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Design Optimization of Trunk Lid Torsion Bar Type Trunk Lid Pop Up Mechanism

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Sharath Chandra Kasarla, Amit Singh
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Trunk lid (TL) can be opened using hydraulic or pneumatic balancers, coil springs, torsion bars or combination of the above. TL Opening Mechanism specific to Trunk Lid Torsion Bar (TLTB) is being discussed in the paper. After de-latching, TL should open smoothly and stop at such a height that it is visible from driver seat. The system consists of a four bar linkage mechanism, in which the fixed link is formed by BIW Bracket. Connecting link, TL Hinge Arm and Torsion bar arm form the other three links. Hinge has its one end attached to TL and the other end to BIW bracket. Torsion bar arm transfers torque to TL hinge through the connecting link. Major challenges in designing TLTB mechanism are part tolerances, C.G position and Weight variations in individual parts, Torsion bar Raw Material variation, uncertain friction in the system etc. If above challenges are not addressed properly, then issues like TL not popping up to desired level consistently and smoothly and hard closing may occur. TL pops up when torque due to…
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Accelerated Secure Boot for Real-Time Embedded Safety Systems

SAE International Journal of Transportation Cybersecurity and Privacy

Rhein-Waal University of Applied Sciences-Kleve, Germany-Wonder Gumise
University of Michigan–Dearborn, USA-Ahmad M.K. Nasser, Di Ma
  • Journal Article
  • 11-02-01-0003
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
Secure boot is a fundamental security primitive for establishing trust in computer systems. For real-time safety applications, the time taken to perform the boot measurement conflicts with the need for near instant availability. To speed up the boot measurement while establishing an acceptable degree of trust, we propose a dual-phase secure boot algorithm that balances the strong requirement for data tamper detection with the strong requirement for real-time availability. A probabilistic boot measurement is executed in the first phase to allow the system to be quickly booted. This is followed by a full boot measurement to verify the first-phase results and generate the new sampled space for the next boot cycle. The dual-phase approach allows the system to be operational within a fraction of the time needed for a full boot measurement while producing a high detection probability of data tampering. We propose two efficient schemes of the dual-phase approach along with calibratable parameters to achieve the desired tamper detection probability. We evaluate the tampering detection accuracy within a simulation environment. Then we build a…
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Acoustic Effects of Lightweighting in a Sport Utility Vehicle

Autoneum North America, Inc.-Andrea Lynne Frey
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Weight reduction is a significant concern for automotive manufacturers, and is often achieved by removing as much mass as is safe from the structure of the vehicle. This has a negative effect on the interior acoustics, which has become more and more of an issue as technology has advanced and people expect to be able to do business and consume media in their vehicles. Traditional acoustic treatment tends to be very heavy, which eliminates some of the weight savings.Recently a vehicle study was performed to determine if the current production sound package in a highly-rated sport utility vehicle could be maintained or improved while reducing the weight. This paper presents the results of that study. The study focused on road noise transmitted through the floor (carpet, rear wheelhouse inner and trunk insulation) and engine noise transmitted through the dash (dash inner). Testing was performed both at the vehicle level on the road and at the component level in the laboratory. It was found that the lightweight sound package was highly effective against road noise, but…
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Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Jun Machida, Naoyoshi Madoka, Shogo Hayase
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions. The number of series-connected cells in each lithium-ion battery module was increased from 18 to 36, making it possible to reduce the number of modules from four to two, reducing the size of the battery pack against…
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Experimental Investigation of the Bi-Stable Behavior in the Wake of a Notchback MIRA Model

Tongji University-Gongjie Yan, Chao Xia, Hua Zhou, Hui Zhu, Zhigang Yang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the wake flow behind a 1/12 scale notchback MIRA model at Re = UL/ν = 6.9×105 (where U is free-stream velocity, L the length of the model and ν viscosity). Focus is placed on the flow asymmetry over the backlight and decklid. Forty pressure taps are used to map the surface pressure distribution on the backlight and decklid, while the wake topology is investigated by means of 2D Particle Image Velocimetry. The analysis of the instantaneous pressure signals over the notch configuration clearly shows that the pressure presents a bi-stable behavior in the spanwise direction, characterized by the switches between two preferred values, which is not found in the vertical direction. Based on the barycenter of momentum deficit, the instantaneous velocity fields in the plane z/H = 0.8 (H height of the model) can be sorted into three patterns, including two bi-stable states and one switch state, corresponding to the result of the instantaneous pressure signals. The sequence of these asymmetric states is random. In order to enable…
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Direct Versus Indirect Acting Piezoelectric CR Injectors: Comparison of Hydraulic Performance, Pollutant Emissions, Combustion Noise, and Fuel Consumption

SAE International Journal of Engines

Stefano d'Ambrosio, Alessandro Ferrari
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-05-0040
Published 2018-11-08 by SAE International in United States
A comprehensive comparison between a direct acting and an indirect acting piezoelectric injector has been carried out both at the hydraulic rig and at the dynamometer cell. The working principle of these injector typologies is illustrated, and their hydraulic performance has been analyzed and discussed on the basis of experimental data collected at a hydraulic test rig. The injector characteristics, nozzle opening and closure delays, injector leakages, injected flow-rate profiles, injector-to-injector variability in the injected mass, injected volume fluctuations with the dwell time (DT), and minimum DT for fusion-free multiple injections have been compared in order to evaluate the impact of the injector driving system on the injection apparatus performance. The direct acting and indirect acting piezoelectric injectors have been installed on a Euro 5 diesel engine, which has been tested at a dynamometer cell. Optimized double and triple injection strategies have been considered at some representative key points of the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). Experimental data on engine-out emissions, brake-specific fuel consumption (bsfc), and combustion noise (CN) are presented and discussed with the…
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Comparison of Various Drag Reduction Devices and Their Aerodynamic Effects on the DrivAer Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Hyundai Motor Company-Hak-Lim Kim
Seoul National University-Junho Cho, Joonmin Park, Kwanjung Yee
  • Journal Article
  • 06-11-03-0019
Published 2018-07-05 by SAE International in United States
In this study, two types of drag reduction devices (a horizontal plate, and a vertical plate) are used to weaken the downwash of the upper flow and c-pillar vortex of the DrivAer notchback model driving at high speed (140 km/h). By analyzing and comparing 15 cases in total, the aerodynamic drag reduction mechanism can be used in the development of vehicles. First, various CFD simulation conditions of a baseline model were compared to determine the analysis condition that efficiently calculates the correct aerodynamic drag. The vertical plate and horizontal plate applied in the path of the c-pillar vortex and downwash suppressed vortex development and induced rapid dissipation. As a result, the application of a 50-mm wedge-shaped vertical plate to the trunk weakened the vortex and reduced the drag by 3.3% by preventing the side flow from entering the trunk top. The installation of a 150 mm horizontal plate at the trunk to decrease downwash reduced the drag by 5.1% by improving the bottom and side flow.
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Application of Suspend Mode to Automotive ECUs

General Motors LLC-Scott A. Rush
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
To achieve high robustness and quality, automotive ECUs must initialize from low-power states as quickly as possible. However, microprocessor and memory advances have failed to keep pace with software image size growth in complex ECUs such as in Infotainment and Telematics. Loading the boot image from non-volatile storage to RAM and initializing the software can take a very long time to show the first screen and result in sluggish performance for a significant time thereafter which both degrade customer perceived quality. Designers of mobile devices such as portable phones, laptops, and tablets address this problem using Suspend mode whereby the main processor and peripheral devices are powered down during periods of inactivity, but memory contents are preserved by a small “self-refresh” current. When the device is turned back “on”, fully initialized memory content allows the system to initialize nearly instantaneously. While the basic concept is more than ten years old, there has been limited deployment of Suspend mode in automotive ECU designs due to lack of support in automotive-grade microprocessors and the accompanying overall increase…
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High Tension Ignition Cable Assemblies - Marine

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1191_201802
  • Current
Published 2018-02-24 by SAE International in United States
This Standard covers the requirements for all marine inboard and outboard gasoline engine ignition assemblies and components.
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CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL BOOTS AND SLEEVES, TRANSITIONS, HEAT-SHRINKABLE, CATEGORY 7

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/142C
  • Current
Published 2017-10-03 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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