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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it is challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel. The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the deceleration. This connotes that a fixed value of front and rear braking forces can be optimized for only a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration. Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lockup, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore, an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks…

Combi Brake System (CBS) design and tuning on an electric two wheeler for cornering maneuver

Ather Energy-Lokesh Soni, Shivaram Venkateswaran
Xitadel CAE Technologies Pvt Ltd-Dhanraj Domala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2399
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the number of traffic accidents, most of the governments have mandated to include Combi Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) in two wheelers. While most of the homologation requirements for CBS can be fulfilled by straight line motion, CBS behavior is crucial while cornering for safety aspects. When vehicle is in cornering motion, the lateral forces generated at the tire decreases the effective longitudinal force available, which implies lesser braking force at tire. This paper represents a design methodology for tuning CBS for various critical scenarios mainly during cornering maneuver. A detailed study has been made at various combination of vehicle lean angle, vehicle speed and friction coefficient of road in straight line and cornering maneuver to effectively decide on front to rear brake force distribution to avoid either of the tires’ lock-up. A co-simulation is done with BikeSim and Simulink softwares, where vehicle model is developed in BikeSim and CBS control algorithm in Simulink. Both the models are correlated against real test data. Keywords: Combi Brake System (CBS), wheel slip…

Analysis of pressure variation in wheel using statistical methods

Abhishek Mandhana
College of Engineering Pune-Rajiv basavarajappa PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective: The Objective of the research is to detect drop in level of pressure in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from speed sensors. The research discusses the standard procedure of experimentation to obtain data which eventually used to produce results. This procedure is taken from principles Design of Experiments. Statistical tools are used to analyze and give determining factors for pressure variation. Methodology: To study idea, we made use of two-wheeler platform and collected data of wheel speed sensors on both wheels. The idea is when there is any change in tire pressure the radius of the wheel also changes and usually this relation is direct. Hence, change in tire pressure changes the angular velocity of the wheel. In this approach wheel speed sensors are used to measure the angular speed for standard and reduced pressure conditions. The data obtained from the wheel speed sensor is analyzed through statistical methods and different determining values are calculated. These determining parameters are compared to see the variations in the pressure. To obtain…

Transient Response Analysis and Synthesis of an FSAE Vehicle using Cornering Compliance

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Vasanthkumar CH, Shubham Subhnil, Pranav Suresh, K Kamalakkannan
SRM Institute of Science & Technology-Nanthakumar Ajd
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2400
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE Race vehicles are designed to achieve higher lateral acceleration arising at cornering conditions. A focused study on the steady state handling of the car is essential for the analysis of such conditions. The transient response analysis of the car is also equally important to achieve best driver-car relationship and to quantify handling in the range suitable for a racing car. This research aims to investigate the design parameters responsible for the transient characteristics and optimize those design parameters. This research work examines the time-based analysis of the problem to truly capture the non-linear dynamics. Apart from tires, chassis can be tuned to optimize vehicle handling and hence the response times. METHODOLOGY To start with, the system is modelled with governing parameters and simulation is carried out to set baseline configurations. Steady state and transient handling simulations run independent of each other with independent logic, coded on MATLAB. The static testing of the chassis is carried over using a Kinematic & Compliance (K & C) testing rig to get Compliance Budget and hence the calculated…

Design Analysis and 3d Printing Of Non-Pneumatic Tyre

VNR VJIET-Prashanth Kannan, Amjad Shaik, Yogesh Kumar, Naga Sumanth Bareddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0059
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The major concern when implementing manoeuvres are acceleration, braking and steering for the safety control which ultimately depends on the road and tire surface friction. To withstand the vertical loads and maintain good traction with contact surface pneumatic tyres with high volume of pressurised air are required. To improve the comfort, handling and grip with low unsprung mass, non-pneumatic tyres are needed which are not reinforced with air pressure. The decreased effect of rolling resistance, added cushioning effect and better cellular shear band design increased the performance level than pneumatic tyres. Here, air is replaced by poly-composite spokes that eliminates the possibility of tyre going flat. This paper mainly discusses the environmental impact and stability issues of conventional pneumatic tyres and also focuses on the various possible design and components of an airless tyre. This paper also presents the modelling and analysis of non-pneumatic tyre followed by 3D printed sealed model using ABS (Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene) and TPU (Thermoplastic Polyurethane). Honeycomb structured cellular shear band made of polyurethane are tested with different shear band angles…

Development of Methodology to Determine Toe Geometry of any Vehicle at its Early Design Stage for Optimum Tyre Life

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Nitin Kumar Khanna, Karthik Senthi, Vignesh Natarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0105
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Toe setting, or the Vehicle geometry is one of the major wheel alignment parameters which directly effects handling of a vehicle. Correct toe setting ensures desired dynamic behavior of an automobile like straight line stability, cornering behavior, handling and tire durability. Incorrect setting of toe during design stage significantly deteriorates tire durability and leads to uneven tire wear. Within the current scenario in the Automotive Industry, the toe setting is majorly an iterative or a trial and error process which is both time consuming and involves higher development cost as there may be instances where 2 to 3 sets of iterations are needed before specification is finalized for production. Therefore, determining optimum toe setting at an early stage of a product development will not only save significant development time but it will also benefit in reducing product validation time and cost. Through this paper, an attempt has been made to develop a methodology for deciding toe setting for any vehicle as a First Time Right (FTR) approach to cut down on conventional, expensive & time-consuming…

An Optical-Based Technique to Obtain Vibration Characteristics of Rotating Tires

Kettering University, USA-Aakash Mange, Theresa Atkinson, Jennifer Bastiaan
USA-Javad Baqersad
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0013
Published 2019-08-21 by SAE International in United States
The dynamic characteristics of tires are critical in the overall vibrations of vehicles because the tire-road interface is the only medium of energy transfer between the vehicle and the road surface. Obtaining the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the tire helps in improving the comfort of the passengers. The vibrational characteristics of structures are usually obtained by performing conventional impact hammer modal testing, in which the structure is excited with an impact hammer and the response of the structure under excitation is captured using accelerometers. However, this approach only provides the response of the structure at a few discrete locations, and it is challenging to use this procedure for rotating structures. Digital Image Correlation (DIC) helps in overcoming these challenges by providing the full-field response of the structure. Although there have been many experiments on tires, there are few published papers that investigate the full-field dynamics of rotating tires at high rotating speeds. In the current work, the Kettering University Formula SAE (FSAE) vehicle is loaded on a chassis dynamometer for the purpose of…

New and Newly Retreaded Tire Appearance

A-5C Aircraft Tires Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6307A
  • Current
Published 2019-07-02 by SAE International in United States
This document is for establishing and addressing anomalies on appearance of new and newly retreaded tires prior to installation on aircraft. It is intended to use cosmetics as well as functionality to make a determination of acceptability. However, if cosmetic appearance is not a requirement, use the inspection criteria from ARP6225. This ARP does not supersede (E)TSO-C62 minimum requirements, including marking requirements.
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Development of an Accelerated Test for Tire Flat-Spotting

NissanTechnical Center North America-Farokh Kavarana, Scott Fritz
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Tire flat-spotting occurs when tires remain in a loaded condition without rolling for an extended period of time, and can be temporary or permanent depending on the length of storage, vehicle loading and environmental factors. Tire non-uniformity caused from flat-spots often induce shake and shimmy vibration in vehicles due to increased tire-wheel force variation input into the chassis. This results in increased warranty costs for OEMs and tire suppliers and customer dis-satisfaction in third-party quality surveys such as J. D. Power IQS. Flat-spotting is of particular concern for slow-moving vehicle inventory parked for long periods at plants and/or dealership lots.OEMs often stipulate or recommend inventory storage practices for dealers that require physical movement of vehicles at some set duration to reduce the risk of tires developing permanent flat-spots. OEMs also provide component level flat-spotting requirements to tire manufacturers during sourcing and specification timing to secure their internal requirements and targets. The study in this paper initially determined real-world flat-spotting levels on an actual vehicle during the adverse summer months of Arizona. Tire uniformity measured on…
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  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • USCAR39
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
This standard describes a requirement for automotive tire traceability. It includes a definition of the RFID tag and the associated tire data set that can be accessed using the RFID tag as an identifier. The standard describes a unique identification and the associated data set for each tire produced by the tire fabricator. This data will either be provided or transmitted at the time of shipment to retailers, wholesalers or original equipment vehicle manufacturers. Tire identification code and data may be used for error proofing, determining the tire specifications or supporting any inquiries that occur for the duration of its automotive life.