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Effect of Injection Amount on Diesel Spray Characteristics of Multi-Hole Nozzle

Fukuoka Institute of Technology-Keisuke Komada
IRS Corporation-Manabu Saito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2284
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A laser 2-focus velocimeter(L2F) has been utilized for the measurements of the velocity and size of droplets in diesel fuel sprays injected from a 6-hole nozzle. The fuel was stored once in a common rail and was injected intermittently to the atmosphere by using a solenoid injector. The diameter of the nozzle orifice was 0.165 mm. The injection pressure was 60 MPa. The injector solenoid was driven by the current having a waveform consisted of 3 stages; boot, pull, and hold. The injection amounts were set at 0.8, 2.9, 3.9 and 4.7mg by changing the durations of the pull stage and the hold stage. The L2F measurement was conducted at 10 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. The fluctuation intensity of the droplet velocity was found to be larger under the smaller injection amount. It was clearly shown that the arithmetic mean droplet size under the smaller injection amount was smaller than that under the larger injection amount during the hold current duration. There was a negative correlation between the droplet size and the droplet…
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CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL, ADAPTER, SHRINK BOOT, CATEGORY 5 (FOR MIL-DTL-22992 CONNECTORS, CLASSES C, J, AND R)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/59B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Chevy reveals 2020 Corvette Stingray convertible, C8.R racer

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_14
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Reinforcing the Corvette's long association with astronauts, Chevrolet unveiled the convertible version of its all-new, mid-engine-layout 2020 Corvette Stingray in Cape Canaveral in early October. Executive chief engineer Tadge Juechter, underscoring the car's no-compromises performance and comparatively affordable price, called it a “no-lose proposition” for enthusiasts considering the new Corvette but also desiring a more open-top experience. When it goes into production in the first quarter of 2020, the Corvette Stingray convertible will start at $67,495 - $7,500 more than the 2020 Stingray coupe, which was widely celebrated for its aggressive $59,995 base price.

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Towed Vehicle/Tow Equipment Attachment Test Procedure - Passenger Cars, Vans, and Light-Duty Trucks

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1143_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a means to observe and evaluate a towed vehicle under a variety of road conditions to determine its behavior. The drivetrain should be evaluated by conducting SAE J1144.
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Paint and Trim Code Location

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2235_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is designed to provide readily accessible paint and trim code information on all passenger vehicles, lightweight trucks, and vans in a way that minimizes the time and effort required to locate and effectively use that information for body repair, parts ordering, vehicle maintenance, and information systems.
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Design Optimization of Trunk Lid Torsion Bar Type Trunk Lid Pop Up Mechanism

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Sharath Chandra Kasarla, Amit Singh
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Trunk lid (TL) can be opened using hydraulic or pneumatic balancers, coil springs, torsion bars or combination of the above. TL Opening Mechanism specific to Trunk Lid Torsion Bar (TLTB) is being discussed in the paper. After de-latching, TL should open smoothly and stop at such a height that it is visible from driver seat. The system consists of a four bar linkage mechanism, in which the fixed link is formed by BIW Bracket. Connecting link, TL Hinge Arm and Torsion bar arm form the other three links. Hinge has its one end attached to TL and the other end to BIW bracket. Torsion bar arm transfers torque to TL hinge through the connecting link. Major challenges in designing TLTB mechanism are part tolerances, C.G position and Weight variations in individual parts, Torsion bar Raw Material variation, uncertain friction in the system etc. If above challenges are not addressed properly, then issues like TL not popping up to desired level consistently and smoothly and hard closing may occur. TL pops up when torque due to…
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Accelerated Secure Boot for Real-Time Embedded Safety Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences-Kleve, Germany-Wonder Gumise
University of Michigan–Dearborn, USA-Ahmad M.K. Nasser, Di Ma
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0003
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering. We propose two efficient schemes of the dual-phase approach along with calibratable parameters to achieve the desired tamper detection probability. We evaluate the tampering detection accuracy within a simulation environment. Then we build a…
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Acoustic Effects of Lightweighting in a Sport Utility Vehicle

Autoneum North America, Inc.-Andrea Lynne Frey
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Weight reduction is a significant concern for automotive manufacturers, and is often achieved by removing as much mass as is safe from the structure of the vehicle. This has a negative effect on the interior acoustics, which has become more and more of an issue as technology has advanced and people expect to be able to do business and consume media in their vehicles. Traditional acoustic treatment tends to be very heavy, which eliminates some of the weight savings.Recently a vehicle study was performed to determine if the current production sound package in a highly-rated sport utility vehicle could be maintained or improved while reducing the weight. This paper presents the results of that study. The study focused on road noise transmitted through the floor (carpet, rear wheelhouse inner and trunk insulation) and engine noise transmitted through the dash (dash inner). Testing was performed both at the vehicle level on the road and at the component level in the laboratory. It was found that the lightweight sound package was highly effective against road noise, but…
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Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Jun Machida, Naoyoshi Madoka, Shogo Hayase
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions. The number of series-connected cells in each lithium-ion battery module was increased from 18 to 36, making it possible to reduce the number of modules from four to two, reducing the size of the battery pack against…
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Experimental Investigation of the Bi-Stable Behavior in the Wake of a Notchback MIRA Model

Tongji University-Gongjie Yan, Chao Xia, Hua Zhou, Hui Zhu, Zhigang Yang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the wake flow behind a 1/12 scale notchback MIRA model at Re = UL/ν = 6.9×105 (where U is free-stream velocity, L the length of the model and ν viscosity). Focus is placed on the flow asymmetry over the backlight and decklid. Forty pressure taps are used to map the surface pressure distribution on the backlight and decklid, while the wake topology is investigated by means of 2D Particle Image Velocimetry. The analysis of the instantaneous pressure signals over the notch configuration clearly shows that the pressure presents a bi-stable behavior in the spanwise direction, characterized by the switches between two preferred values, which is not found in the vertical direction. Based on the barycenter of momentum deficit, the instantaneous velocity fields in the plane z/H = 0.8 (H height of the model) can be sorted into three patterns, including two bi-stable states and one switch state, corresponding to the result of the instantaneous pressure signals. The sequence of these asymmetric states is random. In order to enable…
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