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Modeling and Identification of an Electric Vehicle Braking System: Thermal and Tribology Phenomena Assessment

Siemens Industry Software NV-Thomas D’hondt, Bart Forrier, Mathieu Sarrazin
Università degli Studi di Firenze-Tommaso Favilli, Luca Pugi, Lorenzo Berzi, Riccardo Viviani, Marco Pierini
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1094
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A rapidly shifting market and increasingly stringent environmental regulations require the automotive OEMs to produce more efficient and low-emission electric vehicles. Regenerative braking has proven to be a major contributor to both objectives, enabling the charging of the batteries during braking on one side, and a reduction of the load and wear of the brake pads on the other side. The optimal sizing of such systems requires the availability of good simulation models to improve their performance and reliability at all stages of the vehicle design. This enables the designer to study both the integration of the braking system with the full vehicle equipment and the interactions between electrical and mechanical braking strategies. The present paper presents a generic simulation framework for the thermal and wear behavior of a mechanical braking system, based on a lumped parameter approach. The thermal behavior of the system is coupled back to the friction coefficient between the pad and the disc to assess its effect on braking performance. Additionally, the effect of wear and temperature on the generation of…
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Investigation on Tribological Performance of Nano Zno and Mixed Oxide of Cu – Zn as Additives in Engine Oil.

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Bharadwaj Ramakrishnan, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Induja Saravanan, S Jenoris Muthiya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1095
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lubrication plays an essential role in wear reduction of various mechanisms, eliminating surface to surface contact of components. In the automotive field the lubricants, in the form of oils or greases, are presented in motors, gearboxes, distributors, differentials, pumps, bearings etc. The quality and the condition of lubricants influence the performance through the properties as high pressure resistance, viscosity and viscosity index, anti-wear and anti-corrosion resistance etc. The Proper lubrication augments the efficiency and the reliability of engines and protects against corrosion and wear. In an internal combustion engine, almost 33% of the energy produced by the fuel during combustion was wasted due to very high friction between the moving parts in the engine because the engine oil could not play a effective role during in different operating condition. Nanoparticles used as additives in the engine oil can exhibit good friction reduction and anti-wear behavior. The present study aims to enhance the tribological performance of engine oil SAE(20W-40) by employing nano zinc oxide and mixed oxides of copper and zinc as additives. The zinc oxide…
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Impact of Soot and Engine Oil Additive Characteristics on Metallic Wear using Electron Microscopy and Confocal Microscopy

King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Thailand-Panyakorn Rungsritanapaisan, Preechar Karin, Warawut Amornprapa
National Metal and Material Technology Center, Thailand-Dhritti Tanprayoon, Ruangdaj Tongsri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0601
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Soot particles are produced inside the combustion chamber of the internal combustion engines and will later be exhausted into the thermosphere. Part of these particles will contaminate the engine oil. When this happens, diesel engine abrasion or, in a worst-case scenario, lubricant starvation will occur. This circumstance will eventually cause engine wear. This research uses X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) technique to analyze the additive element in engine oil. For wear test, this research uses tribology Four ball wear tester to substitute point contact wear mechanism. Then the worn surface is analyzed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Confocal Microscope are used to study the effect of additive on soot dispersion in engine oil, which affects the metal wear mechanism. This research use Laser Particle Size Analyzer to investigate performance of soot dispersant additive in each engine oil. The results show that, the wear scar diameters significantly increased when the American Petroleum Institute (API) CD standard engine oil is contaminated with soot. On the other hand, American Petroleum Institute (API) CF-4 standard engine oil which contains higher amount…
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Comparative Study on the Effect of Different Lubricating Oil Additives on the Tribological Properties of Bearing Steel

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Southeast University, China-Zhaocai Xia, Wencheng Tang, Kaiyuan Li, Hao Wang
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0002
Published 2020-01-23 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this article is to study the antifriction and anti-wear effect of GCr15 bearing steel under paraffin base oil and the base oil with two additives of T405 sulfurized olefin and nano-MoS2 and compare the synergistic lubrication effect of two different additives (MoS2 and T405) in paraffin base oil. The tribological properties of GCr15 bearing steel under different lubrication conditions were tested on a ball-on-disk tribometer. The three-dimensional profile of disk’s worn surfaces and the scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of corresponding steel balls were analyzed at the same time. The wettability of lubricating oils on the surface of friction pairs and the dispersibility of MoS2 in base oil were characterized. Furthermore, the Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) of the disk’s worn surfaces under the nano-MoS2 base oil were measured by the Field Emission Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope to observe the variation of chemical elements on the worn surface of the disk after tests. The results show that these additives have a good synergistic lubrication effect with the base oil in terms of…
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The Study of Friction Modifiers to Improve Fuel Economy for WLTP with Low and Ultra-Low Viscosity Engine Oil

ADEKA Corporation-Kenji Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi Hiramatsu, Ryo Hanamura, Yukiya Moriizumi
ADEKA Europe GmbH-Sascha Heiden
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2205
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Applying friction modifier (FM) in low viscosity engine oil is one well known cost effective approach for improving a fuel economy of vehicles. At first, the characteristics and mechanisms of FMs on tribological phenomena were studied with surface analysis technics. The performance of FMs was also evaluated with engine component test and motored engine test to understand the friction property of FMs in engine application. Then the effect of driving cycle, lubricant viscosity and FMs in fuel economy performance under chassis dynamo were studied.Among tested FMs, molybdenum dialkyl dithiocarbamate (MoDTC) was the most effective at boundary lubrication, which is considered significantly important friction area for WLTP, latest procedure for fuel economy test, with low and ultra-low viscosity engine oil.
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The performance and mechanisms of organic polymeric friction modifiers in low viscosity engine oils

Croda Europe Ltd-Gareth Moody, John Eastwood
Croda Japan-Keiko Ueno
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2204
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The requirement of OEMs to reduce CO2 emissions is leading to a reduction in viscosity of engine oils with 0W20 approved oils now common. 0W 16 approvals are growing in popularity and will be further supported in the US by the introduction of ILSAC GF-6B. Japanese OEMs are driving the development of 0W- 12 and 0W08 grades which will be supported by JASO GLV-1. These low viscosity engine oils can contain MoDTC with very high levels of 1000+ppm molybdenum to achieve the fuel economy improvement required to pass engine tests such as Sequence VIE. Molybdenum usage at this level contributes to sulphated ash increase. It can also have a negative impact on deposits.This paper examines the performance and mechanism of two ashless polymeric friction modifiers in a 0W20 formulation. These polymeric friction modifiers have been shown to give fuel economy benefits in Sequence VIE engine tests. The aim of this work is to better understand the influence and interaction of these polymeric friction modifiers in the presence of ZDDP as well as other additives, in…
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Experimental Study on Tool Wear and Cutting Temperature during Machining of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy Based on Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology

Sri Sairam Engineering College-Vetri Velmurugan Kannan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Nickel based materials of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy are used nowadays for aerospace applications owing to its superior strength properties that are maintained at a higher temperature. Tool wear and cutting temperature in the vicinity of cutting edge are two essential machinability characteristics for any cutting tool. In this regard, this study is pursued to examine the influence of factors on measuring of tool wear (Vba) and cutting temperature (Ts) during dry machining of two alloys studied experimentally based on Taguchi method and response surface methodology. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and a PVD (TiAlN), CVD (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN) coated carbide inserts are used on turning of two alloys. The factor effect on output responses are studied using analysis of variance, empirical models, and responses surface 3D plots. To minimize the response and to convert into one single optimum level, responses surface desirability function approach is applied. The results show that progress of flank wear associated with Waspaloy is faster that of Nimonic C-263 due to high cutting temperature for Waspaloy that…
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Investigation of Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of AA8011 Reinforced with Zirconium Oxide and Aluminium Oxide Hybrid Composites Processed through Multi-Direction Forging

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Aruchamy, Shanthosh Gopal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The Cardinal goal of this research work is to fabricate hybrid composites of AA8011 with reinforcement particles of Zr2O3 and Al2O3 which was taken in equal (5wt%) weight percentage. The hybrid composites were cast in a square shape (50x50x50 mm size) under the optimal stir casted process parametric condition, further, it was taken for the forging process. The prepared specimens were induced for uni-direction (x), bi-direction (x and y) and multi-direction (x,y, and z) forging route and the response of microhardness of 53, 68, 81 and 96 VHN were obtained respectively due to microstructural phase changes with an even distribution of particles in the matrix. Thus, the tribological properties of prepared specimens were tested using pin-on-disc Tribometer at room temperature under dry sliding condition of load 5,10,15,20 N and by adjusting the sliding speed as 266 and 531 rpm respectively. The outcomes uncovered all the specimens that the wear rate increments with an increase in load and coefficient of friction show an increase at most extreme load conditions. Wear rate increments with increment in the…
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Critical Wear Assessment of AA8011/Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites with Surface Amendment Using Friction Stir Process

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shri Vignesh Ramachandran, Ramprakash Palanivelu, Saravanakumar Ramasamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Friction Stir Process (FSP) was employed for surface modification of steel, titanium, aluminum and magnesium-based alloy has been significantly revised through the last decade. Friction Stir Process can improve surface properties such as hardness, abrasion resistance, ductility, strength, fatigue life, corrosion resistance and formability without upsetting the bulk properties of the material. The aluminum alloy having low ductility and softness characteristics are restricted because of their poor tribological properties. Preliminary studies reveal that, an ideal circumstance is to improve the aluminum alloy material life cycles by the way of strengthening the surface layer which can be modified through reinforcing nanoparticles through FSP. The main objective of the study is to improve the surface properties of AA8011 by adding nanoparticles such as SMA and silicon nitrate (Si3N4) through friction stir process. By the way, this experiment was carried out to obtain three set of samples like virgin AA8011, AA8011 with shape memory alloy and AA8011 along with shape memory alloy and silicon nitride during FSP under optimal process parametric condition. The nanoparticles distribution was improved after…
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A Comparative Tribological Performance of Lubricating Oils with Zinc Dialkyl Dithiophosphate and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles as Additives

Archit Bimal Shah, Karan Kothari
Vellore Institute of Technology-Anil Payyappalli Mana
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The present work compares the tribological properties of ZnO (Zinc Oxide) nanoparticle based lubricant with ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate) based lubricant. The nanolubricant was prepared by mixing the nanoparticles in base oil followed by ultrasonification and ZDDP based lubricant was prepared by mixing ZDDP and stirring with base oil. Base oil used was mineral base oil. Both the lubricants were tested at three different temperatures, loads and roughness values. The test was carried out on AISI 52100 steel samples prepared by wire cutting and were grinded to three different levels of surface roughness. Friction and wear tests were performed using a reciprocating sliding tribo-tester at three different loads and temperatures. Taguchi orthogonal array was used to reduce the number of experiments. SEM, EDS and AFM analysis were carried out to study the surface wear phenomenon. The coefficient of friction was found to be low in the case of ZnO nanolubricant but wear was found to be high compared to ZDDP based lubricant.
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