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New CEC Gasoline Direct Injection Fuels Test – Comparison of Deposits and Spray Performance from New and Used injectors.

Afton Chemical, Ltd.-Jonathan James Pilbeam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2392
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The use of deposit control additives in European market gasoline is well documented for maintaining high levels of engine cleanliness and subsequent sustained fuel and emissions performance. Co-ordinating European Council (CEC) industry fuels tests have played a crucial role in helping to drive market relevant, effective and low-cost deposit control additives into European market fuels. Until now, there has not been a Gasoline Direct Injection engine test available to fuel marketers in any market globally. However, a new CEC engine test is currently being developed to address that gap. Based on an in-house VW injector coking test, it shows promise for becoming a useful tool with which to develop and measure the performance of deposit control additives. A key requirement of industry tests should be to replicate issues seen in consumer vehicles, thereby providing a platform for relevant solutions. For this paper, injectors from the new VW injector coking test in a clean and coked state were compared to injectors from vehicles in the market in respect of deposit geometry, elemental composition and injector spray…

Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling

Altair Engineering India Pvt Ltd-Painuri Thukaram
Altair Engineering India Pvt , Ltd.-Sreeram Mohan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2456
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Digital Twins for Prognostic Profiling Authors: Sreeram Mohan*, Painuri Thukaram**, Panduranga Rao*** Objective / Question: Ability to have least failures in products on the field with minimum effort from the manufacturers is a major area of focus driven by Industry 4.0 initiatives. Amidst traditional methods of performing system / subsystem level tests often does not enable the complete coverage of a machine health performance predictions. This paper highlights a workable workflow that could be used as a template while considering system design especially employing Digital Twins that help in mimicking real-life scenarios early in the design cycle to increase product’s reliability as well as tend to near zero defects. Methodology: With currently available disruptive technologies , systems are integrated multi-domain 'mechatronics' systems operating in closed-loop/close-interaction. This poses great challenges to system health monitoring as failure of any component can trigger catastrophic system failures. It may be the reason that component failures, as per some aerospace reports, are found to be major contributing factors to aircraft loss-of-control. Essentially, it is either too expensive or impossible to…

Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Saravanan Muthiah
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Divyanshu Joshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2397
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Title Development of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) Based Tool for Vehicle Dynamics Evaluation Authors Mr. Shubham Kedia, Dr. Divyanshu Joshi, Dr. Muthiah Saravanan Mahindra Research Valley, Mahindra & Mahindra, Chennai Objective Objective metrics for evaluation of major vehicle dynamics performance attributes i.e. ride, handling and steering are required to compare, validate and optimize dynamic behavior of vehicles. Some of these objective metrics are recommended and defined by ISO and SAE, which involve data processing, statistical analysis and complex mathematical operations on acquired data, through simulations or experimental testing. Due to the complexity of operations and volume of data, evaluation is often time consuming and tedious. Process automation using existing tools such as MS Excel, nCode, Siemens LMS, etc. includes several limitations and challenges, which make it cumbersome to implement. In the current work, a GUI based post-processing tool is developed for automated evaluation of ride, handling and steering performance. Methodology This work is about development of a centralized platform for quantification, visualization and comparison of ride, handling and steering performance metrics from testing and…

An IMPC based Parking Assistance System with Interactive Searching Function

FinitronX-Qianyu Ouyang, Xianzhe Jia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2614
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes progress and outcome from our research projects on IMPC-based parking management system, including parking motion planning and control strategy, as well as a searching strategy for parking spot. To predict future parking parameters, we proposed a practical framework which integrates anticipatory techniques with a model predictive approach that robustly models the stochastic parking environment. The framework is able to take into account the interactions between vehicle subsystems, and can optimize trajectory under complex traffic patterns in real-world scenarios. Adaptive model predictive control is utilized to optimally minimize a cost function regarding performance, energy efficiency and drivability with regard to surrounding vehicle states. Dynamic programming was used to solve the control objective under multiple constraints, which yielded superior performance in comparison with convex programming. An original navigation system was developed for leading user to the parking spot in case of forgetting exact location, which is characterized in that swift location and path are generated by BLE-based sensor fusion. After successful parking action, the system beacons the parking location and transmits data to mobile…

Tool Condition Monitoring in face milling process using decision tree and statistical features of vibration signal

B S Abdur Rahman Crescent Institute of Science & Technology-Pradeep Kumar Durairaj, Muralidharan Vaithiyanathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0142
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In milling process, the quality of the machined component is highly influenced by the condition of the tool. Hence, monitoring the condition of the tool becomes essential. A suitable mechanism needs to be devised in order to monitor the condition of the tool. To achieve this, condition monitoring of milling tool is taken up for the study. In this work, the condition of the tool is classified as good tool and tool with common faults in face milling process such as flank wear, chipping and breakage of the tool based on machine learning approach using statistical feature and decision tree algorithm. Vibration signals of the milling tool are obtained during machining of mild steel. Statistical features are extracted from the obtained signal, in which the important features are selected using decision tree algorithm. The selected features are given as the input to the same algorithm. The output of the algorithm is utilized for classifying the different conditions of the tool. The experimental results show that the accuracy of decision tree technique is at the acceptable…

Experimental study on tool wear and cutting temperature during machining of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy based on Taguchi Method and Response Surface Methodology

Sri Sairam Engineering College-Vetri Velmurugan Kannan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0144
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Nickel based materials of Nimonic C-263 and Waspaloy are used nowadays for aerospace applications owing to its superior strength properties that are maintained at a higher temperature. Tool wear and cutting temperature in the vicinity of cutting edge are two essential machinability characteristics for any cutting tool. In this regard, this study is pursued to examine the influence of factors on measuring of tool wear (Vba) and cutting temperature (Ts) during dry machining of two alloys are studied experimentally based on Taguchi method and Response surface methodology. Taguchi’s L16 orthogonal array is used to design the experiment and a PVD (TiAlN), CVD (TiN/Al2O3/TiCN) coated carbide inserts are used on turning of two alloys. The factor effect on output responses is studied using analysis of variance, empirical models and responses surface 3D plots. To minimize the response and to convert into one single optimum level, responses surface desirability function approach is applied. The results show that growth of flank wears associated with Waspaloy is faster that of Nimonic C-263 due to rise in the heat for…

Vision Based Surface Roughness Characterization of Flat Surfaces Machined with EDM.

BSA Crescent Institute of Science & Technology-Mahashar Ali, Siddhi Jailani, Mangalnath Anandan, Vignesh Pavithran
Vellore Institute of Technology-Murugan Mariappan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0148
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Controlling and measuring the surface roughness is an important issue in quality manufacturing. Conventional method of measuring the surface roughness using stylus instrument is an intrusive and contact type hence it is not suitable for online measurement which result, there is an increasing need for a reliable, non-contact method of surface roughness measurement. Over the few years, advances in image processing techniques have provided the basis for developing image based surface roughness measuring techniques. In this investigation, a vision system and image processing tools were used to develop reliable surface roughness characterization technique for Electrical Discharge Machined surfaces. A CMOS camera fitted with zoom 6000 lens system having optical magnification up to 45X and red LED light source were used for capturing images of machined surfaces with different surface roughness values. A signal vector can be generated from image pixel intensity and can be processed using MATLAB software. From the signal vector, the mean and the standard deviations were obtained. The mean of the images signal vector correlates well with the stylus measured roughness parameters…

Multi Characteristics Optimization of Treated Drill Tool in Drilling Operation Key Process Parameter Using TOPSIS and ANOVA Technique

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Aishik Banerjee, Avanti Kulkarni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0055
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
To survive in the present global competitive world, the manufacturing sectors have been making use of various tools to achieve the high quality products at a comparatively cheaper price. Appropriate cutting set up must be used to further better the machinability of a work piece material. A longer life of the tools and equipments are important factors in any industry. Since the inception of the machine tool industry, cutting tool life and tool wear remain a subject of deep interest to study its failure and improvement. The present study finds out the optimum cutting results in drilling of AM60 magnesium alloy using different cryogenically treated cutting inserts. The Utility concept coupled with Taguchi with Multi response approach (TOPSIS) was employed. According to Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results, the feed was the major dominating factor followed by the cutting speed. This work deals with optimization approaches for the determination of the optimum process parameters by cryogenically treated drill HSS tools which minimizes surface roughness, torque, tool life, entry burr and tool cost, and maximizes material removal…

Improvement of Mechanical Properties, and Optimization of Process Parameters of AISI 1050 Spheriodized Annealed steel by Ranking Algorithm

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Durai Kumaran, Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Krishnaswamy Saravanan, Raj Rajendran
Tishk International University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0143
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
AISI 1050 is used in the production of landing gear, actuators and other aerospace components but their application is limited due to machinability of the material. In any metal cutting operation the features of tools, input work materials, machine parameter settings will influence the process efficiency and output quality characteristics. A significant improvement in process efficiency may be obtained by process parameter optimization that identifies and determines the regions of critical process control factors leading to desired outputs or responses with acceptable variations ensuring a lower cost of manufacturing. This experimental study elucidates the problems and machinability issues like failure of tools and accuracy are found while machining and less output in machining. In the present study of spherodizing heat treatment of AISI 1050 was investigated during the turning operation in CNC lathe, under the consideration of several turning process parameters. The microstructures of the as-received, and heated specimens were investigated by Optical Microscopy (OM). A correlation between various process parameters on the desired response namely surface finish, roundness Material Removal Rate (MRR), power consumption…

Effective Powertrain Isolation of Off-Highway Vehicles

John Deere Technology Center-Devendra Mandke, Balavardhan Reddy Dasabai, Sandeep Burli
Vellore Institute of Technology-Pushpak Sakhala, Sharan Chandran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0106
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Powertrain is one of the major sources of excitation of vehicle vibration and noise in off highway vehicles. It has a great effect on whole vehicle NVH characteristics. The structure borne energy of the powertrain is transmitted to the chassis and rest of the vehicle through powertrain mounts. Hence, it is of prime importance to design an effective powertrain mounting system in such a way that it will reduce vehicle vibrations to improve vehicle NVH as well as ride comfort, resulting in an effective vibration isolation system ensuring long service life. In this paper, a newly developed analytical tool for effective design of isolation system is discussed. For this model, powertrain is considered as a six degree-of-freedom system. Analytical calculations are implemented to find optimum mount design parameters i.e. stiffness, orientation and position of isolators to meet desired NVH targets. To achieve a good isolation characteristic, there is a necessity of decoupling of rigid body modes using optimization of various decoupling method which further helps in reducing the forces transmitted by the powertrain through the…