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Three-dimensional dynamics of a three-axle vehicle considering the suspension geometry according to the kinematic transformers method

Instituto Militar de Engenharia-Gustavo Simão Rodrigues, Marcelo Andrés Acuña, Rafael Vitor Guerra Queiroz, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0237
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this work is to model the dynamics of a three-dimensional three-axle vehicle subjected to certain excitations from the ground and considering the geometry and inertia of the suspension elements according to the “kinematic transformers” method.The chassis is considered a rigid body with six degrees of freedom (three positions and rotations).The tire is a compliant element, which receives vibration from the ground and transmits to the wheel.Unlike simpler computational models, which make a direct connection between the wheel and the chassis by means of a spring and damper, the influence of the suspension geometry and inertia of its elements are considered. In this case of study, the suspension studied is the independent MacPherson in each wheel, although the methodology would be applied to other kind of suspensions, once its geometry is known.The kinematic transformers method is applied to study the cinematics of the suspension. It uses the minimum number of kinematic equations, allowing an efficient solution to describe the movement of the mechanism when implemented computationally.Combining the kinematic transformers method with the d'Alembert…
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Modeling Tire Tread Features

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Michael D.P. Bolzon
  • Journal Article
  • 06-13-01-0001
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
This study details an investigation into the accuracy of a recently proposed tire rotation simulation approach, termed the “MRFg” method. Physical experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted on a sedan-type passenger vehicle with various tire treads and rims. Furthermore, the effects of the wind tunnel geometry on the method’s accuracy was investigated. The experimental data consisted of drag coefficients, front and rear lift coefficients, base and door surface pressures, and wake surveys at various planes around the wheels. Overall, a comprehensive set of validation data was taken. The CFD simulations were transient, and the geometry closely replicated the experimental geometry, including the tires’ deformations. Generally, the MRFg method predicted the effects of the various tread patterns on the drag coefficient to within four counts. Some outliers occurred. The MRFg method predicted some of the flowfield trends and magnitudes very well, but not others. The inclusion of the wind tunnel geometry significantly increased the accuracy of the methodology.
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Driving Dynamics and Rolling Resistance Tire Design Trade-Off

FCA-Mauro Martino
FCA EMEA-Elena Salino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5088
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The main challenge facing the automotive passenger car industry for the next decade is CO2 emission reduction. The approach towards achieving conformity with stricter regulations is based on two main enablers: by means of powertrain improvement and energy demand reduction, adopting a low rolling resistance (RR) tire without decreasing driving dynamics.The trade-off between RR and driving dynamics can be managed by means of the trade-off between the tread shore hardness (TSH) and belt angle inclination (BAI) of the tire. Based on current tire production, four submission tires have been produced with different combinations of TSH and BAI, both RR and/or driving dynamics oriented. In total five submission tires have been tested and evaluated in terms of RR, subjective handling and ride, objective handling, and braking.In a multibody environment with the statistical Signal-to-Noise (S/N ratio) method, the correlation between vehicle performance, objective handling, and tire carpet, flat track measurements has been identified. The flat track method has been used to characterize tire carpet for the simulation model and to identify relevant tire-specific synthesis parameters as well.…
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Rolling Resistance Measurement Procedure for Passenger Car, Light Truck, and Highway Truck and Bus Tires

Highway Tire Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1269_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice applies to the laboratory measurement of rolling resistance of pneumatic passenger car, light truck, and highway truck and bus tires. The procedure applies only to the steady-state operation of free-rolling tires at zero slip and inclination angles; it includes the following three basic methods:
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Performance Gains of Load Sensing Brake Force Distribution in Motorcycles

Force Motors-Apurva Chakraborty
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2426
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Commercial motorcycles and scooters incorporate independent circuits for front and rear brake actuation, thus precluding load-dependent brake force distribution. In all cases of manual brake force modulation between the front and rear wheels, there is poor compensation for the changes in wheel loads on the account of longitudinal weight transfer, thus making it challenging to provide an adequate braking force to each wheel.The ratio in which the braking force should be distributed between the front and the rear wheels is dependent on the motorcycle’s geometry, weight distribution, mechanical sizing of braking system components, and is a variable based on the instantaneous deceleration. This connotes that a fixed bias of front and rear braking forces can be optimized only for a narrow range of motorcycle’s deceleration.Maximum braking performance occurs just prior to wheel lock-up, as a sliding tire provides less grip than a rolling tire. This is also the scenario when both the tires are doing the maximum work in decelerating the motorcycle. Therefore an optimal brake force distribution is one that locks both the wheels…
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Combi Brake System (CBS) Design and Tuning on an Electric Two Wheeler for Cornering Maneuver

Ather Energy-Lokesh Soni, Shivaram Venkateswaran
Xitadel CAE Technologies India Pvt Ltd.-Dhanraj Domala
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2399
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To reduce the number of traffic accidents, most of the governments have mandated to include Combi Brake System (CBS) or Anti-lock Braking System (ABS) in two wheelers. While most of the homologation requirements for CBS can be fulfilled by straight line motion, CBS behavior is crucial while cornering for safety aspects. When vehicle is in cornering motion, the lateral forces generated at the tire decreases the effective longitudinal force available, which implies lesser braking force at tire.This paper represents a design methodology for tuning CBS for various critical scenarios mainly during cornering maneuver. A detailed study has been made at various combination of vehicle lean angle, vehicle speed and friction coefficient of road (μ) in straight line and cornering maneuver to effectively decide on front to rear brake force distribution to avoid either of the tires’ lock-up. A co-simulation is done with BikeSim and Simulink softwares, where vehicle model is developed in BikeSim and CBS control algorithm in Simulink. Both the models are correlated against real test data.
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Analysis of Pressure Variation in Wheel Using Statistical Methods

College of Engineering-Pune-Ravindra Dattatray Marwadi, Rajiv Basavarajappa
HELLA India Automotive Pvt Ltd.-Abhishek Mandhana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2450
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tire is one of the significant components of the vehicle, and so its characteristics for proper functioning of vehicle. Tire characteristics relies on number of factors including pressure in tire, construction of the tire and thread pattern. Of these, the factor of our interest is tire pressure. Maintaining proper tire pressure becomes necessity, as it causes several undesired effects which in turn affect the motorcycle performance. Hence, pressure variations should be detected as one of the safety measures.Wheel speed based detection of tire pressure is not observed before in motorcycles. In this approach only, software algorithm is needed to complete the system to measure pressure, no extra hardware is required.The paper presents a method to analyze variation in tire pressure by using the wheel speed sensor. The idea is to detect pressure variations in the wheel with respect to nominal pressure using data obtained from wheel speed sensor. The data is captured by varying pressure in two tires and measuring the wheel speed based on Design of Experiments (DoE). The method compares the wheel speed…
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Tire Size Differential - Articulated Wheel Loader

MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2204_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard applies to the usage of tires of the same nominal size and tread type, but with different outside diameter for articulated front-end loaders. Articulated four-wheel-drive front-end loader performance and component life can be affected by excessive differences in the tire outside circumference and/or diameter. The purpose is to provide specific guidelines for the usage of tires with different outside circumference and/or diameter on articulated front-end loaders.
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Off-Road Tire and Rim Selection and Application

MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1315_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides general guidelines for the proper selection and application of off-road tires and rims, as defined in SAE J751 and applied to earthmoving machines described in SAE J1116 and ISO 6165.
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Rolling Circumference Index Groups for Agricultural Tractor Drive Tires

MTC8, Tire and Rim
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2523_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard is established for the following purpose: a Simplify the application of drive wheel tires to agricultural vehicles especially those with multiple drive axles having tires of different sizes. b Provide a pattern to combine similar sized tires into Rolling Circumference Index groups with uniform spacing between groups.
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