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3D Audio Reproduction via Headrest equipped with Loudspeakers – Investigations on Acoustical Design Criteria

AUDIO MOBIL Elektronik GmbH-Thomas Hatheier
Inst. of Electronic Music and Acoustics-Manuel Brandner, Alois Sontacchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1567
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on the analysis and evaluation of acoustical design criteria to produce a plausible 3D sound field solely via headrest with integrated loudspeakers at the driver/passenger seats in the car cabin. Existing audio systems in cars utilize several distributed loudspeakers to support passengers with sound. Such configurations suffer from individual 3D audio information at each position. Therefore, we present a convincing minimal setup focusing sound solely at the passenger’s ears. The design itself plays a critical role for the optimal reproduction and control of a sound field for a specific 3D audio application. Moreover, the design facilitates the 3D audio reproduction of common channel-based, scene-based, and object-based audio formats. In addition, 3D audio reproduction enables to represent warnings regarding monitoring of the vehicle status (e.g.: seat belts, direction indicator, open doors, luggage compartment) in spatial accordance. Furthermore, individual sound zones enable superior in-car communication between seats regardless of the current driving situation. An often overlooked topic is the acoustical privacy of in-car systems towards the exterior especially during telephony which is also tackled…
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The Effect of An Acoustic Startling Warning On Take-Over Reaction Time And Trunk Kinematics for Drivers in Autonomous Driving Scenarios

Center for Injury Research and Prevention, Children’s Hospit-Valentina Graci, Madeline Griffith, Jalaj Maheshwari, Rahul Akkem, Meta Austin, Thomas Seacrist, Kristy B. Arbogast
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-22-0022
Published 2020-03-31 by The Stapp Association in United States
The Acoustic Startling Pre-stimulus (ASPS, i.e. a loud sound preceding a physical perturbation) was previously found to accelerate action execution in simple flexion exercises. Therefore in this study we examined if ASPS can accelerate take-over reaction times in restrained teen and adult drivers who were asked to reach for the steering wheel while experiencing sled lateral perturbations simulating a vehicle swerve. Results showed that adult drivers lift their hands toward the steering wheel faster with the ASPS versus without (161 ± 23 ms vs 216 ± 27 ms, p<0.003). However this effect was not found in teens or in trials where the drivers were engaged in a secondary task. Adults also showed reduced lateral trunk displacement out of the seat belt with the ASPS. The ASPS could represent a novel warning that reduces take over time and out-of-position movements in critical autonomous driving scenarios.
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Effect of Injection Amount on Diesel Spray Characteristics of Multi-Hole Nozzle

Fukuoka Institute of Technology-Keisuke Komada
IRS Corporation-Manabu Saito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2284
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A laser 2-focus velocimeter(L2F) has been utilized for the measurements of the velocity and size of droplets in diesel fuel sprays injected from a 6-hole nozzle. The fuel was stored once in a common rail and was injected intermittently to the atmosphere by using a solenoid injector. The diameter of the nozzle orifice was 0.165 mm. The injection pressure was 60 MPa. The injector solenoid was driven by the current having a waveform consisted of 3 stages; boot, pull, and hold. The injection amounts were set at 0.8, 2.9, 3.9 and 4.7mg by changing the durations of the pull stage and the hold stage. The L2F measurement was conducted at 10 mm downstream from the nozzle exit. The fluctuation intensity of the droplet velocity was found to be larger under the smaller injection amount. It was clearly shown that the arithmetic mean droplet size under the smaller injection amount was smaller than that under the larger injection amount during the hold current duration. There was a negative correlation between the droplet size and the droplet…
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CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL, ADAPTER, SHRINK BOOT, CATEGORY 5 (FOR MIL-DTL-22992 CONNECTORS, CLASSES C, J, AND R)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/59B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Chevy reveals 2020 Corvette Stingray convertible, C8.R racer

Automotive Engineering: November/December 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP11_14
Published 2019-11-01 by SAE International in United States

Reinforcing the Corvette's long association with astronauts, Chevrolet unveiled the convertible version of its all-new, mid-engine-layout 2020 Corvette Stingray in Cape Canaveral in early October. Executive chief engineer Tadge Juechter, underscoring the car's no-compromises performance and comparatively affordable price, called it a “no-lose proposition” for enthusiasts considering the new Corvette but also desiring a more open-top experience. When it goes into production in the first quarter of 2020, the Corvette Stingray convertible will start at $67,495 - $7,500 more than the 2020 Stingray coupe, which was widely celebrated for its aggressive $59,995 base price.

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Towed Vehicle/Tow Equipment Attachment Test Procedure - Passenger Cars, Vans, and Light-Duty Trucks

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1143_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice provides a means to observe and evaluate a towed vehicle under a variety of road conditions to determine its behavior. The drivetrain should be evaluated by conducting SAE J1144.
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Paint and Trim Code Location

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2235_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is designed to provide readily accessible paint and trim code information on all passenger vehicles, lightweight trucks, and vans in a way that minimizes the time and effort required to locate and effectively use that information for body repair, parts ordering, vehicle maintenance, and information systems.
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Design Optimization of Trunk Lid Torsion Bar Type Trunk Lid Pop Up Mechanism

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Sharath Chandra Kasarla, Amit Singh
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Trunk lid (TL) can be opened using hydraulic or pneumatic balancers, coil springs, torsion bars or combination of the above. TL Opening Mechanism specific to Trunk Lid Torsion Bar (TLTB) is being discussed in the paper. After de-latching, TL should open smoothly and stop at such a height that it is visible from driver seat. The system consists of a four bar linkage mechanism, in which the fixed link is formed by BIW Bracket. Connecting link, TL Hinge Arm and Torsion bar arm form the other three links. Hinge has its one end attached to TL and the other end to BIW bracket. Torsion bar arm transfers torque to TL hinge through the connecting link. Major challenges in designing TLTB mechanism are part tolerances, C.G position and Weight variations in individual parts, Torsion bar Raw Material variation, uncertain friction in the system etc. If above challenges are not addressed properly, then issues like TL not popping up to desired level consistently and smoothly and hard closing may occur. TL pops up when torque due to…
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Accelerated Secure Boot for Real-Time Embedded Safety Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences-Kleve, Germany-Wonder Gumise
University of Michigan–Dearborn, USA-Ahmad M.K. Nasser, Di Ma
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0003
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering. We propose two efficient schemes of the dual-phase approach along with calibratable parameters to achieve the desired tamper detection probability. We evaluate the tampering detection accuracy within a simulation environment. Then we build a…
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Acoustic Effects of Lightweighting in a Sport Utility Vehicle

Autoneum North America, Inc.-Andrea Lynne Frey
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Weight reduction is a significant concern for automotive manufacturers, and is often achieved by removing as much mass as is safe from the structure of the vehicle. This has a negative effect on the interior acoustics, which has become more and more of an issue as technology has advanced and people expect to be able to do business and consume media in their vehicles. Traditional acoustic treatment tends to be very heavy, which eliminates some of the weight savings.Recently a vehicle study was performed to determine if the current production sound package in a highly-rated sport utility vehicle could be maintained or improved while reducing the weight. This paper presents the results of that study. The study focused on road noise transmitted through the floor (carpet, rear wheelhouse inner and trunk insulation) and engine noise transmitted through the dash (dash inner). Testing was performed both at the vehicle level on the road and at the component level in the laboratory. It was found that the lightweight sound package was highly effective against road noise, but…
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