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Understanding Base Oils and Lubricants for Electric Drivetrain Applications

Afton Chemical Corporation, Richmond, Virginia 23219, USA-Yungwan Kwak, Christopher Cleveland, Atanu Adhvaryu, Xinggao Fang
Afton Chemical Japan Corporation, Tokyo, Japan-Tsuneo Adachi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2337
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The penetration of hybridization and electrification (HEV and EV) technology into automotive powertrain designs is an evolving trend resulting from global regulations intended to reduce transportation-related emissions of greenhouse gases and other pollutants and to improve vehicle fuel efficiency. In many HEV and EV hardware designs, drivetrain fluids have contact with the integrated electric motor (e-motor), which requires electrical and thermal properties to be considered in addition to traditional fluid properties.This paper discusses new insights gained around electrical and thermal properties of drivetrain fluids, with a specific emphasis on understanding the critical impacts of base oils (BOs). Electrical and thermal properties data as a function of temperature for a range of BOs as well as automatic transmission fluids are shared. We found that BOs and their viscosities play a critical role in cooling performance, while additives play a critical role in electrical conductivity (EC). That being said, we also have observed that additives in BOs can modify cooling performance. We will demonstrate how each component in the additive package affects EC and in some cases…
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Measurement of Aerodynamic Performance for Mass-Produced Cars and Light-Duty Trucks

Road Vehicle Aerodynamics Forum Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2881_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-09 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice provides a procedure for measuring and documenting the aerodynamic performance in a full-scale wind tunnel of passenger vehicles, i.e., mass-produced cars and light-duty trucks intended primarily for individual consumers. Testing or numerical modeling of pre-production and/or reduced-scale models is outside the scope of this document. Aerodynamic development procedures, i.e., methods to improve or optimize aerodynamic performance, are also excluded. It is well-known that aerodynamic performance results depend significantly on vehicle content and loading, as well as the wind tunnel itself (type, scale, and simulation qualities of the wind tunnel). Publication of non-standard test results causes unnecessary additional development work and incorrect perception of a vehicle’s anticipated aerodynamic performance by government, academia, and the general public. The intent of this document is to promote uniformity and traceability of published aerodynamic performance data acquired in a wind tunnel, thereby enhancing the public reputation and credibility of the aerodynamics discipline in the total vehicle development process. Measurement of the aerodynamic performance according to this Recommended Practice requires a full-scale wind tunnel test on a production-ready,…
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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine 6000 rpm Stepped Power Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2488_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a 6000 rpm stepped power test for the evaluation of wet friction system performance variation as a function of power level. This procedure uses an initial engagement speed of 6000 rpm and is intended as a standard procedure for common use by both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction material b Fluid c Reaction plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of using this test. If any of the test parameters or system…
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Non-Metallic, Non-Reinforced Automotive Air-Conditioning Refrigerant Line Assembly Requirements

Interior Climate Control MAC Supplier Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3143_201907
  • Current
Published 2019-07-23 by SAE International in United States
The scope of SAE J3143 will cover non-metallic line assemblies intended for containing and circulating lubricant (PAG, POE compressor oils), liquid, and gaseous R-134a, R-152a, or R-1234yf refrigerant in automotive air-conditioning systems. SAE J3143 will also provide the necessary hose permeation values used in SAE J2727 mobile air-conditioning system refrigerant emission charts. The assembly shall be designed to minimize permeation of the refrigerant, contamination of the system, and to be functional over a temperature range of -30 to 125 °C. Specific construction details are to be agreed upon between user and supplier. Figure 1 shows a typical A/C system with TXV.
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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine μPVT Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2490_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-31 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, which may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a μPVT Test for the evaluation of the variation of wet friction system performance as a function of speed, temperature, and pressure. This procedure is intended as a standard for both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction material b Fluid c Reaction plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of this test. If any of the test parameters or system hardware as described in this document are changed, other than the friction material,…
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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine 3600 rpm Stepped Power Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2487_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use. The SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine is used to evaluate the friction characteristics of automatic transmission plate clutches with automotive transmission fluids. It can also be used to conduct durability tests on wet friction systems. The specific purpose of this document is to define a 3600 rpm Stepped Power Test for the evaluation of wet friction system performance variation as a function of power level. This procedure uses an initial engagement speed of 3600 rpm and is intended as a standard procedure for common use by both suppliers and end users. The only variables selected by the supplier or user of the friction system are: a Friction Material b Fluid c Reaction Plates These three variables must be clearly identified when reporting the results of using this test. If any of the test parameters or system…
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Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

FCA US LLC-Haiying Tang
FEV North America Inc.-Thomas D'Anna, Jason E. Murtagh, Thomas Wellmann
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency.The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations. At high temperature, mixed results were obtained; it appeared the chemistry of ATF influenced the results.Overall, using the low viscosity fluid tends to improve loss behavior, but the benefits can be offset if the transmission hardware employed is not specifically designed for low…
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Effects of the Physical Properties of Resins on Friction Performance

Aisin Chemical Co., Ltd.-Masahiro Katsukawa
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The friction performance of a wet clutch for an automatic transmission (AT) depends on the interaction between the paper-based friction material (D/C), separator plate (S/P), and automatic transmission fluid (ATF). In this study, influence factors of thermosetting resin (the raw material of the D/C) on friction performance were quantified and relationship with friction coefficient was clarified. This was achieved by changing the type of thermosetting resin and its hardening conditions, which cause the friction coefficient change.As influencing factors of the friction force, (1) the intermolecular force, (2) elastic modulus, and (3) shear stress data were extracted according to Coulomb’s friction law and the shear friction law.For the friction test, four levels of D/C were prepared by changing the resin type/curing conditions. In the friction test, by using an SAE No.2 Testing Machine, a static test was performed at each specified cycle during the 500 cycles of the dynamic test, and the static friction coefficient (μs) was measured.As samples for measuring the physical properties of each resin, four levels were prepared by uniformly applying a specified…
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Optimized Fuel Tank Sender Closure

Fuel Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2587_201903
  • Current
Published 2019-03-08 by SAE International in United States
This practice describes recommended performance requirements of fuel tank closures used in conjunction with fuel level senders and fuel delivery systems. It provides guidelines that assure interchangeability and compatibility between fuel tanks and fuel pump/sender closure systems without specifying a specific closure system design. These systems may be used in rigid fuel tank systems made of plastic or metal. Complete details of specific designs shall be established by mutual agreement between customer and supplier. The dimensions and performance requirements are selected to optimize a The closure system, durability and reliability with respect to — Vehicle SHED measurements — Fuel system / crash integrity — LEV – II useful life b Assembly and service ease and reliability c Packaging of fuel tanks and their sending units d Interchangeability of sender closures between various fuel tank designs
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Ricardo reveals details of latest e-motor and eDCT

Automotive Engineering: February 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP02_12
Published 2019-02-01 by SAE International in United States

United-Kingdom engineering specialist Ricardo recently revealed extensive development details of its latest automotive 48-V 25-kW e-motor and associated inverter, which it claims can deliver up to a 50% increase in power density compared with current production electric machines. The project is of potential significance to automotive OEMs moving towards high-volume electric-vehicle (EV) production models requiring enhanced motor power density without cost and complexity drawbacks.

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