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Investigation on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Torque Transmission Chain for an Innovative Hybrid Power Unit Architecture

Università degli Studi di Modena-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Barbieri, Michele Russo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0013
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In this contribution, the mechanical torque transmission between the Elecrtic Motor (EM) and the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) of a P0 architecture hybrid power unit is analysed. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480cc engine developed on the basis of the Ducati "959 Superquadro" V90 2-cylinders engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The Ducati "959 Superquadro" engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, and for taking advantage of its V90 2-cylinders layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. This solution could be suitable for many V-type engines and aims to obtain a small hybrid power unit for possible motorcycle/small vehicle applications. The original timing chain object of this study is a silent chain, which is commonly employed as a transmission component in hybrid power unit because it…
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A Reverse Engineering Method for Powertrain Parameters Characterization Applied to a P2 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Automatic Transmission

FEV Group GmbH-Alessandro Perazzo
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Federico Millo, Giuseppe DiPierro, Mauro Velardocchia, Gianluca Mari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0021
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant but unknown powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle modelling. The main estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency maps, torque converter and lock-up clutch operating maps, internal combustion engine and electric motor mass moment of inertia, and finally front/rear brake torque distribution. This activity introduces a list of limited and dedicated experimental tests, carried out both on road and on a chassis dynamometer, aiming at powertrain characterization thanks to a suitable post-processing algorithm. In this regard, the methodology was tested on a P2 architecture Diesel Plug-in HEV equipped with a 9-speed AT. voltage and current sensors are used to measure the electrical power exchanged…
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A Diagnostic Technology of Powertrain Parts that Cause Abnormal Noises using Artificial Intelligence

Hanyang University-Kyoungjin Noh, Joon-Hyuk Chang
Hyundai Motor Company-Insoo Jung, Dongchul Lee, Dongkyu Yoo, Kibeen Lim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1565
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In general, when a problem occurs in a component, various phenomena appear, and abnormal noise is one of them. The service technicians diagnose the noise through the analysis using hearing and equipment. Depending on their experiences, the analysis time and diagnosis accuracy vary widely. The newly developed AI-based diagnostic technology diagnoses parts that cause abnormal noises within seconds when a noise is input to the equipment. To create a learning model for diagnosis, we collected as many abnormal noises as possible from various parts, and selected good and bad data. This process is very important in the development of diagnostic techniques. Artificial intelligence was learned by deep learning with selected good data. This paper is about the technology that can diagnose the abnormal noises generated from the engine, transmission, drivetrain and PE (Power Electric) parts of the eco-friendly vehicle through the diagnosis model composed of various methods of deep learning.
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The In-Depth PHEV Driveline Torsional Vibration Induced Vehicle NVH Response Study by Integrated CAE/Testing Methodology

BAIC Motor Powertrain Co Ltd-Hongzhi Yu, Shouwei lu
BAIC Motor corporation.Ltd.-Qian zhao, Li zhang, Jianning jia, LIE WU, Huimin zhuang, honghui zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1507
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper,an amesim 1-d refined driveline model, including detailed engine, damper, dual clutch, transmission, differential, motor, halfshaft, wheel, body, suspension, powertrain mounting and powertrain rigid body, was built up, off a p2.5 topology phev,to predict torsional vibration induced vehicle NVH response addressing differing driving scenarios,like WOT rampup,parking engine start/stop,ev driving to tipnin(engine start) then to tipout(engine stop).firstly,the torsional vibration modes were predicted,addressing differing transmission gear steps of hev/ev driving mode,and the critical modes could be detected,as such, caveats/measures could be applied to setup the modal alignment chart/warn other engineering section from the very start of vehicle development; secondly,secondly,the holistic operational testing,which defined plenty measurement points including rpm fluctuation at differing location of engine/transmission,spark angle,crank position,injection angle,valve timing,MAP/MAF,etc, partly for later model calibration,partly for extract mandatory excitation input,like cylinder pressure trace/mount and suspension force,and partly for the reference of next optimization stage, was implemented on vehicle chassis dyno in a hemi-anechoic chamber.as it was merely centered on torsional vibration induced scenarios,the intake system/exhaust system /engine radiation noise contribution was excluded by specific measures,like BAM,etc, during…
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Root Cause Analysis and Structural Optimization of E-Drive Transmission

AVL LIST GmbH-Thomas Resch
AVL-AST d.o.o.-Borislav Klarin, Ivan Grozdanovic, Denis Pevec
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1578
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
We face a growing demand for so-called eAxles (electric axle drive) in vehicle development. An eAxle is a compact electric drive solution for full electric vehicles (and P4 hybrids) with integrated electric machine and transmission. The transmission can be rather simple using fixed gear with cylindrical gear steps but increasing demands on power and speed range as well as efficiency increase its complexity with planetary stages or switchable gear steps. Such an electro-mechanic system has different behavior than the classical ICE-driven powertrains, for example regarding NVH, where high frequency and tonal noise from gear whining and electro-magnetic excitation is an important comfort issue that needs to be understood and controlled. As knowledge base for such drives is currently low, development needs to be supported by methodologies, which are not only on high predictive level for NVH responses, but also allow a detailed understanding and insight into the causes and reasons of a certain behavior to identify noise effects and to accelerate learning for such systems. In addition, such methods should lead to the possibility to…
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Asian Consumers Challenging the NVH Performance of European Cars – Implications on the Product Development in the 2020ies

Head of NVH Dept.,MAGNA STEYR Automotive-Christoph Fankhauser
NVH Expert MAGNA STEYR Automotive-Paulo Padilha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1552
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Sales of SUV and luxury cars on the largest market of the world – China – are growing at a high rate. The highways in large cities like Beijing or Shanghai are increasingly populated with cars from all over the world like Japan, USA, Europe and Korea and even some refined domestic brands. More than 10 million rich people can afford those cars and are skilled drivers. This huge group of potential consumers is targeted by luxury brand OEMs and by startup companies. It has been understood, that these people have a strong attitude towards comfort. The twistbeam rear axle was replaced by multilink, double clutch transmissions were improved by comfort-mode drive programs, interior trims raised to Western standard performance levels, tyres specially developed for comfort in China, localized insulation materials and packages engineered to a one vehicle class higher level. The European avant-garde is capable of such high levels of complete vehicle NVH performance, whereas premium brands often compromise NVH with respect to high vehicle dynamics performance and passive safety requirements. At the same…
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A generic testbody for low-frequency aeroacoustic buffeting

BMW Group, Munich, Germany-Rafael Engelmann, Christoph Gabriel
Vienna University of Technology-Stefan Schoder, Manfred Kaltenbacher
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1515
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Raising demands towards lightweight design paired with a loss of originally predominant engine noise pose significant challenges for NVH engineers in the automotive industry. From an aeroacoustic point of view, low frequency buffeting ranks among the most frequently encountered issues. The phenomenon typically arises due to structural transmission of aerodynamic wall pressure fluctuations and/or, as indicated in this work, through rear vent excitation. A possible workflow to simulate structure-excited buffeting contains a strongly coupled vibro-acoustic model for structure and interior cavity excited by a spatial pressure distribution obtained from a CFD simulation. In the case of rear vent buffeting no validated workflow has been published yet. While approaches have been made to simulate the problem for a real-car geometry such attempts suffer from tremendous computation costs, meshing effort and lack of flexibility. Additionally, low frequency structural behavior strongly depends on appropriate boundary conditions being subject to manufacturing and mounting conditions. The goal of this work is to develop, simulate and experimentally validate a generic, easy-to-adjust experimental setup to test and assess low frequency vibro-aero-acoustic optimization…
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Innovative Acoustic Material Concept Integration Into Vehicle Design Process

Odenwald-Chemie GmbH-Michael Feist-Muench
dBVibroAcoustics-Denis Blanchet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1527
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
Integration of acoustic material concepts into vehicle design process is an important part of full vehicle design. The ability to assess the acoustic performance of a particular sound package component early in the design process allows designers to test various designs concepts before selecting a final products. This paper describes an innovative acoustic material concept which is easily integrated in a design process through the use of a database of Biot parameters. Biot parameters are widely used in the automotive industry to describe the physical interactions between the acoustics waves travelling through foams, fibers or metamaterials and the solid and fluid phase of these poro-elastic materials. This new acoustic material concept provides a combination of absorption, transmission loss and added damping on the panel it is attached to. It has shown unique vibro-acoustics performance when tested on a German car manufacturer flagship vehicle and provides the ability to reduce the space needed for sound package component compared with classical solutions.
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Analytical Rotordynamic Study of a High-Speed Gear Transmission System for Race Applications

Loughborough Univ-Stephanos Theodossiades, Mahdi Mohammadpour
Loughborough Univ.-Brett Friskney
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1502
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In motorsport power transmission systems, high-speed operation can be associated with significant rotordynamic effects. Changes in the natural frequencies of lateral (bending) vibrational modes as a function of spin speed are brought about by gyroscopic action linked to flexible shafts and mounted gear components. In the investigation of high-speed systems, it is important that these effects are included in the analysis in order to accurately predict the critical speeds encountered due to the action of the gear mesh and other sources of excitation. The rotordynamic behaviour of the system can interact with crucial physical parameters of the transmission, such as the stiffnesses of the gear mesh and rolling element-to-raceway contact in the bearings. In addition, the presence of the gear mesh acts to couple the lateral and torsional vibration modes of a dual-shaft transmission through which a torque flows. The relative interactions and effects of bearing and gear components can be captured in the form of modal analysis with parametric studies of key stiffness elements, such as mean value as a linear representation of stiffness.…
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Measurement Location Optimization of Component TPA Method for Road Noise

Applus + Idiada Spain-Onno de Boer, Javier Iturbe
Applus Idiada-Beatriz Bragado Pérez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1581
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, an investigation on the application of a non-intrusive on-site component Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) method is presented together with the comparison with a previously performed direct blocked forces method. The latter is the more common method to determine interface forces between active and passive parts of an assembly. Force transducers are placed between the investigated structure and a rigid measurement rig. The presented comparison shows an investigated whether the faster and cheaper TPA method was able to produce relevant results. The TPA method used in this work calculated the force component contributions, without disassembly of the interfaces, through the local stiffness of multiple indicator positions per interface combined with operational measurement. The method is based on the application of an inverse-matrix model. This approach was applied to a vehicle road noise investigation carried out on a roller bench at three different roller speeds. A rough surface single axle roller bench in the same conditions as for the blocked forces method was used. The matrix inversion was carried out by using an overdetermined…