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Using Vehicle EDR Data to Calculate Motorcycle Delta-V in Motorcycle-Vehicle Lateral Front End Impacts

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0885
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This research focuses on the use of Event Data Recorders (EDR) to assist in calculating speed loss or Delta-V undergone by a motorcycle in a broadside type impact into a vehicle. One common methodology in calculating motorcycle Delta-V utilizes measurement of the deformation to both the vehicle and motorcycle. In certain scenarios however, it becomes difficult to calculate the motorcycle Delta-V from analysis of deformation. For instance, if the front suspension becomes fractured or separated on the motorcycle, or the motorcycle collides with the wheel area of the vehicle, deformation measurement may be unfavorable. If the struck vehicle has EDR data, this could be a useful tool in calculating motorcycle Delta-V or corroborating motorcycle Delta-V calculations from crush or other methodologies. Certain parameters critical to calculation of motorcycle Delta-V must be considered, including the appropriate effective mass to use for the motorcycle/rider combination. In addition, comparisons were made between instrumented yaw rate and calculated yaw rate to account for the airbag control module (ACM) location. In this study, three crash tests were performed in which…
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Capabilities and Limitations Related to Vehicle Dynamics and Operator Kinematics of Electric Scooter Micro-Mobility Modes

Exponent Inc.-Christina MR Garman, Steven G. Como, Ian C. Campbell, Jeffrey Wishart, Kevin O'Brien, Scott McLean
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0935
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Micro-mobility is a fast-growing trend in the transportation industry with stand-up electric scooters (e-scooters) becoming increasingly popular in the United States. To date, there are over 350 ride-share e-scooter programs in the United States. As this popularity increases, so does the need to understand the performance capabilities of these vehicles and the associated operator kinematics. Scooter tip-over stability is characterized by the scooter geometry and controls and is maintained through operator inputs such as body position, interaction with the handlebars, and foot placement. In this study, testing was conducted using operators of varying sizes to document the capabilities and limitations of these e-scooters being introduced into the traffic ecosystem. A test course was designed to simulate an urban environment including sidewalk and on-road sections requiring common maneuvers (e.g., turning, stopping points, etc.) for repeatable, controlled data collection. A commercially available e-scooter was instrumented to measure acceleration and velocity, steering angle, roll angle, and GPS position. Operators ranging from the 15th percentile to the 85th percentile were instrumented with wearable sensors to gain insight into the…
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Electric Bike Conversion Methodology

Siemens PLM Corp.-Saeed Siavoshani
Wayne State Univ.-Matthew D. Lawrence
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1436
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the mass movement toward electrification and renewable technology, the scope of innovation of electrification has gone beyond the automotive industry into areas such as electric motorcycle applications. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology and complexities of converting an internal combustion motorcycle to an electric motorcycle. In developing this methodology, performance goals including, speed limit, range, weight, charge times, as well as riding styles will be examined and discussed. Based on the goals of this paper, parts capable of reaching the performance targets are selected accordingly. Documentation of the build process will be presented along with the constraints, pitfalls, and difficulties associated with process of the project. The step-by-step methodology that is developed can be used as a guideline for future build and can be enhanced as necessary. During the development & conversion process, the model of the electric motorcycle was developed in Simulink to size the battery pack, the electric motor, as well as the right control strategy for the battery management system. This model was also the focus of different design…
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Two prototype engines with colliding and compression of pulsed supermulti-jets through a focusing process, leading to nearly complete air insulation and relatively silent high compression for automobiles, motorcycles, aircrafts, and rockets

Waseda University-Remi Konagaya, Ken Naitoh, Tomotaka Kobayashi, Yuuki Isshiki, Hajime Ito, Hiroki Makimoto, Yoshiki Kobayashi, Yusuke Tada, Nozomu Kikuchi, Aya Hosoi, Yuto Fujii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0837
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
We have proposed a new compressive combustion principle based on pulsed supermulti-jets colliding through focusing process, by injection from chamber wall to chamber center. This principle has potential of relatively-silent high compression around chamber center because of auto-ignition far from chamber wall and nearly-complete air insulation due to encasing of burned high temperature gas. The present principle leading to higher thermal efficiency and higher power will be applicable for automobiles, aircrafts, rockets, and also flying cars to be realized in the future. Then, water cooling system made smaller or even eliminated will result in lower price, while auto-ignition in an area larger than that created by traditional spark-ignition will lead to less NOx emission at very lean burning. Thus, we here show four new evidences based on experimental data and computational and theoretical considerations. (1) Quantitative clarification of compression level at condition without combustion (2) Atomization effect due to high-speed jets reducing fuel tank pressure (3) Combustion experiments in piston-less engine having pulsed 14-focusing jets colliding (1st prototype engine for checking this compressive combustion principle),…
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Quantifying Engine Braking for Various Common Street Motorcycles

Collision and Injury Dynamics, Inc-Henricus Jansen, Beau LeBlanc, Christopher Wilhelm, Tyler Shaw, Alvin Lowi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0880
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motorcycle engine braking will be measured in each forward gear for a cross-section of typical street motorcycles. Using GPS data acquisition and video, curves will be developed showing deceleration relative to engine speed, ground speed, distance, and time. Motorcycle characteristics will include low, middle, and high displacement sport, V-twin two-cylinder cruiser, single-cylinder adventure, three-cylinder, and shaft-driven. Motorcycles will be accelerated to approximately 70 mph when achievable in the respective gear, and throttle will be abruptly closed. The motorcycles will cruise unbraked until 15 to 30 kilometers per hour. For control, each motorcycle will be accelerated to the test speed and shifted to neutral to measure combined wind and rolling resistance. Tests will be performed on level ground and in opposing compass directions to account for wind. The data acquired will give more insight to what extent engine braking is a factor for accident reconstruction. Further, it will show the variability between frictional losses for different types of motorcycle powertrains and drivetrains.
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Frequency Domain Analysis of 2-Wheeler Systems

CAEfatigue Ltd.-Neil Bishop, Harsha Kolar
Hero MotoCorp Ltd.-Mohit Sethi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0476
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two-wheeler vehicles (motor bikes & Scooters) are complex mechanical systems. The design of such systems requires sophisticated analysis and test techniques to be used in an integrated durability process. Traditionally, analysis techniques for such systems have focused on time-based methods primarily because no viable alternatives existed. However, it has been known since the 1960's that the frequency domain method for structural analysis offers superior qualitative information about structural response. This paper will present new methodologies which have been implemented by HeroMotoCorp for fatigue analysis, collision (gap) detection, and component load development (loads Enveloping) of such systems.
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Motorcycle Rider Inputs During Typical Maneuvers

Exponent Inc-Graeme Fowler, Christina Garman, Sarah Sharpe
Exponent Inc.-Todd A. Frank
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1000
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this research is to document representative examples of control inputs and body positioning experienced riders use to control a motorcycle through maneuvers representative of those encountered during real-world operation. There is limited publicly available data that tracks the magnitude or direction of steering head rotation, steering torque input, etc. used by a rider to initiate and exit a turn as well as maintaining directional control during maneuvers ranging from slow parking lot turns to high speed lane changes. Using Exponent’s Test and Engineering Center (TEC) track and skid pad, a course was defined that included several maneuvers at various speeds and radii. A previous paper [1] investigated the influence of rider kinematics (weight shift) on motorcycle control. This paper focuses on rider control inputs to affect a motorcycle’s path and lean angle in a set of maneuvers including a constant radius turn, low speed U-turn, left turn from stop sign, steer reversal, slalom, and avoidance.
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PTW Passive Safety: Numerical Study of Standard Impact Scenarios with Rider Injury Risk Assessment

Tianjin Univ. of Science and Technology-Wenle Lv PhD
Univ. of West Bohemia-Tomasz Bonkowski, Ludek Hyncik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0930
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Powered two-wheeler (PTW) drivers and passengers are among the group of vulnerable road users (VRU). This group uses the road transportation system together with other better-protected users such as passenger cars and truck drivers. The main vulnerability of PTW driver lies in their unequal position during the crash, due to the inability of application of the crashworthiness concept during the PTW vehicle design. This inequality could be somehow mitigated by the design of personal protective equipment (PPE). Mostly the design of the PPE's is led by the standards which often are obsolete and takes into account only simple drop-tests (ECE 22.05). Those test did not take into account complicated kinematics of the motorcycle accidents and biomechanics of the human body. The authors propose a virtual approach for the PTW rider injury risk assessment, which coupled with the pre-impact conditions, could be used for the new PPE protection standards preparation. In this paper, authors want to present a numerical study on most common PTW Impact Scenarios, which are described in ISO 13232. The simulations of the…
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Uncertainty Quantification of Motorcycle Racing Upstream Flow Conditions

Graz University of Technology-Christoph Simon Feichtinger, Peter Fischer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0667
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The upstream flow conditions in front of any vehicle are the first barrier a vehicle must overcome beside the acceleration itself. Both together, the vehicle speed and the upstream flow conditions, result in the oncoming wind vector experienced by the moving vehicle. The aim of the present work is to show a new approach to consider the chaotic and random behavior of surrounding flow conditions and their influence on driving performance. Special interest was put on a description of the flow conditions with respect to well know turbulent flow field parameters like the turbulence length scale or the turbulence intensity. Depending on where the flow conditions are measured, stationary in the earth reference frame, or on a moving vehicle, it is quite difficult to get a robust description of the previously mentioned flow field parameters. These parameters are used together with the Reynolds number to predict the aerodynamic behavior by correlation functions or maps. A lot of aerodynamic characteristics for road vehicles are deter-mined in wind tunnels or from numerical flow simulations for specific flow…
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Statistical Model for the Prediction of Shift Points for Manual Motorcycles

United States Environmental Protection A-Peter James Caffrey
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1046
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Emissions from manual transmission motorcycles have been shown to be dependent upon transmission shift patterns. Presently, when undergoing an emission test for EPA certification a manufacturer can designate their own shift points during the cycle or utilize an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) prescribed shift pattern which uses basic up or down shifts at specific speeds regardless of the type of motorcycle. In order to predict the real-life emissions from motorcycles, a comparative real-life shift pattern has been developed which can then be used to evaluate the suitability of the manufacturer’s shift schedule. To that end, a model that predicts shift points for motorcycles has been created. This model is based on the actual operation of different motorcycles by real life operators in a combined city and highway operational setting. Recognizing that no model is sufficient to adequately predict user operation in all situations, this model maintains a degree of flexibility in allowing the user to designate various limits to the shift probability, thus representing various rider scenarios. This would include a broad range of probability…