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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it is challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the deceleration. This connotes that a fixed value of front and rear braking forces can be optimized for only a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lockup, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore, an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks…
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DEVELOPMENT OF SMART BIKE FOR RIDER’S SAFETY THROUGH HELMET DETECTION

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Prateek Goel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2458
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In today’s era, especially in young generation, the craze of motor bikes is really remarkable. As the bikers in our country are increasing, the road mishaps are also increasing day-by-day, due to which many deaths occur and most of them are caused by the negligence in wearing helmet. According to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, 1,50,785 people were killed in 4,80,652 road crashes in India in 2016. This translates into 55 crashes and 17 deaths every hour. In case of road crash deaths, Two-Wheeler topped the list with a percentage share of 29.42% followed by Trucks, Tempos, Tractors(25.9%) and Cars, Jeeps, Taxis (21.61%). In order to overcome the above mentioned problem, we are designing an intelligent system that detects the helmet and prevent the rider to ride the bike without wearing helmet which helps to reduce the death cases during an accident. Our task as an automobile engineer was to design a smart helmet that could automatically detected by the two-wheeler. A camera was installed near the speedometer (on the handle bar) of…
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Development of PCX Electric

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2470
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
We developed the electric motorcycle model “PCX ELECTRIC” that satisfies usability under the traffic environment in apan and ASEAN’s motorcycle sales major countries. The PCX ELECTRIC features easily removable battery packs, which practically helps eliminate the waiting time associated with charging the battery. The compactly designed EV system, which is efficiently packaged in the vehicle, uses two removable 48 V battery packs connected in series to realize a 96 V system suitable for driving the electric motorcycle. The EV system mounted on the body of the 2018 PCX achieves a motor power of 4.2 kW, top speed of 60 km/h, and cruising range of 41 km (at a steady 60 km/h). In addition, we developed a highly-convenient battery attaching system that enables fixing of the battery to the vehicle body and engaging of the connectors with a single action operation.
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Reduction Of Noise Pollution From Vehicles Due To Honking Using a Smart System

Sanjeet Choudhary
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2445
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Noise pollution is one of the most disturbing forms of pollution to mankind as it can cause headaches, stress , hypertension and also hearing loss . Cars are one of the main sources of noise pollution due to continuous honking even when it is not necessary.Data receiver and transmitter systems are to be introduced in cars through which cars can send electric signals and also receive those signals from other vehicles. This method will employ a limit to which this electric signal will be sent to nearby cars based on the speed at which the car is moving .So the range of the signal will vary depending upon the speed of the car. So after the signal is sent to the nearby vehicles, the receiver and transmitter unit of the other cars to which the electric signal is sent to will produce a mimic of a horn sound at a very low decibel level so that it can be only heard inside the car.This method is very efficient in fully developed countries where cars are…
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Development of Idling Stop System for 125 cm3 Scooters with Fuel Injection

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2449
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The idling stop system for scooters employs an ACG-starter connected directly to the crankshaft without reduction gears; therefore, it is possible to start the engine silently. The system is designed to stop the engine automatically when the scooter stops, and the engine restarts simply by opening the throttle. Scooters with 50 cm3 engines have already been employing the idling stop system. This system for 125 cm3 engines was developed to enlarge the application range of the idling stop system. It needs a large ACG starter because the cranking torque is higher than that of 50 cm3 engines, so the cranking torque was reduced by using a decompression device. The ACG starter was designed with a thin and large diameter construction in order to minimize the increase in engine width. The new idling stop system was developed with an integrated control of the fuel injection system and the ACG starter.
new

Nonlinear Iterative Optimization Process for Multichannel Remote Parameter Control

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

China-Yong Zhang
Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China-Meng Li
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0015
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
In this article, compared with traditional Remote Parameter Control (RPC), the iterative process is improved based on linear transfer function (TF) estimation of the nonlinear dynamic system. In the improved RPC, the iteration coefficient is designed according to the convergence condition of the nonlinear iterative process, so that the convergence level, convergence speed, and iteration stability could be improved. The difference between the traditional and the improved RPC iterative process is discussed, the RPC iterative process of the nonlinear system is analyzed, and channel decoupling for Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) system based on eigen-decomposition of the system TF and linear TF estimation is introduced. It assumes that the eigenvector matrix of the system TF remains the same, and the linear TF in the iterative process is estimated and updated, which is used for iterative calculation. The method for iteration coefficient is designed according to the nonlinear system convergence condition of the iterative process. The whole theory is verified on a two-channel electrohydraulic servo system and a lightweight motorcycle. The optimization strategy can be used not only…
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WHAT'S ONLINE

Automotive Engineering: October 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP10_15
Published 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Personal-mobility electric scooters have appeared seemingly everywhere-and are dumped just about anywhere when their riders are finished with the journey. The situation has become an at-times comical allegory for some of the unintended consequences new-age mobility may bring, and in this episode of Eye on Engineering, Editor-in-Chief Lindsay Brooke looks at electric-scooter clutter-and who is-or should be-responsible for the cleanup.

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A Dictionary of Terms for the Dynamics and Handling of Single Track Vehicles (Motorcycles, Scooters, Mopeds, and Bicycles)

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1451_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
Terminology within this document is limited to the dynamics and handling characteristics of single track, two-wheeled vehicles.
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Motorcycle Terminology

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3133_201909
  • Current
Published 2019-09-24 by SAE International in United States
The motorcycle terminology presented herein addresses two-wheel single track vehicles, as well as motorized three wheel cycles. Although two-wheeled, single track scooters and mopeds are similar to traditional motorcycles, they have many characteristics which differentiate them from motorcycles, and while some terms will apply, this Terminology addresses motorcycles specifically, unless otherwise noted. Likewise, some three wheel cycles may have some similar design features and share components with motorcycle, the dynamics and handling of three wheel vehicles differs from two wheel, single track motorcycles. The terminology presents definitions covering the following subjects: dynamics and handling of single track vehicles, motorcycle categories and types, motorcycle crash dynamics and technology, and in-depth crash investigations, motorcycle design and components, systems, and equipment, motorcycle operation, operational environments and hazards, rider protective equipment including helmets and clothing, rider behaviors, motorcycle safety, competitive motorcycle events and the specialized motorcycles used those events, key national motorcycle-related organization, selected phrases commonly used uniquely by motorcyclists, and related performance measures and selected test criteria. NOTE: Motorcycle emission terminology does not vary from automobile emission terminology…
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Development of a Hybrid Power Unit for Formula SAE Application: ICE CFD-1D Optimization and Vehicle Lap Simulation

UNIMORE-Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini, Francesco Scrignoli, Valerio Mangeruga
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The paper reviews the CFD optimization of a motorcycle engine, modified for the development of a hybrid powertrain of a Formula SAE car. In a parallel paper, the choice of the donor engine (Ducati 959 Panigale: 2-cylinder, V90, 955 cc, peak power 150 HP at 10500 rpm, peak torque 102 Nm at 9000 rpm) is thoroughly discussed, along with all the hardware modifications oriented to minimize the new powertrain dimensions, weight and cost, and guarantee full reliability in racing conditions. In the current paper, the attention is focused on two main topics: 1) CFD-1D tuning of the modified Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), in order to comply with the Formula SAE regulations, as well as to maximize the power output; 2) simulation of the vehicle in racing conditions, comparison with a conventional combustion car and a full electric vehicle. The stock engine has been strongly modified, since the head of the vertical cylinder has been replaced by the electric motor, and the intake system of the other cylinder now includes a 20 mm restrictor. Despite these…
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