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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it is challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the deceleration. This connotes that a fixed value of front and rear braking forces can be optimized for only a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lockup, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore, an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks…
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DEVELOPMENT OF SMART BIKE FOR RIDER’S SAFETY THROUGH HELMET DETECTION

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Prateek Goel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2458
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In today’s era, especially in young generation, the craze of motor bikes is really remarkable. As the bikers in our country are increasing, the road mishaps are also increasing day-by-day, due to which many deaths occur and most of them are caused by the negligence in wearing helmet. According to the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, 1,50,785 people were killed in 4,80,652 road crashes in India in 2016. This translates into 55 crashes and 17 deaths every hour. In case of road crash deaths, Two-Wheeler topped the list with a percentage share of 29.42% followed by Trucks, Tempos, Tractors(25.9%) and Cars, Jeeps, Taxis (21.61%). In order to overcome the above mentioned problem, we are designing an intelligent system that detects the helmet and prevent the rider to ride the bike without wearing helmet which helps to reduce the death cases during an accident. Our task as an automobile engineer was to design a smart helmet that could automatically detected by the two-wheeler. A camera was installed near the speedometer (on the handle bar) of…
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Development of PCX Electric

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2470
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
We developed the electric motorcycle model “PCX ELECTRIC” that satisfies usability under the traffic environment in apan and ASEAN’s motorcycle sales major countries. The PCX ELECTRIC features easily removable battery packs, which practically helps eliminate the waiting time associated with charging the battery. The compactly designed EV system, which is efficiently packaged in the vehicle, uses two removable 48 V battery packs connected in series to realize a 96 V system suitable for driving the electric motorcycle. The EV system mounted on the body of the 2018 PCX achieves a motor power of 4.2 kW, top speed of 60 km/h, and cruising range of 41 km (at a steady 60 km/h). In addition, we developed a highly-convenient battery attaching system that enables fixing of the battery to the vehicle body and engaging of the connectors with a single action operation.
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Reduction Of Noise Pollution From Vehicles Due To Honking Using a Smart System

SANJEET CHOUDHARY
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2445
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Noise pollution is one of the most disturbing forms of pollution to mankind as it can cause headaches, stress , hypertension and also hearing loss . Cars are one of the main sources of noise pollution due to continuous honking even when it is not necessary.Data receiver and transmitter systems are to be introduced in cars through which cars can send electric signals and also receive those signals from other vehicles. This method will employ a limit to which this electric signal will be sent to nearby cars based on the speed at which the car is moving .So the range of the signal will vary depending upon the speed of the car. So after the signal is sent to the nearby vehicles, the receiver and transmitter unit of the other cars to which the electric signal is sent to will produce a mimic of a horn sound at a very low decibel level so that it can be only heard inside the car.This method is very efficient in fully developed countries where cars are…
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Development of Idling Stop System for 125 cm3 Scooters with Fuel Injection

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2449
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The idling stop system for scooters employs an ACG-starter connected directly to the crankshaft without reduction gears; therefore, it is possible to start the engine silently. The system is designed to stop the engine automatically when the scooter stops, and the engine restarts simply by opening the throttle. Scooters with 50 cm3 engines have already been employing the idling stop system. This system for 125 cm3 engines was developed to enlarge the application range of the idling stop system. It needs a large ACG starter because the cranking torque is higher than that of 50 cm3 engines, so the cranking torque was reduced by using a decompression device. The ACG starter was designed with a thin and large diameter construction in order to minimize the increase in engine width. The new idling stop system was developed with an integrated control of the fuel injection system and the ACG starter.
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A New Parallel Hybrid Concept for Microcars: Propulsion System Design, Modeling and Control

ENEA-Fernando Ortenzi
Positech Consulting s.r.l.-Erminio Maria Ursitti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0246
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Mobility in modern metropolitan cities is plagued by overcrowding, producing congestion, low transit speed, fuel consumption, air pollution, and parking problems. One of the causes of these phenomena is the growing market of vehicles of excessive size with respect to their more frequent use. The technological and commercial development of vehicles specifically conceived for urban use, and therefore limited in size, not exuberant in performance, and with low fuel consumption and emissions would certainly be more desirable. Hybrid drive trains are particularly suited to this purpose: properly designed, minimal thermal engines can fit the application, giving an electrical driving option when required. It is about a decade, in fact, that metropolitan areas witness birth (and affirmation) of individual transport means, which are essentially inadequate to meet their mobility requirements. Firstly, two-wheeled vehicles were being sold for amusement purpose and/or short-range mobility but soon became, for most of the metropolitan inhabitants, the only way to get around the city and be able to park, even during the winter and in the rain. Scooters, in fact, are…
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Development of a Hybrid Power Unit for Formula SAE Application: ICE CFD-1D Optimization and Vehicle Lap Simulation

UNIMORE-Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Alberto Rinaldini, Francesco Scrignoli, Valerio Mangeruga
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The paper reviews the CFD optimization of a motorcycle engine, modified for the development of a hybrid powertrain of a Formula SAE car. In a parallel paper, the choice of the donor engine (Ducati 959 Panigale: 2-cylinder, V90, 955 cc, peak power 150 HP at 10500 rpm, peak torque 102 Nm at 9000 rpm) is thoroughly discussed, along with all the hardware modifications oriented to minimize the new powertrain dimensions, weight and cost, and guarantee full reliability in racing conditions. In the current paper, the attention is focused on two main topics: 1) CFD-1D tuning of the modified Internal Combustion Engine (ICE), in order to comply with the Formula SAE regulations, as well as to maximize the power output; 2) simulation of the vehicle in racing conditions, comparison with a conventional combustion car and a full electric vehicle. The stock engine has been strongly modified, since the head of the vertical cylinder has been replaced by the electric motor, and the intake system of the other cylinder now includes a 20 mm restrictor. Despite these…
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SAE STANDARDS NEWS

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_06
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

SAE embraces micromobility and its macro challenges

Bike lanes aren't just for bikes anymore. And in many cases, pathways aren't just for pedestrians. Tiny vehicles are rapidly altering the way many people who live in cities travel short distances. They're also raising questions and concerns within the greater mobility ecosystem.

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Operator Controls and Displays on Motorcycles

Motorcycle Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J107_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to two- and three-wheel motorcycles intended for highway use. Vehicles commonly known as mopeds and mini-bikes are included in this vehicle category if they are intended for highway use.
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Eleven Instrumented Motorcycle Crash Tests and Development of Updated Motorcycle Impact-Speed Equations

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Axiom Forensic, United States-Louis Peck
Collision Engineering Associates, Inc., United States-Charles Dickerson
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0004
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
Eleven instrumented crash tests were performed as part of the 2016 World Reconstruction Exposition (WREX2016), using seven Harley-Davidson motorcycles and three automobiles. For all tests, the automobile was stationary while the motorcycle was delivered into the vehicle, while upright with tires rolling, at varying speeds. Seven tests were performed at speeds between 30 and 46 mph while four low-speed tests were performed to establish the onset of permanent motorcycle deformation. Data from these tests, and other published testing, was analyzed using previously published equations to determine their accuracy when predicting the impact speed of Harley-Davidson motorcycles. The most accurate model was the Modified Eubanks set of equations introduced in 2009, producing errors with an average of 0.4 mph and a standard deviation (SD) of 4.8 mph. An updated set of Eubanks-style equations were developed adding data published since 2009, and further partitioning from two equations (pillars/axles and doors/fenders) to four equations (axles, pillars/bumpers, doors, and fenders). When applied to the subject tests, the newly developed set of equations produced an average error of 3.5 mph…
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