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Extended Endurance Unmanned Aerial Vehicle via Structural Electrical Power Storage and Energy Generation Devices

Geoffrey Smith Oetting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0041
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Through the substitution of some aircraft structural components with power storage and generation devices that possess adequate structural strength and stiffness, flight endurance time and performance of solar powered unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV’s) may be increased by reducing the parasitic weight penalties of the power systems. This innovation of the ‘Flying Battery’ along with energy generation devices such as structural solar cells, thermo-electric generators, and vibration induced power generators are integral to creating a flying structure that will be more efficient and more useful to the electric powered commercial and hobby markets. This paper discusses plans and the progress toward achieving potential endurance and efficiency increases in unmanned aerial vehicles through laboratory and eventual model flight experiments of novel structural designs for graphene super-capacitors, solar cells, and other power generation devices.
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Design of Elevons for a Hybrid VTOL-Blended Wing Body Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Delhi Technological University-Amit Bainsla, Vikas Rastogi, Pranav Bahl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0047
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The two primary requirements for a safe flight of a UAV are its stability and manoeuvrability. The purpose of this study is to design and validate elevons for a UAV having Blended Wing Body configuration which requires knowledge of various domains applied in a complex combination. Elevons are the unconventional control surfaces for the flying wings which will cause a pitching moment when moved in same direction and will cause a rolling moment when moved differentially and their preliminary design is affected by the function which is dominant. A MATLAB© code was written to decide the position, shape and size of elevons and later on accurately evaluated using high fidelity Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations. The MATLAB© code calculates the required roll time rate taking into consideration the longitudinal and lateral control requirements. Using this coupled approach of MATLAB© code and Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations significant optimization is achieved in designing the elevons.
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Performance of Isolated UAV Rotors at Low Reynolds Number

Georgia Institute of Technology-Yashvardhan Tomar, Narayanan Komerath
Indian Institute of Technology-Dhwanil Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0046
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Vertical takeoff and landing vehicle platforms with many small rotors are gaining importance for small UAVs as well as distributed electric propulsion for larger vehicles. To predict vehicle performance, it must be possible to gauge interaction effects. These rotors operate in the less-known regime of low Reynolds number, with different blade geomety. As a first step, two identical commercial UAV rotors from a flight test program, are studied in isolation, experimentally and computationally. Load measurements were performed in Georgia Tech’s 2.13m x 2.74m wind tunnel. Simulations were done using the RotCFD solver which uses a Navier-Stokes wake computation with low-Reynolds number blade section data. It is found that in hover, small rotors available in the market vary noticeably in performance at low rotor speeds, the data converging at higher RPM and Reynolds number. This may be indicative of the high sensitivity of low-Re rotor flows to minor geometrical differences/imperfections in the rotors. It requires proper handling in computations. CFD results show a higher deviation from the experimental thrust data at low rotor speeds. While thrust…
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Lighting Applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

A-20B Exterior Lighting Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6336
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides technical recommendations for the lighting applications for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). The technical content of this ARP discusses the unique trade-offs that are necessary to maintain commonality to the U.S. Federal Aviation Regulations (FARs) for aerospace lighting. The recommendations set forth in this document are to aid in the design of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) lighting for the size of aircraft and operation for which the aircraft is intended. In addition, certain concepts of operation for which UASs are suited will require unique lighting solutions.

MMOD Impact Detection and Location

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35686
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Determination of micrometeoroid/ orbital debris (MMOD) impact on orbiting spacecraft currently requires visual inspection. For human-rated spacecraft such as the International Space Station (ISS) and previously, the Space Shuttle Orbiter, this has required crew time as well as vehicle assets to identify damage due to MMOD strikes. For unmanned spacecraft, there are no human assets present to conduct detailed surveys to ascertain potential damage.

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Stall Mitigation and Lift Enhancement of NACA 0012 with Triangle-Shaped Surface Protrusion at a Reynolds Number of 105

SAE International Journal of Aerospace

University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, India-Aslesha Bodavula, Rajesh Yadav, Ugur Guven
  • Journal Article
  • 01-12-02-0007
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Transient numerical simulations are conducted over a NACA 0012 airfoil with triangular protrusions at a Reynolds number (Re) of 100000 using the γ-Reθ transition Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model. Protrusions of heights 0.5%c, 1%c, and 2%c are placed at one of the three locations, viz, the leading edge (LE), 5%c on the suction surface, and 5%c on the pressure surface, while the angle of attack (AOA) is varied between 0° and 20°. Results obtained from the time-averaged solution of the unsteady Navier-Stokes equation indicate that the smaller protrusion placed at 5%c on the suction surface improves the post-stall lift coefficient by up to 59%, without altering the pre-stall characteristics. The improvement in time-averaged lift coefficients comes with enhanced flow unsteadiness due to vigorous vortex shedding. For a given protrusion height, the vortex shedding frequency decreases as the AOA is increased, while the amplitude of fluctuations in lift coefficient increases as the protrusion height is increased or as the AOA is increased. Nevertheless, mitigation of static stall phenomena is observed for most configurations investigated, and…
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Interface Standard, Airborne EO/IR Systems, Electrical

AS-1C Avionic Subsystems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS6129A
  • Current
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
This standard defines a generic set of electrical interfaces between a host aircraft (“platform”) and an electro-optic/infrared (EO/IR) sensor. This includes connectors, cabling, fiber optics, signals, and power.
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Considerations for Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Airborne Applications

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7765
  • Current
Published 2019-11-18 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this joint EUROCAE/SAE report is to compile the considerations relating to airborne application of hydrogen fuel cells. This document provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of hydrogen as a fuel by describing its existing applications and the experience gained by exploiting fuel cells in sectors other than aviation. The use of hydrogen fuel cells in aircraft can help in meeting aviation environmental targets (including noise pollution) and can be vital to achieving efficient electrically propelled air vehicles. The experience gained with mature fuel cells in terrestrial applications and the handling of other gases in aviation, as presented herein, will help in alleviating safety concerns and in demystifying the usage of hydrogen in aviation.
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2019 'Create the Future' Aerospace & Defense Category Winner: A Morphing, Foldable Drone

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35426
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Robots Track Moving Objects with Sub-Centimeter Accuracy

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35461
Published 2019-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

A system was developed that uses radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags to help robots target moving objects with unprecedented speed and accuracy. The system could enable greater collaboration and precision by robots working on packaging and assembly, and by swarms of drones carrying out search-and-rescue missions. Robots using the system can locate tagged objects within 7.5 milliseconds, on average, and with an error of less than a centimeter.