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Electrical Charging Systems for Off-Road Work Machines

CTTC C2, Electrical Components and Systems
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J180_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard describes alternator physical, performance, and application requirements for heavy-duty electrical charging systems for off-road work machines, including those defined in SAE J1116.
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Design, Analysis, Simulation and Development of a Ravigneaux Gear-Train

The Automotive Research Association of India-Enanko Moulick, Kiran Wani, Karan Kapoor, Ankit Rawat
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
With increased vehicular traffic density a trend has been observed where customers have started preferring automatic transmission in place of its manual version. This Automatic transmission not only shifts the gear automatically, with the help of sensors and actuators, but they are also tuned for better performance of the vehicle in terms of fuel efficiency and emission. This all comes at the cost of power consumption from the battery, increment in cost, weight and complexity. The main parts of an automatic transmission include Torque Convertor, Sensors, Actuators, Transmission Control Unit (TCU) with the epicyclic gear-train being the heart of it. In terms of use in the automotive, a system of epicyclic gear-train can provide only 2 gear ratios. Ravigneaux gear-train is the modified version of epicyclic gear-train where there are two set of Planet gears and Sun gears or Ring gears thereby capable of giving 4 gear ratios with a single system. This paper discusses the design analysis and optimization of Ravigneaux Gear-train. To compare it with Simpson gear-train, simulation of both the gear-trains are…
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Virtual Transmission Evaluation Using an Engine-in-the-Loop Test Facility

FEV Europe GmbH-Johannes Scharf, Martin Nijs, Ralf Wellers, Yi Zhang
RWTH Aachen University-Daniel Guse, Serge Klein, Jakob Andert, Stefan Pischinger
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes an approach to reduce development costs and time by frontloading of engineering tasks and even starting calibration tasks already in the early component conception phases of a vehicle development program. To realize this, the application of a consistent and parallel virtual development and calibration methodology is required. The interaction between vehicle subcomponents physically available and those only virtually available at that time, is achieved with the introduction of highly accurate real-time models on closed-loop co-simulation platforms (HiL-simulators) which provide the appropriate response of the hardware components.This paper presents results of a heterogeneous testing scenario containing a real internal combustion engine on a test facility and a purely virtual vehicle using two different automatic transmission calibration and hardware setups. The first constellation is based on an already validated vehicle model (A), including a physical dual-clutch transmission model (DCT), a semi-physical tire model and a vehicle dynamics model. With this standard configuration, the real-time model accuracy is initially illustrated by comparing the operating points distribution and the tailpipe emissions (diluted vs. undiluted) in “Worldwide…
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Travelling Resistance Estimation and Sandy Road Identification for SUVs

General R&D Institute, China FAW Group-Jian Zhang
Jilin University-Weixiang Wu, Jian Zhao, Bing Zhu
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The mechanical properties of sandy road are quite different from those of hard surface road. For vehicle control systems such as EMS (engine management system), TCU (transmission control unit) and ABS (antilock brake system), the strategies and parameters set for solid surface road are not optimal for driving on sandy road. It is an effective way to improve the mobility of all-terrain vehicles by identifying sandy road online and shifting the control strategies and parameters of control systems to sandy sets. In this paper, a sandy road identification algorithm for SUVs is proposed. Firstly, the vehicle signals, such as engine torque and speed, gear position, wheel and vehicle speed, are acquired from EMS, TCU and ESP (electronic stability program) through CAN (controller area network) bus respectively. Based on the information and longitudinal force equilibrium equation, the travelling resistance of vehicle is estimated. The hydraulic torque converter is divided into several parts to calculate the acceleration resistance instead of using the rotational inertia coefficient. Then, the sandy road identification algorithm is proposed mainly based on the…
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Shift-by-Wire System for Lexus RWD Vehicles

SAE International Journal of Engines

DENSO Corporation-Mikine Kume, Kouji Sakaguchi
Toyota Motor Corporation-Yusuke Nakade, Atsushi Kamada, Koki Ueno
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-1094
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Shift selection devices are desired to be flexible for design and layout, in order to realize the next generation of cockpits for Lexus vehicles. In addition, refined shift operation feelings are also required to be suitable for Lexus vehicles. To meet these demands, the Lexus LC500 has been equipped with a shift-by-wire system, which replaces the mechanical linkage between the shift selector and transmission with electrical signals and an actuator. This shift-by-wire system will be installed in a wide variety of Lexus powertrain lineup, including conventional gas vehicles and hybrid vehicles. Therefore, the next generation shift-by-wire system for Lexus has been developed with high reliability and applicability. This technology will be essential when autonomous driving and autonomous parking systems are realized in the near future. To enable shifting of the parking mechanism in a simple configuration regardless of the engine operation state, shifting of the parking mechanism is performed by an add-on electric parking actuator, and shifting the driving force direction is performed by a transmission control unit in each powertrain system. The shift selection…
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A Unified Creep-Speed Control Approach for Automated Parking System

China Automotive Technology and Research Center (CATARC)-Pan Song, Shugang Xie, Yuan Zhong, Bolin Gao
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a unified creep-speed controller specifically designed for the automated parking system of an automated manual transmission vehicle, whereby the engine management system, transmission control unit, and electronic stability control system can work cooperatively and harmoniously within the same control framework. First, a novel reference speed generator is designed and employs sinusoidal functions to produce the speed profile based on the maneuver-dependent distances computed by a path planner, such that the lag in vehicle response during start-up can be effectively reduced. Second, a well-tuned PID controller is adopted to determine the resultant longitudinal force in attempt to follow the reference speed and eliminate the distance error during the parking maneuvers. Third, the electronic control units in the powertrain and brake systems interact with one another and generate exclusive control actions in order to achieve the desired motion control command, where the non-smooth actuator nonlinearities are explicitly addressed. Finally, the proposed controller is validated through simulation to improve the tracking accuracy of the predefined time-dependent parallel-parking trajectory at creep speeds.
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Signal Generator for Prediction of Transient Control Signals of an Automotive Transmission Control Unit Depending on Scalar Calibration Parameters

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

TU Darmstadt-Ivan Rot, Stephan Rinderknecht
  • Journal Article
  • 2016-01-2155
Published 2016-10-17 by SAE International in United States
In this investigation an innovative signal generator will be introduced, which enables the generation of transient control signals for the gearshift process. The signals are generated merely depending on scalar transmission control unit (TCU) calibration parameters. The signal generator replaces the comprehensive TCU software within the simulation environment. Thus no extensive residual bus simulation is required.Multiple experimental models represent the core part of the signal generator. To predict the system behavior of the underlying system, the models are trained using measured data from a powertrain with automatic transmission mounted on a test rig.The results demonstrate that the introduced signal generator is suitable to predict transient control signals for the gearshift operation accurately. In combination with an additional powertrain model it is possible to simulate the gearshift process and subsequently to evaluate the gearshift comfort. The signal generator allows a rapid implementation of a simulation environment for TCU calibration with less modeling effort in comparison with the implementation of the original TCU software. Due to a flexible approach, the signal generator offers to predict signals with…
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Full electric drivetrain for HD vehicles the result of supplier alliance

SAE Off-Highway Engineering: October 7, 2016

Ryan Gehm
  • Magazine Article
  • 16OFHP10_11
Published 2016-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Engineers at Colorado-based UQM Technologies have collaborated the past several months with their counterparts at Eaton's Vehicle Group and Pi Innovo, both located in Michigan, to develop a full electric drivetrain system for the medium-and heavy-duty EV markets.

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Democratizing hybrid technologies

Automotive Engineering: May 5, 2015

Lindsay Brooke
  • Magazine Feature Article
  • 15AUTD05_01
Published 2015-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Engineers continue to wring efficiency and mass out of their latest electrified propulsion systems with the aim of mainstreaming the technology.

Would you buy a new plug-in hybrid car if the price was 75% less than retail? If so, then hop a plane to Amsterdam because the Dutch have a deal for you.

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Application of Slope Sensor in Hill-Start to AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) Vehicles

Geely Automobile Research Institute-Yong Chen, Lishu Guo
Jilin University-Hongqing Chu, Bingzhao Gao, Hong Chen
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to improve the drivability and reduce the clutch friction loss, low-cost slope sensor is used in hill-start control of AMT vehicles. After the power spectrum analysis of the original signal and the design of the digital filter, the angle of the slope is obtained with short enough delay and small enough noise. By using this slope angle information, slope resistance force can be calculated online so that the vehicle can be prevented from sliding backward and optimal launch control can be realized. The digital filter of slope angle signal and the optimal controller of dry clutch engagement are embedded in the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) of a micro-car Geely Panda. Real-vehicle experiments are carried out with optimal clutch controller, which shows that the hill-start with low-cost slope sensor and optimal clutch controller can provide successful vehicle launch with little driveline shock. In addition, it can also avoid backward sliding and engine over-speed effectively. Furthermore, hill-start with low-cost slope sensor and optimal clutch controller can reduce clutch wear, extend the life of dry clutch…
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