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Development of a Method to Measure Soft Particles from Diesel Type Fuels

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Botond Csontos, Shriharsha Swarga, Hanna Bernemyr
Scania CV AB-Mayte Pach, Henrik Hittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0344
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Renewable fuels have an important role to create sustainable energy systems. In this paper the focus is on biodiesel, which is produced from vegetable oils or animal fats. Today biodiesel is mostly used as a drop-in fuel, mixed into conventional diesel fuels to reduce their environmental impact. Low quality drop-in fuel can lead to deposits throughout the fuel systems of heavy duty vehicles. In a previous study fuel filters from the field were collected and analyzed with the objective to determine the main components responsible for fuel filter plugging. The identified compounds were constituents of soft particles. In the current study, the focus was on metal carboxylates since these have been found to be one of the components of the soft particles and associated with other engine malfunctions as well. Hence the measurement of metal carboxylates in the fuel is important for future studies regarding the fuel’s effect on engines. The first aim of this study was to create synthetic soft particles from biodiesel. Accelerated aging of fuels with different contaminations such as engine oil…
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Comparison and Evaluation of Engine Wear, Performance, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Diesel, Karanja and Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Biodiesel in a Military720kW, heavy duty CIDI Engine Applying EGR with Turbo Charging.

CVRDE-Suresh S
College of Engineering-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0618
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum crude oil reserves,stringent pollution legislations and global warming, has given us the opportunity to work on bio fuels. Biodiesel can be produced from edible and non-edible vegetable oils,waste bio mass and animal fats.Biodiesel is renewable,bio gradable,sulphur free, non-toxic, oxygenated and green alternative fuel. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non- edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatrophaoil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by transesterification process, using methanol. JOME and KOME have comparable performance with low gaseous emission characteristics, except higher NOx emission, in comparison to mineral diesel fuel. Recent emission legislations also restrict nano particle emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health.In the present study, performance, combustion and emissions of CO, CO2, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission characteristics, along with engine wear were compared for KOME, JOME and diesel fuels by applying 20% EGR with turbo charging, in a 12 cylinders, 720 kW, 38.8 liters heavy duty CIDI military diesel engine.Both KOME and JOME biodiesel fuel exhibit the ASTM standard properties within acceptable limits.…
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Engine-Out Emissions Characteristics of a Light Duty Vehicle Operating on a Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Renewable Diesel

University of California-Cavan McCaffery, George Karavalakis, Tom Durbin, Heejung Jung, Kent Johnson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0337
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
We assessed the engine-out emissions of an ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and a neat hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) from a light-duty diesel truck equipped with common rail direct injection. The vehicle was tested at least twice on each fuel using the LA-92 drive cycle and at steady-state conditions at 30 mph and 50 mph at different loads. Results showed reductions in the engine-out total hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and particulate emissions with HVO. The reductions in soot mass, solid particle number, and particulate matter (PM) mass emissions with HVO were due to the absence of aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon compounds, as well as sulfur species, which are known precursors of soot formation. Volumetric fuel economy, calculated based on the carbon balance method, did not show statistically significant differences between the fuels. Steady-state testing at 30 mph and 50 mph revealed reductions in engine-out THC emissions with HVO, but mixed results for CO emissions. Steady-state testing with HVO showed higher NOx and soot mass emissions for the higher load points compared to…
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Performance and Noise of Dual Fuel Engine Running on Cottonseed, Soybean Raw Oils and Their Methyl Esters as Pilot Fuels

Helwan University-Hosam E. Saleh
United Arab Emirates University-Mohamed Y. E. Selim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0811
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The cottonseed oil, soybean oil and their methyl esters have been used as a pilot fuels for dual fuel engine running on the LPG as the main fuel. A variable compression research diesel engine has been converted to run on dual fuel of LPG and a pilot fuel derived from the renewable liquid fuels above. The engine has been instrumented to measure the combustion pressure, crank angles, exhaust temperature, flow rates of air, pilot fuel and gaseous fuel. The effects of changing the following parameters have been studied: the mass of pilot fuel, the mass of gaseous fuel, the pilot fuel injection timing, engine speed and the pilot fuel type. Five different pilot fuels has been tested here namely the cottonseed raw oil, the cottonseed methyl ester, the soybean raw oil, the soybean methyl ester and the diesel fuel as a reference fuel. The results presented included the combustion noise (as maximum pressure rise rate), the heat release rate, the maximum combustion pressure, the exhaust temperature, the brake and indicated mean effective pressures. It has…
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Performance and Emission Parameters of an LHR Engine Run on Jatropha Biodiesel and its Diesel blend.

CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhubane-Debidutta Debasish
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of-Sanju Sureshan Nair, Krishna Kumar Pandey, S. Murugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0621
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Biodiesel is a renewable fuel which can be obtained from transesterification of vegetable oils, animal fat, and algae. Edible and non-edible oils can be used as feedstock for biodiesel production. It is considered to be a potential renewable fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It can be used as a sole fuel or in a blended form with diesel. In India, research work is focused on the utilization of non-edible oils for biodiesel production. Particularly rigorous research works have been carried out on the use of biodiesel obtained from Jatropha Curcas, Madhuca Indica, Pongamia Pinnata, Karanja etc. The thermal efficiency of CI engines run on Jatropha biodiesel or its blends is less than 40%. Heat loss through cooling water, exhaust, and unaccounted losses are the reasons for lower thermal efficiency. Reduction of heat loss from CI engines shall increase the thermal efficiency of the engine. In this aspect, low heat rejection (LHR) engines offer increased thermal efficiency and reduced particulate emissions. In this experimental research work, an attempt was made to use Jatropha biodiesel (JME)…
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An Effect of Utilization B30 from Various Blends of B0:FAME and HVO on Emissions, Fuel Consumption and Power of Euro4 Vehicle Technology

Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology (BPPT)-Hari Setiapraja, Siti Yubaidah, Mokhtar
Pertamina Research Technology Center-Mutia Ekasari, Nita Haspriyanti, Wawan Rustyawan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2189
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Indonesia has implemented mandatory for utilization of high ratio biodiesel starting from B10 (10% of biodiesel and 90% of diesel fuel by volume) in 2013 then it gradually increased to B20 in 2016 and B30 in 2020. On the other hand, Indonesian Government will also strengthen vehicle emission regulation from Euro 2 to Euro4 in 2021. Therefore, B0 (low sulfur diesel fuel) and B100 (biodiesel) fuel properties as blended fuel for B30 must be improved to comply with Euro4 vehicle emission regulation. In this study various formulation of B30 were investigated, in which the B100 was varied from FAME (fatty Acid Methyl Ester), HVO (Hydrotreated Vegetable oil), and blend of FAME and HVO. The test was conducted under Euro4 vehicle technology to investigate their effect on emissions, fuel consumption and power. In this experiment, emission, fuel consumption and power were tested using UN-ECE R83-05 regulation, UN-ECE R101 and acceleration method respectively. The results showed that B30 has lower CO, HC and particulate emission compared with B0. However, NOx emission for some formulation slightly increased. Moreover,…
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Experimental Investigation of Combustion Timing of HVO, RME and Diesel Fuel in a Euro6 Car Engine during Transient Driving Cycles

Czech University of Live Sciences-Martin Pechout, David Macoun
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The current targets to decrease greenhouse gases production, to reduce fossil fuel dependency and to gain energy security and sustainability are driving demand on combustion engine fuels from renewable sources. This effort resulted in utilization of first generation biofuels. Unfortunately, these fuels brought new dilemmas and challenges in general, such as food production competition and land use and, in case of fatty acid methyl esters for compression ignition engines, also technical challenges such as storage stability and deposit formation. Utilization of particle filters and sensitive fuel systems are driving effort to develop compatible renewable biofuels which can be utilized at higher than current shares. Hydrotreated vegetable oils (HVO), as industrially produced biofuels, exhibit some beneficial properties compared to traditional fatty-acid methyl esters especially in terms of oxidation stability, injector fouling, energy content and cetane number. The aim of this study was to investigate heat release rates when three neat fuels (diesel, RME and HVO) are utilized in a current passenger car with a EURO 6 diesel engine at a wide range of operating regimes extracted…
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The Effect of Cerium Oxide Nano Particles Fuel Additive on Performance, Combustion, NOx Reduction and Nano Particle Emission of Karanja and Jatropha Biodiesel in a Military 585 kW CIDI Engine

CVRDE-S Suresh
College of Engineering-Milankumar Nandgaonkar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Rapid depletion of petroleum reserves, stringent emission legislations and global warming has given us an opportunity to find biodiesel as an alternative to diesel fuel. Biodiesel is a biogradable, renewable, sulphur free, non-toxic, and oxygenated green fuel. Recent emission legislations have also restricted the nano particles emission in addition to particulate matter, due to their adverse impact on health. Karanja and Jatropha oils are non-edible vegetable oils. Karanja and Jatropha oil methyl ester biodiesel are prepared by the process of transesterification. Biodiesel emits lesser gaseous emission as compared to diesel fuel. However, the only major concern in the use of biodiesel is that it increases NOx emission. Nano particle fuel additive is one of the essential techniques to overcome the NOx emission drawback of biodiesel. In the present study, the engine performance and emission of CO, UHC, NOx and PM including nano particle emission, were compared for diesel, Karanja and Jatropha oil biodiesel with Cerium Oxide nano particles fuel additive, in a 12-cylinder, 585 kW, CIDI military heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental results showed that…
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Optical Diagnostics of Spray Characteristics and Soot Volume Fractions of n-Butanol, n-Octanol, Diesel, and Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Blends in a Constant Volume Combustion Chamber

Chalmers University of Technology-Tankai Zhang, Mats Andersson, Karin Munch, Ingemar Denbratt
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
The effects of using n-butanol, n-octanol, fossil Diesel, hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), and blends of these fuels on spray penetration, flame and soot characteristics were investigated in a high-pressure high-temperature constant volume combustion chamber designed to mimic a heavy duty Diesel engine. Backlight illumination was used to capture liquid and vapor phase spray images with a high-speed camera. The flame lift-off length (LOL) and ignition delay were determined by analyzing OH* chemiluminescence images. Laser extinction diagnostics were used to measure the spatially and temporally resolved soot volume fraction. The spray experiments were performed by injecting fuels under non-combusting (623 K) and combusting (823 K) conditions at a fixed ambient air density of 26 kg/m3. A Scania 0.19 mm single straight hole injector and Scania XPI common rail fuel supply system were used to produce injection pressures of 120 MPa and 180 MPa. To evaluate the effect of cetane number (CN) variation on combustion processes and soot emissions, di-tertiary-butyl peroxide (DTBP) was added to one blend to modify its CN without greatly altering its composition. The…
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Tribological Performance of an Engine Mineral Oil Blended with a Vegetable Oil under Approached Long-Term Use Conditions

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Esime Zac-Ezequiel Gallardo, Mario Gómez-Guarneros, Andys Hernandez Peña
Tecnologico de Monterrey, EIC, Puebla-Leonardo Israel Farfan-Cabrera
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
It has widely reported that tribological performance of engine mineral oils (EMOs) can be improved by blending them with vegetable oils (VOs) in certain concentrations. Nonetheless, bio-oils are more susceptible to oxidation than EMOs by thermal ageing, which could be a drawback when they are used in engines comprising high variations of temperature. In this paper, a comparative analysis of tribological performance of an EMO and a blend made of 80%vol. of EMO and 20%vol. of a VO in fresh and aged conditions is given. The VO selected for the blend was Jatropha oil since various advantages reported in literature. EMO and B20 were thermally aged in laboratory approaching actual oxidation and additives depletion caused in EMO used in a car for 7500 km. The effects of ageing on the oils were evaluated by means of oxidation (PAI value), Zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDPs) depletion and viscosity. The tribological performance of the oils was determined by measuring the friction coefficients and wear rates generated in samples from engine cylinder liners in a pin-on-disk tester under boundary lubrication…
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