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A Reverse Engineering Method for Powertrain Parameters Characterization Applied to a P2 Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Automatic Transmission

FEV Group GmbH-Alessandro Perazzo
Politecnico di Torino-Enrico Galvagno, Federico Millo, Giuseppe DiPierro, Mauro Velardocchia, Gianluca Mari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0021
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Over the next decade, CO2 legislation will be more demanding and the automotive industry has seen in vehicle electrification a possible solution. This has led to an increasing need for advanced powertrain systems and systematic model-based control approaches, along with additional complexity. This represents a serious challenge for all the OEMs. This paper describes a novel reverse engineering methodology developed to estimate relevant but unknown powertrain data required for fuel consumption-oriented hybrid electric vehicle modelling. The main estimated quantities include high-voltage battery internal resistance, electric motor and transmission efficiency maps, torque converter and lock-up clutch operating maps, internal combustion engine and electric motor mass moment of inertia, and finally front/rear brake torque distribution. This activity introduces a list of limited and dedicated experimental tests, carried out both on road and on a chassis dynamometer, aiming at powertrain characterization thanks to a suitable post-processing algorithm. In this regard, the methodology was tested on a P2 architecture Diesel Plug-in HEV equipped with a 9-speed AT. voltage and current sensors are used to measure the electrical power exchanged…
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Benchmarking a 2018 Toyota Camry UB80E Eight-Speed Automatic Transmission

US Environmental Protection Agency-Andrew Moskalik, Mark Stuhldreher, John Kargul
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1286
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) continuing assessment of advanced light-duty automotive technologies in support of regulatory and compliance programs, a 2018 Toyota Camry front wheel drive eight-speed automatic transmission was benchmarked. The benchmarking data were used as inputs to EPA’s Advanced Light-duty Powertrain and Hybrid Analysis (ALPHA) vehicle simulation model to estimate GHG emissions from light-duty vehicles.ALPHA requires both detailed engine fuel consumption maps and transmission torque loss maps. EPA’s National Vehicle and Fuels Emissions Laboratory has developed a streamlined, cost-effective in-house method of transmission testing, capable of gathering a dataset sufficient to characterize transmissions within ALPHA. This testing methodology targets the range of transmission operation observed during vehicle testing over EPA’s city and highway drive cycles.With this method, the transmission is tested as a complete system, as opposed to disassembling the transmission components and testing each separately. This paper describes the benchmarking process used to gather transmission data and the test results obtained. A UB80E eight-speed automatic transmission from a 2018 Toyota Camry was installed in an engine dynamometer test…
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Testing of a wet plate clutch system for anti-shudder performance

Afton Chemical Corp.-Philippe Ezanno
BorgWarner Automotive-Jason Bares
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0560
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The wet clutch system ( WCS ) is a complex combination of friction plates, separator plates and lubricant. The basic function of the WCS is to transfer torque under various operating conditions such as slipping, shifting, start/launch and/or torque converter clutch operation. During these conditions the slope of the coefficient of friction versus slip speed ( µ-V ) curve must be positive to prevent shudder of the WCS. A test procedure is needed to evaluate the WCS over a durability duty cycle to monitor the µ-V curve slope and shudder potential. The clutch plates and fluid must be tested together and remain together during the test to evaluate as a WCS. The objective of this paper is to describe this new test procedure which builds on the basics of the SAE J2964 - Low Speed Continuous Slip µ-PVT test procedure but a duty cycle is added to age the WCS. The test includes measurement of the µ-V slope at several intervals during the test ( before break in, after break in, and after each 12…
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Hybrid Optimization Methodology for Flexplate of Automatic Transmission

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Vadivazhagan Gandhi, Vivek Yadav, Karthikeyan K, Anand Bidre
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0916
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For Automatic transmission application, crankshaft torque is transferred to torque converter through flex plate. As the flex plate has no functional requirement of storing energy as in case of Manual Transmission (MT) flywheel, flex plate design can be optimized to great extent. Flex plate structure must have compliance to allow the axial deformation of torque convertor due to ballooning pressure generated inside the converter. Flex plate experiences dynamic torque and centrifugal forces due to high rotational speed. It should have compliance to accommodate the assembly misalignments with torque convertor in both axial and radial directions. In this paper, sequential and hybrid optimization techniques are described to optimize the flex plate design with stress, stiffness and mass as design constraints. The load path, corrugation length and axial stiffness of flex plate captured accurately using this hybrid optimization. The variation of shape, size, orientation and number of holes are based on the load path and axial stiffness of flex plate. The results show that 35 % of weight reduction is achieved with original design and it meets…
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Launch and Lock with Multi-input Multi-Output Converter Control

Ford Motor Company-Yang Xu, Weitian Chen, Stuart Ford, Pinzhi Liu, Edward Dai, Bret Keller, Hong Jiang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0262
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A torque converter is a type of fluid coupling device used to transfer engine power to the gearbox and driveline. A bypass clutch equipped in a torque converter assembly is a friction element which when fully engaged, can directly connect the engine to the gearbox. The torque converter is an important launch device in an automatic transmission which decouples engine speed from gearbox input speed while provides torque multiplication to drive the vehicle. During partial pedal launch, it is desired to engage the bypass clutch early and reduce the converter slippage in order to reduce power loss and achieve better fuel economy. However, engaging the bypass clutch early and aggressively may disturb the wheel torque and cause an unpleasant driving experience. This paper describes a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) control method to coordinate both engine and converter bypass clutch to simultaneously deliver desired wheel torque and reduce converter slippage. This control method leverages a feedforward control developed with a standard converter hydrodynamic model and a LQR feedback control. It considers the desired gearbox input torque and…
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An iterative method to determine clutch clearances in torque converters by integrating the fluid and structure analyses

Valeo Group-Zane Yang, Subramanian Jeyabalan
Valeo India Pvt., Ltd.-Abdur-Rasik Khajamohideen, Maheshkannan Solaimalai, Dhashnakumar Rajendhran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0936
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Determining an amount of clutch clearance for the lockup device in a torque converter is important for its being operating precisely in the intended mode. Challenges may exist for these torque converters whose nominal clearances are on purpose very small. Any potential changes in the clutch lockup system (e.g, due to the deformation of components) may make such a small clearance instantaneously diminish during the mode of open-clutch, thus leading to unwanted drags in the clutch and unnecessary loss of energy. In the open-clutch mode, the actual clutch clearance will be definitely different from the nominal one, because the internal load acting clutch members causes them to be deformed. For instance, the axial deformation of a piston towards the turbine tends to open the clearance more. On the other hand, the deformation on the cover where the piston is axially constrained may pull the piston closer to it and reduce the clutch clearance. All these deformations can be determined by the structural analysis if the fluid pressure around the clutch members is known. However, it…
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A simulation study of rotating impact within a damper of torque converter

Valeo-Kapec-Zane Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0500
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In a torque converter's damper, connected between an engine and transmission, it is very common that both angular velocities are generally not identical, because of the flexible elements. When the angular velocity of either engine output or transmission input abruptly changes, for example, as the result of driving conditions, an internal impact could occur between what is a primary member connected to the engine and secondary member connected to the transmission. From dynamics’ viewpoint, the impact loads are nothing but a response to huge inertial moment as the result of rapid acceleration or deceleration of rotating members involved. Depending on the duration of impact, it could lead to such a large internal moment that its magnitude could be several times the torque an engine’s combustion force can generate. Consequently, the impact load can be very devastating to a torque converter and other power-train members. This work presents a comprehensive and interesting study about the importance of understanding the rotational impact behavior. Using an explicit FEA solver for case studies, it will demonstrate that a clutch…
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Recommendations for Children’s Snowmobile

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1038_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes the test procedures, performance requirements, and criteria necessary to evaluate minimum safety and reliability requirements of a children's snowmobile as identified in 1.2.
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Dynamic modeling and simulation of a powertrain system with a six-speed automatic transmission

Schaeffler Brasil Ltda.-Marcel T. da S. de Araujo, Murilo F. Falleiros, Gustavo dos S. Gioria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0100
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The constant growth of the automotive market demands for comfort to the user and energy efficiency have caused the intensification of the industry researches and development of the automatic transmissions (AT). However, vehicles equipped with these gearboxes entails in higher fuel consumption levels than the one required by vehicles equipped with manual transmission. In the automotive industry due to the advantages offered using computer simulations, such as fast evaluation an optimization, many researchers are using virtual models for optimization of dynamic behavior of systems and fuel consumption. Aiming to study the dynamic behavior of an AT and the influence of its components on that behavior, this paper presents an AT dynamic model developed in MATLAB® / Simulink®. The AT model has three main subsystems: a torque converter model, which includes the dynamic of both the forward flow mode and the reverse flow mode; a Lepelletier gearbox model, composed by a set of three planetary gearsets in parallel, resulting in a six forward speeds gearbox; and a gear-shift schedule, which has the vehicle speed and accelerator…
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Hydrodynamic Drives Terminology

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J641_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
Since the torque converter and fluid coupling are commonly used components of automatic transmissions in industry, the SAE appointed a committee to standardize terminology, test procedure, data recording, design symbols, and so forth, in this field. The following committee recommendations will facilitate a clear understanding for engineering discussions, comparisons, and the preparation of technical papers. The recommended usages represent the predominant practice or the acceptable practice. Where agreement is not complete, alternates have been included for clarification. EXAMPLE: Two systems of blade angle designations are described. Consequently, when a blade angle is specified, the system should be designated. This SAE Recommended Practice deals only with the physical parts and dimensions and does not attempt to standardize the design considerations, such as the actual fluid flow angle resulting from the physical blade shape.
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