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Overcoming Challenges in Connected Autonomous Vehicles Development: Open Source Vehicular Data Analytics Platform

CUCEK under CUSAT Kochi Kerala, INDIA-Shreya KRISHNA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1914
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Data Science and Machine Learning are buzzwords in our everyday lives, as is evident from its applications, such as voice recognition features in vehicles and on cell phones, automatic facial and traffic sign recognition, etc. Analyzing big data on the basis of internet searches, pattern recognition, and learning algorithms, provides deep understanding of the behaviour of processes, systems, nature, and ultimately the people. The already implementable idea of autonomous driving is nearly a reality for many drivers today with the aid of “lane keeping assistance” and “adaptive cruise control systems” in the vehicle. The drift towards connected, autonomous, and artificially intelligent systems that constantly learns from big data and is able to make best-suited decisions, is progressing in ways that is fundamental to the growth of automotive industry. The paper envisages the future of connected and- autonomous-vehicles (CAVs) as computers-on-wheels. These are pictured as sophisticated systems with sensors on board as data sources and a lot of other functions and running services to support autonomous-driving. These services are considered to be computationally expensive. The unit…
 
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Energy-Efficient Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control with Receding Horizon of Traffic, Route Topology, and Traffic Light Information

SAE International Journal of Connected and Automated Vehicles

AVL List GmbH, Austria-Alejandro Ferreira Parrilla, Stephen John Jones
Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Anders Grauers
  • Journal Article
  • 12-02-02-0006
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
Advanced and cooperative vehicle (semi-) autonomous driving systems will become a necessity in the future for sustainable, convenient, and safe mobility. By utilizing Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communication, a vehicle’s energy consumption can be reduced while maintaining safety and driving comfort. A holistic control strategy is presented, which in a novel way incorporates traffic lights, road speed limits, gradients, and curvature, as well as surrounding traffic and detailed powertrain characteristics into a single Model Predictive Control formulation. The performance of the system is evaluated using a realistic co-simulation toolchain representing the vehicle, driver, and road, including complex traffic conditions. The approach is valid for a wide range of scenarios, ranging from urban city driving to highways. Simulation results for a D-class passenger car with a diesel engine and an automatic transmission in an urban route show energy savings between 5% and 30% with an unchanged travel time, compared to a simulated human driver.
 

Developing Knowledge and Understanding for Autonomous Systems for Analysis and Assessment Events and Campaigns

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34334
Published 2019-05-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

There are many challenges in developing complete performance ontologies and test methodologies to define and evaluate the performance of autonomous systems. Chief among them is the dynamic environment in which the autonomous system is expected to operate. Change in the autonomous system’s environment is expected to affect system performance. Test methodologies have to include all aspects of this dynamic environment.

 

An Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Bluff Bodies in Close Longitudinal Proximity

Coventry University-Geoffrey Le Good, Peter Boardman, Max Resnick, Brian Clough
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The potential benefit for passenger cars when travelling in a ‘platoon’ formation results from the total aerodynamic drag reduction which may result from the interaction of bluff bodies in close-proximity. In the 1980s this was considered as an opportunity to alleviate congestion and also for fuel-saving in response to the oil crises of the 1970s. Early interest was limited by the availability of suitable systems to control vehicle spacing. However, recent developments in communication and control technologies intended for connected and autonomous driving applications has provided the potential for ‘platooning’ to be incorporated within future traffic management systems. The study described in this paper uses a systematic approach to changes in vehicle shape in order to identify the sensitivity of the benefits of platooning to vehicle style. The Windsor bluff-body model with its’ interchangeable rear-end geometry was chosen as the test subject because of its similarity to the approximate proportions of typical mid-sized European passenger cars. Three small-scale models were manufactured so as to be accommodated in-line within the working section of the Coventry University…
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Development of Virtual Fuel Economy Trend Evaluation Process

Hyundai-Kia America Technical Center Inc.-Sanghoon Yoo, Jason H. Lee, Byungho Lee, Jinho Ha
Ohio State University-Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Shihong Fan, Ozgenur Kavas, Santhosh Tamilarasan, Levent Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the advancement of the autonomous vehicle development, the different possibilities of improving fuel economy have increased significantly by changing the driver or powertrain response under different traffic conditions. Development of new fuel-efficient driving strategies requires extensive experiments and simulations in traffic. In this paper, a fuel efficiency simulator environment with existing simulator software such as Simulink, Vissim, Sumo, and CarSim is developed in order to reduce the overall effort required for developing new fuel-efficient algorithms. The simulation environment is created by combining a mid-sized sedan MATLAB-Simulink powertrain model with a realistic microscopic traffic simulation program. To simulate the traffic realistically, real roads from urban and highway sections are modeled in the simulator with different traffic densities. Other traffic elements which would affect the fuel consumption, such as speed limit information, traffic stop sign and a traffic lights with SPaT (Signal Phase and Timing) information, are a part of the simulator. In order to evaluate the performance of the developed algorithms, fuel consumption performance of the developed algorithms are compared with the fuel consumption performance…
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Evaluating Trajectory Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications

Oakland Univerity-Abdulrahman Alzahrani
Oakland University-Abdelnasser Banihani, Huirong Fu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles might one day be able to implement privacy preserving driving patterns which humans may find too difficult to implement. In order to measure the difference between location privacy achieved by humans versus location privacy achieved by autonomous vehicles, this paper measures privacy as trajectory anonymity, as opposed to single location privacy or continuous privacy. This paper evaluates how trajectory privacy for randomized driving patterns could be twice as effective for autonomous vehicles using diverted paths compared to Google Map API generated shortest paths. The result shows vehicles mobility patterns could impact trajectory and location privacy. Moreover, the results show that the proposed metric outperforms both K-anonymity and KDT-anonymity.
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Use of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation for Developing Connected Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Applications

Ohio State University-Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Ozgenur Kavas, Santhosh Tamilarasan, Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Levent Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Many smart cities and car manufacturers have been investing in Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) applications by integrating the Dedicated Short-Range Communication (DSRC) technology to improve the fuel economy, safety, and ride comfort for the end users. For example, Columbus, OH, USA is placing DSRC Road Side Units (RSU) to the traffic lights which will publish traffic light Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) information. With DSRC On Board Unit (OBU) equipped vehicles, people will start benefiting from this technology. In this paper, to accelerate the V2I application development for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV), a Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulator with DSRC RSU and OBU is presented. The developed HIL simulator environment is employed to implement, develop and evaluate V2I connected vehicle applications in a fast, safe and cost-effective manner. The prepared simulator allows realistic, real-time evaluation of mobility and fuel economy benefits over simulated actual routes in a safe lab setting before actual deployment in an experimental vehicle. To show the capabilities of the designed HIL simulator, Green-Wave algorithm, which lowers the idling time…
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Examples of Indicating Occupied Spacetime in Traffic Simulation Results

Korea Polytechnic University-Kangwon Lee
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Traffic simulations could be beneficial to evaluate systems aiming to improve traffic safety and/or throughput. Possibly the simulation may include rather larger number of vehicles. Especially in the junctions, on a two dimensional Cartesian space, trajectory plots are likely to have intersections with each other. However, the intersections do not necessarily mean collisions; hence, evaluation may require animating the result over a period of time, possibly repetitively. This work aims to add time as one more axis to the plot and indicate space that each road user (a vehicle, a pedestrian, or a personal transporter user) occupies at a given time as a rectangle. In addition, this work would connect vertices of the rectangles of the same road user over time. The resultant plot of the trajectory of one particular road user would be similar to a duct or tube; if a particular road user maintains straight forward trajectory with a non-zero constant speed, it would look like a straight tube with slope. A vehicle making a turn at a corner would be similar to…
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Two Simple Requirements for Deterrence of Traffic Jam and Its Verification and Practical Use

O. K. Technology Lab.-Hideaki Oku
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
This paper tries to give a new point of view that shows what should be controlled to avoid or reduce or possibly eliminate the traffic jam. First, it is shown that 1) Keeping appropriate distance between cars even when they are in low speed or stopping condition, 2) All cars should start with no delay, are 2 requirements for avoiding traffic jam and these ideas would not be provided by AI only with vast scale learning of general traffic. Next, 2 requirements for avoiding traffic jam are verified by experiments on the test course with using 10 cars in various conditions of distance between cars by 3 measurement methods complemented each other. Then, as a practice, it is reported how it can be explained and how it should be solved the problem of the place where traffic jam occurs frequently in Japan being applied the 2 simple requirements. And finally, it is suggested that all cars should be equipped the device that warns less distance and start timing to the following car that is easily…
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Autonomous Connected Aerial Vehicles: Overview of Application of Open Source Vehicular Data Analytics Platform to Urban Air Taxi

CUCEK-Cochin University of Science and Techology-Shreya Krishna
Published 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Data Science and Machine Learning are playing a key role in our everyday lives, as is evident from its applications, such as voice recognition features in vehicles and on cell phones, automatic facial and traffic sign recognition etc. Analysing big data on the basis of searches, pattern recognition and learning algorithms provides deep understanding of the behaviour of processes, systems, nature, and ultimately the people. The already implementable idea of autonomous driving is nearly a reality for many drivers today with the help of lane keeping assistance and adaptive cruise control systems in the vehicle. The drift towards connected, autonomous, and artificially intelligent systems that constantly learns from the big data and is able to make best suited decisions is advancing in ways that are fundamentally important to many automotive industries. The paper envisages the future of connected-autonomous-urban-airtaxi (CUTs) as computers on wheels. These are pictured as sophisticated systems with on-board sensors as data sources and a lot of other functions and services running to support autonomous aerial driving/flying. These services are considered to be…
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