostics for Battery swapping station.

College of Engineering Pune-Rushikesh Subhashchandra Kshirsagar, Dipali Dange
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2441
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
An electric vehicle is significantly promoted by government and industry to reduce carbon footprint and effective energy management. IC engines get replaced by the battery and diagnosis parameters of engine also need to replace with battery parameters. Main objective is to provide analysis of battery to battery swapping stations. State of charge and state of health plays important role in battery management system and vehicle performance. State of health estimation has many techniques, but large equipment needs for it and become costlier and bulkier. Batteries internal resistance increases as it gets degraded, proposed technique based on adaptive method which didn’t need any extra hardware, this technique identifies the health based on degraded capacity. Cloud platform is used to store the data and process it and display to users and swapping station. Status updating unit located on battery is connected to cloud and it gives complete analysis of battery to vehicle users. Analysis of battery parameter can be observed at battery swapping station with corresponding ID on a cloud server. This system proposed complete analysis of…

Electric Commercial Vehicles And Charging Solutions

Electromobility-Murlidhar Shrivallabha Phatak
Siemens-Manfred Schmidt, Amit Kekare
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2476
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective : Objective of the paper is to acquaint the audience with the concept of electric vehicles, Powertrain components used in an electric bus, Siemens contribution to the field of Electromobility, Typical configurations used in an electric bus, challenges and current limitations, emerging Technologies, future, how to address the future charging infra requirement. Methodology : The subject shall be discussed with the audience through a presentation coupled with Explanation by the presenter. The topic shall be opened with the concept of electromobility followed By history of electromobility at Siemens, contribution to the field of electro mobility, typical configurations of electric vehicles, Advantages of electric vehicles vis a vis conventional diesel buses, typical configurations of an electric bus, feasibility of electric buses for various transport services. Comparison of induction motor Vs. PEM motor (permanent magnet motor) technology, Digitalization And Siemens contribution in the field of digitalization, Future of electric mobility, use of alternate Fuels, charging infrastructure and solutions, technical details. Different charging infrastructure solutions and their pro and cons will be discussed in an open manner.…

An Analysis of Solar charging stations for Indian conditions

Manav Rachna International Institute of-Devendra Vashist
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2484
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric mobility is the future of tomorrows transport both in the public and private sector. One of the major challenges / issues faced by the electric vehicles is increased time duration of charging. Research classifies Electric Vehicle Charging into level 1, 2, 3 & DC fast charging. Slowest mode being level 1 which needs 120V / 15A, while Level 3 and fast DC charging are faster modes where in less time duration are required for battery charging. In this research a model of solar charging station was analysed for the Indian condition. Analysis indicate that Level 3 and fast DC charging are preferred where in commercial vehicles whereas Level one and 2 are suitable for vehicles that are used for limited periods. An analysis of solar energy as a source of power to charging stations is also made.

Communication for Smart Charging of Plug-in Electric Vehicles Using Smart Energy Profile 2.0

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2847/1_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-20 by SAE International in United States

This document describes the details of the Smart Energy Profile 2.0 (SEP2.0) communication used to implement the functionality described in the SAE J2836-1 use cases. Each use case subsection includes a description of the function provided, client device requirements, and sequence diagrams with description of the steps. Implementers are encouraged to consult the SEP2.0 schema and application specification for further details. Where relevant, this document notes, but does formally specify, interactions between the vehicle and vehicle operator.


Use Cases for Communication Between Plug-in Vehicles and the Utility Grid

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2836/1_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-15 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Information Report establishes Use Cases for communication between plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) and the electric power grid, for energy transfer and other applications.


Wireless Power Transfer for Light-Duty Plug-in/Electric Vehicles and Alignment Methodology

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2954_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-23 by SAE International in United States
The Recommended Practice SAE J2954 establishes an industry-wide specification that defines acceptable criteria for interoperability, electromagnetic compatibility, EMF, minimum performance, safety, and testing for wireless charging of light-duty electric and plug-in electric vehicles. The specification defines various charging levels that are based on the levels defined for SAE J1772 conductive AC charge levels 1, 2, and 3, with some variations. A standard for wireless power transfer (WPT) based on these charge levels enables selection of a charging rate based on vehicle requirements, thus allowing for better vehicle packaging and ease of customer use. The specification supports home (private) charging and public wireless charging. In the near term, vehicles that are able to be charged wirelessly under Recommended Practice SAE J2954 should also be able to be charged by SAE J1772 plug-in chargers. This Recommended Practice is planned to be standardized after the 2018 timeframe after receiving vehicle data. The contents, including frequency, parameters, specifications, procedures, and other contents of this Recommended Practice, are to be re-evaluated at that time to allow for additional developments and…
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Highly Decorative, Lightweight Flexible Solar Cells for Automotive Applications

Ritsumeikan University-Mikiya Inoue, Jakapan Chantana, Takashi Minemoto
Toyota Motor Corporation-Taizo Masuda, Yuki Kudo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The strict CO2 emission limit for passenger cars have been set by US, EU, Japan, China and other countries. In order to meet the requirement, it is essential to develop an alternative power source for the future cars. Power generation by solar panels is a promising renewable energy candidate because the most environmentally friendly vehicles such as electric vehicles and plug-in hybrid vehicles are equipped with large-capacity batteries that can be charged with electricity generated by solar panels. The requirements for the solar panels are paintable with desired color and to be lightweight. In this study, we developed a simple lift-off process for producing colorful and lightweight Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells for future automotive application. Our measurements show that the developed lift-off process can provide the lightweight solar panel that have nearly identical performance compared to that of the cell before the lift-off process. The colors were generated on the cells by coating the highly transparent automotive paint. We demonstrate a bright, uniform, and solid appearance on the solar cells with small output power reduction…
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