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Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Graz University of Technology-Bernhard Walzel, Mario Hirz, Helmut Brunner
representing BMW Group-Nico Kreutzer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0869
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Particularly in connection with autonomously driving and parking vehicles, new fields of application and opportunities are emerging. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations and highlights the development and conception of a robot-based prototype for automated charging of electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, Magna Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering of Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded the research project titled “KoMoT”. In the presented approach, the entire docking and undocking process of the charging cable is performed completely autonomously by a robotic arm. An essential aim of the research activities was to design the sensor technology and the robot system control in such a way, that even when using different vehicle types and vehicle positions no adaptations…
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Alternate Solution for EV Charge Point Infrastructure in Crowded Urban Areas along the Shore

General Motors-Tushar Khanzode
General Motors Technical Center India-Varun Chakrapani, Shivayogi Tippannanavar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Many countries including India have aggressively aimed to implement electric vehicles (EVs) usage from 2030 onwards. Companies such as General Motors, Uber, Waymo and Nissan etc. are exploring the realm of autonomous vehicles (AV) for use as taxis as early as 2019. Above facts logically arrive at the solution of Autonomous EVs as taxis. With the commitment towards enabling an all-electric future, there exists a need to provide suitable infrastructure for recharging. Major urban cities located by the shoreline such as New York, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Los Angeles etc. have been facing the space crunch, with real estate prices sky-rocketing exponentially. With this premise, the operating company would need a large amount of space to store their EVs for charging which attributes to a longer downtime. This brings a need for an economical charging location that has a reduced usage of urban infrastructure and energy consumption. This study explores the possibility of an alternate charging location for electric AV ride sharing fleet charging with “e-Barge”, a barge dedicated to charge EV vehicles onboard with self-generated…
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ISO 26262 Hazard and Risk Assessment for Hybrid Powertrain

Tata Motors Limited-Rajiv Kumar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
ISO 26262 is an Automotive functional safety standard for Electrical and Electronic system. This paper details application of this standard for hybrid powertrain. The concept of functional safety has been analyzed. First item definition for hybrid powertrain is detailed out. Item definition includes system description, its function, boundary, interfaces to external systems. Hybrid powertrain is used to provide electric traction to the vehicle and to charge the included battery. Battery provides power to electric motor. Major components of hybrid powertrain are Generator, Traction motor, High voltage battery, Inverters and other auxiliary units. The overall powertrain scheme is being discussed from functional safety perspective. Then methods for identifying hazardous situations that could result from malfunctioning behavior at the vehicle level is presented. Each function is analyzed from hazard perspective and all hazards are identified. Identified Hazards are analyzed for different vehicle operating conditions and ASIL rating is identified for each hazard.
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Battery Provides Electric Vehicles with Immunity from Climate Conditions

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33414
Published 2018-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Conventional lithium-ion batteries cannot be rapidly charged at temperatures below 50 °F. Electric vehicles are popular on the West Coast because the weather is conducive to quick charging. Once the vehicles are moved to the East Coast or Canada, there is a tremendous issue with charging.

Instructions for Using Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communications, Interoperability and Security Documents

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2836_201807
  • Current
Published 2018-07-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report J2836 establishes the instructions for the documents required for the variety of potential functions for PEV communications, energy transfer options, interoperability and security. This includes the history, current status and future plans for migrating through these documents created in the Hybrid Communication and Interoperability Task Force, based on functional objective (e.g., (1) if I want to do V2G with an off-board inverter, what documents and items within them do I need, (2) What do we intend for V3 of SAE J2953, …).
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Grid Friendly™ Charger Controller

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28871
Published 2018-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Electric vehicles are growing in popularity, and while they represent a cleaner alternative to fossil-fueled vehicles, their increased use may stress the grid if this growing load is left unmanaged. A need exists for a method of charging these vehicles that reduces costs for the consumer, while assuring a stable electric grid.

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-28874
Published 2018-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

This year, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) marks 75 years as a research institution. Located in Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL is the largest US Department of Energy science and energy laboratory, conducting basic and applied research to deliver transformative solutions to compelling problems in energy and security.

Electric Vehicle Power Transfer System Using a Three-Phase Capable Coupler

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3068_201804
  • Current
Published 2018-04-25 by SAE International in United States
This document covers the general physical, electrical, functional, testing, and performance requirements for conductive power transfer to an Electric Vehicle using a Coupler capable of, but not limited to, transferring three-phase AC power. It defines a conductive power transfer method including the digital communication system. It also covers the functional and dimensional requirements for the Electric Vehicle Inlet, Supply Equipment Connector, and mating housings and contacts. Moveable charging equipment such as a service truck with charging facilities are within scope. Charging while moving (or in-route-charging) is not in scope.
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Investigation of a Six-Phase Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Integrated Charging and Propulsion in EVs

Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology-Kaushik Mukherjee
University of Windsor-Lakshmi Varaha Iyer, Chunyan Lai, Himavarsha Dhulipati, Shruthi Mukundan, Narayan Kar
  • Journal Article
  • 08-07-02-0006
Published 2018-04-17 by SAE International in United States
Merits such as reduced weight, overall and operational costs of the electric vehicle (EV) while providing level 3 charging capability, are propelling research on integrated charging (IC) technology for EVs. Since the same interior permanent magnet synchronous machine (IPMSM) is used during IC and traction conditions, it is important to understand the behavior of the machine during these conditions and optimally design the machine. Hence, firstly, this paper presents a case study on performance of a laboratory 3-phase IPMSM under IC and traction conditions. Thereafter, understanding the challenges such as low magnet operating point, losses and torque oscillation in 3-phase IPMSM during IC, a 6-phase IPMSM with an unconventional configuration is investigated to yield traction characteristics like that of the 3-phase IPMSM and mitigate challenges during IC. In the process, mathematical model of the 6-phase IPMSM is developed employing the dq-axis theory. The developed model is then employed to exclusively derive the relation between various per-unitized machine parameters to obtain optimal performance under IC and traction conditions. Thereafter, a novel bottom-up machine design methodology based…
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Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

Argonne National Laboratory-Zhi Zhou
Idaho National Laboratory-Yutaka Motoaki, John Smart
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Today’s electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service…
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