Your Selections

Two or three wheeled vehicles
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

Series

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Assessment of the Potential of Power to Gas Fuels for Replacement of Fossile Fuels in Switzerland

EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Florian Kiefer, Karin Schröter, Christian Bach
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0027
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In Switzerland, road traffic is responsible for one third of greenhouse gas emissions respectively 40% of the CO2 emissions and therefore accounts for the largest single share of all sectors. These emissions have even increased slightly since 1990 (from 15.5 to 16.2 million tCO2). Private individual road transport achieves a mileage of approximatively 91.0 billion pkm (person-kilometer) and 17.2 billion tkm (tons-kilometer) per year. Therefore, 3.3 billion liters of gasoline and 3.2 billion liters of diesel are used, resulting in 16.2 million tCO2 emissions in total. Thereof, 10.2 million tons of CO2 are emitted by passenger cars and 1.7 million tons by trucks, the two most important means of transport concerning CO2 emissions. The rest is produced by vans, buses, motorcycles, railways and shipping, national air traffic and fuel tourism. The passenger cars are the most relevant application in terms of CO2 emissions with a share of 63% of the road vehicle CO2 emissions. To comply with the 95 g/km target, low CO2 vehicles have to be introduced. In the following, the number of such…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Using Vehicle EDR Data to Calculate Motorcycle Delta-V in Motorcycle-Vehicle Lateral Front End Impacts

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0885
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research focuses on the use of Event Data Recorders (EDR) to assist in calculating speed loss or ΔV undergone by a motorcycle in a broadside type impact into a vehicle. If the struck vehicle has EDR data, this could be a useful tool in calculating motorcycle ΔV or corroborating motorcycle ΔV calculations from crush or other methodologies. Certain parameters critical to calculation of motorcycle ΔV must be considered, including the appropriate effective mass to use for the motorcycle/rider combination. This study used crash test data to determine a method of applying parameter values to accurately calculate motorcycle ΔV in a motorcycle-vehicle collision.In this study, three crash tests were performed in which a motorcycle with a dummy rider traveling in the range of 42 to 51 mph collided into the right front corner of a vehicle traveling between 5 and 16 mph. In all three tests, both the vehicle and motorcycle were instrumented with triaxial accelerometers and triaxial rate gyros. The first test involved a 2002 Kawasaki ZRX1200R traveling at 42.2 mph into the right…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

A Novel Design of Engine Misfire Detection System Suitable for Small Capacity S.I. Engine for Two Wheeled Vehicle

TVS Motor Co., Ltd.-Monika Jayprakash Bagade, Himadri Bhushan Das, Arjun Raveendranath Sr, S Jabez Dhinagar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0267
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As per the OBD II regulations, it is essential to detect and monitor the misfire event in an I.C. engine. Misfiring of an I.C. engine affects the quality of combustion and degrades the performance of catalyst convertor which can lead to an increase of emissions. Misfire event can be categorized as partial or complete, based on amount of combustion occurred during that particular engine cycle. Most of the production engine for non-two wheeler vehicle identifies misfire by monitoring angular acceleration of the engine crank-shaft. However, single cylinder engine with lower capacity (less than 300 cubic centimeter) provides challenges to identify misfire due to low mechanical inertia of the I.C. engine using the same approach. The problem of misfire identification for this category of I.C. engine turn out to be more challenging due to presence of various load disturbances on the powertrain. Ion current sensing is one of the alternate method to detect misfire, which received good attention during the last decade of the previous century. When the air-fuel mixture ignites inside the I.C. engine cylinder,…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Micro-Mobility Vehicle Dynamics and Rider Kinematics during Electric Scooter Riding

Exponent Inc.-Christina MR Garman, Steven G. Como, Ian C. Campbell, Jeffrey Wishart, Kevin O'Brien, Scott McLean
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0935
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Micro-mobility is a fast-growing trend in the transportation industry with stand-up electric scooters (e-scooters) becoming increasingly popular in the United States. To date, there are over 350 ride-share e-scooter programs in the United States. As this popularity increases, so does the need to understand the performance capabilities of these vehicles and the associated operator kinematics. Scooter tip-over stability is characterized by the scooter geometry and controls and is maintained through operator inputs such as body position, interaction with the handlebars, and foot placement. In this study, testing was conducted using operators of varying sizes to document the capabilities and limitations of these e-scooters being introduced into the traffic ecosystem. A test course was designed to simulate an urban environment including sidewalk and on-road sections requiring common maneuvers (e.g., turning, stopping points, etc.) for repeatable, controlled data collection. A commercially available e-scooter was instrumented to measure acceleration and velocity, steering angle, roll angle, and GPS position. Operators ranging from the 15th percentile to the 85th percentile were instrumented with wearable sensors to gain insight into the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Step by Step Conversion of ICE Motorcycle to a BEV Configuration

Wayne State University-Matthew D. Lawrence, Saeed Siavoshani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1436
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the mass movement toward electrification and renewable technologies, the scope of innovation of electrification has gone beyond the automotive industry into areas such as electric motorcycle applications. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology and complexities of converting an internal combustion motorcycle to an electric motorcycle. In developing this methodology, performance goals including, speed limits, range, weight, charge times, as well as riding styles will be examined and discussed.Based on the goals of this paper, parts capable of reaching the performance targets are selected accordingly. Documentation of the build process will be presented along with the constraints, pitfalls, and difficulties associated with the process of the project. The step-by-step process that is developed can be used as a guideline for future build and should be used as necessary. During the development and conversion process, the model of the electric motorcycle was developed in Simulink to size the battery pack and the electric motor. This model was also the focus of different design experiments to choose the proper components and subsystems to minimize the…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

History and Prospects for Electric Vehicles and Electric Bikes: Pathway to Sustainable Carbon Free Energy and Transportation

Electric Battery Bicycle Company-Frank E. Jamerson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0974
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Electric Transportation Revolution (ETR) began with the General Motors USA EV1 project and Yamaha Japan Pedal Assist System (PAS) electric bike, both in 1993. Worldwide EB annual sales are 40 million with 300 million on the road, mostly in China. Mandates and government incentives influence the EV market, customer demand drives EB growth. The EPA CO2 endangerment finding is forcing the auto industry to invest in EVs to help limit Mankind Made Carbon Dioxide Climate Change, MMCDCC, which is based on theoretical computer models that calculate global temperature. Measured temperature data, revised by modelers, used to validate these models has been challenged and so reported. Historical climatology data shows that Natural Climate Change, NCC, is more likely the CC cause. Known periodic variations of the sun’s orbit changes solar radiance and causes NCC. More CO2 in the atmosphere produces more plant growth, more food, thus CO2 is a beneficial gas. We propose a long term pathway to eliminate CO2 as an issue for energy and transportation. Fossil fuels may be depleted in 200 years.…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Two prototype engines with colliding and compression of pulsed supermulti-jets through a focusing process, leading to nearly complete air insulation and relatively silent high compression for automobiles, motorcycles, aircrafts, and rockets

Waseda University-Remi Konagaya, Ken Naitoh, Tomotaka Kobayashi, Yuuki Isshiki, Hajime Ito, Hiroki Makimoto, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Yusuke Tada, Nozomu Kikuchi, Aya Hosoi, Yuto Fujii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0837
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
We have proposed a new compressive combustion principle based on pulsed supermulti-jets colliding through focusing process, by injection from chamber wall to chamber center. This principle has potential of relatively-silent high compression around chamber center because of auto-ignition far from chamber wall and nearly-complete air insulation due to encasing of burned high temperature gas. The present principle leading to higher thermal efficiency and higher power will be applicable for automobiles, aircrafts, rockets, and also flying cars to be realized in the future. Then, water cooling system made smaller or even eliminated will result in lower price, while auto-ignition in an area larger than that created by traditional spark-ignition will lead to less NOx emission at very lean burning. Thus, we here show four new evidences based on experimental data and computational and theoretical considerations. (1) Quantitative clarification of compression level at condition without combustion (2) Atomization effect due to high-speed jets reducing fuel tank pressure (3) Combustion experiments in piston-less engine having pulsed 14-focusing jets colliding (1st prototype engine for checking this compressive combustion principle),…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Quantifying Engine Braking for Various Common Street Motorcycles

Collision and Injury Dynamics, Inc.-Henricus Jansen, Beau LeBlanc, Christopher Wilhelm, Tyler Shaw, Alvin Lowi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0880
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motorcycle engine braking was measured in each forward gear for a cross-section of typical street motorcycles. Using GPS data acquisition and video, deceleration relative to speed was examined. Motorcycle characteristics included various engine displacements and types of motorcycle. The data acquired will give more insight into the extent which engine braking is a factor for deceleration, a topic which has not been addressed in a peer-reviewed journal article to this date.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Frequency Domain Analysis of 2-Wheeler Systems

CAEfatigue Ltd.-Neil Bishop, Harsha Kolar
Hero MotoCorp Ltd.-Mohit Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0476
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Most automotive companies validate their vehicle designs by running vehicle on the durability proving grounds. Part fractures and collisions between two components are common failures observed during proven ground testing. Laboratory testing and FEA simulation are used to validate designs in the concept stage as it consumes less time and cost as compared to proven ground testing. The lab testing and simulation process both have their own limitations. It is difficult to incorporate effect of multi-direction input loading (x, y, z) with single direction loading in laboratory testing due to restrictions with electrodynamic shaker testing. However, in simulation, multi direction input can be easily incorporated but often actual vehicle measured test track data is not available in the early design stage.In the present work, Modern methodologies have been employed [ref 1, 2] in frequency domain to validate design in FEA simulation. First, relative random response calculation is performed for calculating the probability of collision between parts of motorcycle rear cowl. Second, multi-channel loading (x, y, z) on the front cowl is used to derive a…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Motorcycle Rider Inputs During Typical Maneuvers

Exponent Inc.-Todd A. Frank, Graeme Fowler, Christina Garman, Sarah Sharpe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1000
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this research is to document representative examples of control inputs and body positioning experienced riders use to control a motorcycle through maneuvers representative of those encountered during real-world operation. There is limited publicly available data that tracks the magnitude or direction of steering head rotation, steering torque input, etc. used by a rider to initiate and exit a turn as well as maintaining directional control during maneuvers ranging from slow parking lot turns to high speed lane changes. Using Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center (TEC) track and skid pad, a course was defined that included several maneuvers at various speeds and radii. A previous paper [1] investigated the influence of rider kinematics (weight shift) on motorcycle control. This paper focuses on rider control inputs to affect a motorcycle’s path and lean angle in a set of maneuvers including a constant radius turn, low speed U-turn, left turn from stop sign, steer reversal, slalom, and avoidance.