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AFP Processing of Dry Fiber Materials (DFP) for Improved Rates and Reliability

Electroimpact Inc.-Michael Assadi, Tyler Field
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0030
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper explores the differences found when processing dry-fiber, thermoset, carbon materials (DFP) as compared to processing pre-preg, thermoset materials with Automated Fiber Placement (AFP) equipment. When comparing these two processes, heating systems and tension control must be modified from traditional AFP systems. These new heating systems also require enhanced safety measures. Existing safety systems have been designed to accommodate high performance AFP equipment. As a result, the changes required to accommodate DFP heating systems have become negligible. Although processing dry fiber requires a higher level of heating, tension control and added safety measures, once these differences are overcome, processing rates and reliability are significantly improved. Specifically, overall payout speeds and steering speeds can be increased for dry fiber resulting in increased laydown rates. The lack of resin within the material greatly reduces resin build-up for longer maintenance intervals. This also results in greater reliability by minimizing or eliminating the associated problems with resin build-up. All of these advantages increase the machine utilization when processing aerospace parts made from dry fiber materials with AFP equipment.
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Delivery of Mixed Reality Tools Training in the Modern Production Environment

Boeing Co.-Mark Friesen, Lorrie Sivich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0052
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the early development of Mixed Reality (MR) technologies for the gaming industry, Boeing Research and Technology has been a leader in applying the technology to the production environment. Mixed Reality technologies have matured in size reduction and cost enabling a wide variety of visualization tools into the factory today. They include: tablets, Microsoft’s HoloLens, Google Glasses, Vive, and Oculus to name a few. These digital productivity tools allow the factory worker to perform work through installation, quality inspection, and trouble shooting.
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A Graphical Approach for Interpreting Out-of-Control Signals in Multivariate Control Charts

Universidade Federal do Oeste da Bahia - UFOB-Luis Alberto Pargas Carmona
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0068
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Dealing with several variables simultaneously is not a simple task for quality engineers because the interpretation of out-of-control signals involves the examination of the data from a multivariate perspective. In this paper, a graphical technique for interpreting out-of-control signals in multivariate control charts is proposed. This approach consists of a typical Hotelling’s chart with warning labels indicating:1) the univariate out-of-control points often masked by the T-squared statistic; 2) the plane of the biplot that should be investigated to identify the cause of the signal. The idea of using biplots as a complementary tool is to provide a broader view of the data without adding much complexity to the analysis. Finally, the benefits of this are shown through a case example of an automotive body assembly process.
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Independent Aftermarket (IAM) and the Three Dimensions of Friction Material Evaluation

LINK South America-Pedro Oliveira, Henrique Rodrigues, Eduardo Ferro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0006
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is well known the difference between development levels and engineering investment applied to passenger car brake pads when compared to Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and items sold in the Independent Aftermarket (IAM). Based on these differences, the objective of this paper is to propose a simple evaluation for the IAM that can provide at least some level of the understanding of frictional material behavior. Based on a tripod of variables, or three Dimensions Development, described in this work as Performance, Comfort (NVH) and Durability; and using internationally and established testing procedures to measure these dimensions in order to meet the IAM demands for the cost-benefit engineering investment. An important part of the proposed tool is to position friction material against competition for market known issues, and, more importantly, to ensure end product safety and reliability.
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A discussion on algorithms for health monitoring, fault prognosis and RUL prediction of aerospace and automotive equipment

National Institute for Space Research – INPE-Roberta de Cássia Ferreira Porto, Marcelo Lopes de Oliveira e Souza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0264
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Companies are gradually developing: 1) complex and/or highly integrated systems including vehicles (as satellites, airplanes, cars, etc.) or equipment (as computers, cell phones, no breaks, etc.) to use under 2) increasingly varied or inhospitable environments, and to survive under 3) increasingly long life cycles and unavoidable changes in staff & facilities & technologies. The overall decision to use (by time, cost, quality, of functions, services, etc.) such end systems under 2 require 4) high Dependability (Reliability, Maintainability, Availability, Correction, Safety, Security, etc.) of them. The overall survival in use (by health monitoring, housekeeping, retrofit, upgrade, etc.) of such end systems under 3 require 5) high Suportability (Maintainability, Adaptability, Availability, Robustness, etc.) of them coupled with the support systems. To meet the requirements and expectations 4 and 5, there is a need to even treat a growing number of faults, arising from 1, 2 and 3 in components, equipment, subsystems or systems used. In particular, health monitoring, fault prognosis and Remaining Useful Life (RUL) prediction have been used to reach 4 and 5 and treat faults…
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Step-by-step correlation between calculated and measured data in order to reduce errors by vehicle simulation tools

Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Escola de Engenharia, U-Fabrício J.P. Pujatti
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles - FCA-Eduardo F. Figueiredo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0285
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
In designing a new vehicle is necessary to estimate the vehicle performance, emission pollutants, and fuel consumption. Also is necessary check if the fuel economy technologies contents are attend the project goals. Therefore, simulate the vehicles on fuel consumption simulation tools, are crucial to attend the project time and cost.One of aspects more critical on simulation tools is its ability to reflect the vehicle reality accurately. The proposal of this work is to present a methodology to check the accuracy of vehicle simulation results using an analysis step-by-step process of errors between the simulated and experimental dynamometer vehicle data collected under FTP-75 and HWFET cycles. The tests were performed on a Flex Fuel vehicle fueled by Brazilian's ethanol and gasoline fuels and the final fuel economy results. Good agreement between simulation and test results were obtained, demonstrating that this process is technically sound to improve the fuel consumption simulation accuracy.
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Basic technical requirements for ballistic safety to guarantee the quality of civilian automotive armoring services in Brazil

Polytechnic School of University of Sao Paulo-Guido Muzio Candido, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0329
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Brazil is the largest civilian armored vehicle market in the world with more than 16,000 new protected units produced in 2018, followed by Mexico with 7,000 automobiles, according to Brazilian Army (BA) data. In this context, this paper presents an overview of Brazilian market for civilian vehicle armoring, definitions and characteristics of transparent and opaque ballistic resistance protective materials according to U. S. Department of Justice, the National Institute of Justice, NIJ Standard 0108.01. Based on this premises, the paper addresses basic technical requirements for ballistic safety in design and process to guarantee minimum quality of armoring services. The purpose of this paper is to safeguard the original features and functionality of the automotive components while simultaneously providing recommended ballistic protection of the vehicle with quality. The adoption of minimum automotive quality management system requirements from IATF 16949 International Automotive Task Force, in armoring services with different types of vehicle models and brands, will encourage to reduce tack time production, to improve vehicle armored quality, to reduce final reworks, to keep original equipment guarantees, to…
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Thermal behavior of aircraft gas turbine blades under different internal cooling conditions

Federal Institute of Espírito Santo - IFES-L. P. Borlini, T. V. Caniçali, L. N. Santos, J. A. Coelho, I. M. Minchio, F. A. F. Monhol
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0212
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Gas turbines are high value-added equipment due to their compact construction, lower weight and high power compared to traditional internal combustion engines. This equipment is subject to high mechanical demands, high temperatures, corrosive and erosive environments, which certainly have a direct influence on its performance. Thus, with the increasing demands of the aerospace industry, it became necessary to use devices to improve their efficiency, such as internal cooling systems and insulation layers. However, a detailed knowledge of the operational variables is necessary in order to define the appropriate internal cooling conditions of the equipment. Thus, the present work aims to analyze, through computational simulations using the finite difference method in its two-dimensional form, the temperature distribution and the heat transfer rate of gas turbine blades under different thermal conditions. The temperature of the hot gas flowing through the blades, as well as the flow and temperature of the cooling air that passes through their internal channels, were varied in order to obtain the influence of each of these factors on the thermal behavior of the…
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Optimization and Numerical Simulation Applied to Design of Stamping Dies

Federal University of Sao Joao del Rei – UFSJ-Otavio Andrade, Marcio Eduardo Silveira
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0142
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The stamping process is commonly used, it is easily found in vehicles manufacturing. The stamping tool is composed by elements such as: die, punch, drawbeads and blankholder. The objective of this paper is to improve the structural stiffness and to reduce the weight of die through numerical optimization. Usually are used standardized stamping tool's parts that follows standard guidelines. The only part of stamping tool considered in the methodology was the die, other parts like punch and blankholder can also be optimized. A vehicle hood was designed in CAD and after that it was exported to CAE to start the simulations, the first step was the die generation. After that, a stamping process was simulated and the contact forces in the die were extracted and then applied in the control volume designed in CAD. Finally, the constraints, objectives and parameters were changed, so the topological optimization was generated. The results were interpreted and a layout were design in CAD following the pattern given by the optimization. Two different load cases are applied to the die…
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CONTACTS, ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR, PIN, CRIMP REMOVABLE, SHIELDED (FOR MIL-DTL-28748/9 CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS39029/79A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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