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Experimental Study on Tool Wear and Cutting Temperature during Machining of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy Based on Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology

Sri Sairam Engineering College-Vetri Velmurugan Kannan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0144
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Nickel based materials of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy are used nowadays for aerospace applications owing to its superior strength properties that are maintained at a higher temperature. Tool wear and cutting temperature in the vicinity of cutting edge are two essential machinability characteristics for any cutting tool. In this regard, this study is pursued to examine the influence of factors on measuring of tool wear (Vba) and cutting temperature (Ts) during dry machining of two alloys studied experimentally based on Taguchi method and response surface methodology. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and a PVD (TiAlN), CVD (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN) coated carbide inserts are used on turning of two alloys. The factor effect on output responses are studied using analysis of variance, empirical models, and responses surface 3D plots. To minimize the response and to convert into one single optimum level, responses surface desirability function approach is applied. The results show that progress of flank wear associated with Waspaloy is faster that of Nimonic C-263 due to high cutting temperature for Waspaloy that…
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Investigation of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of AA8011 Reinforced with Zirconium Oxide and Aluminium Oxide Hybrid Composites Processed through Multi-Direction Forging

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Aruchamy, Shanthosh Gopal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0057
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The Cardinal goal of this research work is to fabricate hybrid composites of AA8011 with reinforcement particles of Zr2O3 and Al2O3 which was taken in equal (5wt%) weight percentage. The hybrid composites were cast in a square shape (50x50x50 mm size) under the optimal stir casted process parametric condition, further, it was taken for the forging process. The prepared specimens were induced for uni-direction (x), bi-direction (x and y) and multi-direction (x,y, and z) forging route and the response of microhardness of 53, 68, 81 and 96 VHN were obtained respectively due to microstructural phase changes with an even distribution of particles in the matrix. Thus, the tribological properties of prepared specimens were tested using pin-on-disc Tribometer at room temperature under dry sliding condition of load 5,10,15,20 N and by adjusting the sliding speed as 266 and 531 rpm respectively. The outcomes uncovered all the specimens that the wear rate increments with an increase in load and coefficient of friction show an increase at most extreme load conditions. Wear rate increments with increment in the…
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Critical Wear Assessment of AA8011/Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites with Surface Amendment Using Friction Stir Process

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shri Vignesh Ramachandran, Ramprakash Palanivelu, Saravanakumar Ramasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0096
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Process (FSP) was employed for surface modification of steel, titanium, aluminum and magnesium-based alloy has been significantly revised through the last decade. Friction Stir Process can improve surface properties such as hardness, abrasion resistance, ductility, strength, fatigue life, corrosion resistance and formability without upsetting the bulk properties of the material. The aluminum alloy having low ductility and softness characteristics are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Preliminary studies reveal that, an ideal circumstance is to improve the aluminum alloy material life cycles by the way of strengthening the surface layer which can be modified through reinforcing nanoparticles through FSP. The main objective of the study is to improve the surface properties of AA8011 by adding nanoparticles such as SMA and silicon nitrate (Si3N4) through friction stir process. By the way, this experiment was carried out to obtain three set of samples like virgin AA8011, AA8011 with shape memory alloy and AA8011 along with shape memory alloy and silicon nitride during FSP under optimal process parametric condition. The nanoparticles distribution was improved after…
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A Comparative Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oils with Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Additives

Archit Bimal Shah, Karan Kothari
Vellore Institute of Technology-Anil Payyappalli Mana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0174
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The present work compares the tribological properties of ZnO (Zinc Oxide) nanoparticle based lubricant with ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate) based lubricant. The nanolubricant was prepared by mixing the nanoparticles in base oil followed by ultrasonification and ZDDP based lubricant was prepared by mixing ZDDP and stirring with base oil. Base oil used was mineral base oil. Both the lubricants were tested at three different temperatures, loads and roughness values. The test was carried out on AISI 52100 steel samples prepared by wire cutting and were grinded to three different levels of surface roughness. Friction and wear tests were performed using a reciprocating sliding tribo-tester at three different loads and temperatures. Taguchi orthogonal array was used to reduce the number of experiments. SEM, EDS and AFM analysis were carried out to study the surface wear phenomenon. The coefficient of friction was found to be low in the case of ZnO nanolubricant but wear was found to be high compared to ZDDP based lubricant.
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Emission and Tribological Studies on Nano CuO/Jatropha Methyl Ester/Synthetic Mineral Oil in a Two-Stroke Engine

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology-Anbalagan Ramakrishnan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0095
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In lieu of the drastic growth of the vehicle population, there is a huge consumption of fossil fuels and mineral oils for mobility. This leads to depletion in fossil fuels and mineral oils which are the by-products of petroleum. These fossil fuels can’t sustain for a long period of time because of its toxicity. In order to reduce the usage of existing mineral oil for lubrication, a source of non-edible oil from Jatropha curcus is processed as jatropha methyl ester (JME). It is holding high viscosity, density and easy blend with base oil. In this current work, the wear resistance of the lubricating oil is enhanced by the addition of nano-copper oxide particle blend with the base oil. The emission performance and tribological behavior have been experimentally tested in 98.2CC two-stroke air cooled engine. The 20% of JME blend with CuO nano particle provides better emission performance and wear characteristics than the other combination of blends.
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Investigation of Thermal Shock Resistance of CeO2 Coating on Titanium Alloy by Magnetron Sputtering

AAA College of Engineering & Techology-Balamurugan Subburaj
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Bala Manikandan Cheirmakani, Balamurugan Pandian, Lionel Beneston
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0103
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Titanium alloy (Grade V) is used in aerospace, medical, marine and chemical processing industries. To improve the thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance of the titanium alloy at elevated temperatures, Thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been predominantly used. Cerium oxides (CeO2) have been proposed as TBC, due to their high thermal expansion coefficient, higher thermal shock resistance and low corrosion rate. In this study, CeO2 was coated on Titanium alloy by magnetron sputtering. Deposition time was varied as 30 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins respectively, to achieve the variation in thickness of coating. Thickness of the coated specimen was measured by atomic force microscopy and found to be 500 nm, 120 nm and 80 nm respectively. Surface roughness of the corresponding coated surfaces is 152.28 nm, 18.41 nm and 18.65 nm. The Vickers hardness was found to increase with decrease in coating thickness upto certain extent then decreases. Corrosion ability of the coated specimen was identified by electrochemical corrosion test. The coating with lower concentration of particles has the best corrosion properties. Thermal shock…
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Experimental Investigation on Turning Characteristics of TiC/MoS2 Nanoparticles Reinforced Al7075 Using TiN Coated Cutting Tool

Sri Sairam Engineering College-Vetri Velmurugan Kannan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan, Budireddy Uday Kumar, Dhulipalla Anvesh, Varupula Akhil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0165
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) are found as a potential material for numerous applications owing to its excellent tribological and mechanical properties. In this work, the machining characteristics of aluminum alloy (Al7075) reinforced with TiC/MoS2 having nanoparticle has been studied. The samples of aluminum metal matrix composites by varying TiC in 0, 2 and 4 and MoS2 in 0 and 2 of the percentage weight of aluminum alloy (Composite 1(Al7075), Composite 2 (Al7075/2TiC/2MoS2) and composite 3 (Al7075/4TiC/2MoS2), respectively) are fabricated by the stir-casing method. The turning characteristics of the developed metal matrix composites are studied at various parameters such as cutting velocity (30 m/min, 60 m/min and 90 m/min), cutting depth (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) and composites (1, 2 and 3) using TiN coated cutting tool by dry turning at 0.05 mm/rev feed rate. The turning characteristics of the prepared samples are compared each other under L20 orthogonal array on CNC turning machine. The significant findings in the present study are: hardness of base aluminum alloy is found to…
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Influence of Amount of Phenolic Resin on the Tribological Performance of Environment-Friendly Friction Materials

Indian Institute of Technology Delhi-Navnath Kalel, Jayashree Bijwe, Ashish Darpe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2105
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The binder in friction materials (FMs) plays a very crucial role which binds all the ingredients firmly so that they can function the way they were supposed to do. The type and amount of binder, both are very critical for manipulating the desired performance properties, which mainly include friction and its sensitivity towards operating parameters, wear resistance, counter-face friendliness, noise, vibration etc. Although a lot is reported on the influence of types of resins on tribo-performance of FMs, hardly any paper pertains to paint this on a bigger canvas with more detailed understanding of the amount of resin in FMs on the performance properties.The present study addresses these aspects by developing brake-pads with identical composition but varying in amount (wt. %) of straight phenolic resins (6, 8, 10 and 12) by compensating the difference with barite, a space filler. The ingredients did not contain asbestos, Copper, Zinc, etc. and hence were environment friendly. Tribological performance of the composites was evaluated on a full-scale inertia brake dynamometer following JASO C406 test schedule. With increase in the…
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Fluids for Aerospace Hydraulic Systems

  • Professional Development
  • C1966
Published 2019-07-11
This four-hour short course provides an introduction to fluids for aerospace hydraulic systems. Topics covered include an introduction to basics fluid properties, rheology, tribology, and fluid product development. In addition, the history and performance of different classes of fluids are discussed in detail, and specific failure modes such as erosion and sludge formation will be described. Along with an introduction to fluid degradation, information on used oil analysis test methods and interpretation will be provided.By attending this seminar, you will be able to: Describe the general properties and components of a fluidInterpret a fluid specification or reportIdentify key performance advantages and disadvantages for different fluid typesExplain fluid degradation processes1 Day .4 CEUs
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A Multiscale Cylinder Bore Honing Pattern Lubrication Model for Improved Engine Friction

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Istanbul Technical University, Turkey-Osman Taha Sen, Ozgen Akalin
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0010
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
Three-dimensional patterns representing crosshatched plateau-honed cylinder bores based on two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of measured surfaces were generated and used to calculate pressure flow, shear-driven flow, and shear stress factors. Later, the flow and shear stress factors obtained by numerical simulations for various surface patterns were used to calculate lubricant film thickness and friction force between piston ring and cylinder bore contact in typical diesel engine conditions using a mixed lubrication model. The effects of various crosshatch honing angles, such as 30°, 45°, and 60°, and texture heights on engine friction losses, wear, and oil consumption were discussed in detail. It is observed from numerical results that lower lubricant film thickness values are generated with higher honing angles, particularly in mixed lubrication regime where lubricant film thickness is close to the roughness level, mainly due to lower resistance to pressure flow. Although, shear stress values are lower for higher honing angles, significant friction force observed in the expansion stroke with high honing angles is primarily due to metal-to-metal contact and increased viscous shear as…
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