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Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems for Light Duty Highway Vehicles

Highway Tire Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2657_201912
  • Current
Published 2019-12-10 by SAE International in United States
To establish overall performance guidelines, test methods, and minimum performance levels for a TPMS. The system shall visually indicate the tire inflation pressure status. These guidelines include, but are not limited to: a A test methodology for a device which monitors tire inflation, that is located in/on the tire/wheel environment. b Recommended performance guidelines for a TPMS.
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Tire Performance Terminology

Highway Tire Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2047_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
This terminology aims to encompass all terms and definitions pertaining to the road performance of pneumatic tires designed for over-the-highway use, such as passenger car, light truck, truck and bus, and motorcycle tires. Not included are terms specific to the performance of agricultural, aircraft, industrial, and other off-highway tires. However, many terms contained in this document also apply to non-highway tires.
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Landing Gear Structural Health Monitoring

A-5 Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6168A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) discusses past and present approaches for monitoring the landing gear structure and shock absorber (servicing), opportunities for corrosion detection, methods for transient overload detection, techniques for measuring the forces seen by the landing gear structure, and methods for determining the fatigue state of the landing gear structure. Landing gear tire condition and tire pressure monitoring are detailed in ARP6225, AIR4830, and ARP6137, respectively. Aircraft Brake Temperature Monitoring Systems (BTMS) are detailed in AS1145.
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Effect of Ambient Temperature and Inflation Pressure on Tire Temperature

Automotive Research Association of India-Shreyas Bharadwaj, Vyankatesh Khairatkar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Tire failure is identified as a major cause of accidents on highways around the world in the recent past. A tire burst leads to loss of control of the vehicle which ends up in a catastrophe. There are various factors which are accounted for a tire burst. Heat buildup, aging of tire and cracks on tires are the major ones which are identified. A superior ability of the tire to dissipate the heat generated during operation is a major factor which prevents a tire failure. Other factors such as ambient temperature, inflation pressure etc. contributes to heat buildup which may ultimately result in tire failure. A combination of these factors might manifest as a tire failure at high speeds, the latter being an immediate cause of heat buildup. A dormant crack in the tire might develop if the temperature and pressure conditions are favorable, thus giving away at the weakest point. With regard to the temperature conditions, road conditions, inflation pressure checks etc. India is vulnerable to tire failures. It may be noted that present…
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Aircraft Tires Service Overload Capability

A-5C Aircraft Tires Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6152
  • Current
Published 2018-09-02 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) defines a procedure for demonstrating service overload capability for new, main and nose landing gear, radial or bias tires fitted on multiple wheel landing gear of Part 25 certified aircraft.
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Event Data Recorder - Output Data Definition

Event Data Recorder Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1698/1_201805
  • Current
Published 2018-05-24 by SAE International in United States
This Recommended Practice provides common data output formats and definitions for a variety of data elements that may be useful for analyzing vehicle crash and crash-like events that meet specified trigger criteria. The document is intended to govern data element definitions, to provide a minimum data element set,and to specify EDR record format as applicable for light-duty motor vehicle Original Equipment applications.
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Fuel Consumption Reduction on Heavy-Duty and Light-Duty Commercial Vehicles by Means of Advanced Central Tire Inflation Systems

SAE International Journal of Commercial Vehicles

CNH Industrial-Ivan Calaon, Enrica Capitelli, Vladi Nosenzo, Alessio Sarcoli
Politecnico di Torino-Stefano D'Ambrosio, Elia Francesco Mameli, Roberto Vitolo
  • Journal Article
  • 2018-01-1334
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Tire inflation pressure has a relevant impact on fuel consumption and tire wear, and therefore affects both CO2 emissions and the total cost of ownership (TCO). The latter is extremely important in the case of commercial vehicles, where the cost of fuel is responsible for about 30% of the TCO.A possible advanced central tire inflation system, which is able to inflate and deflate tires autonomously, as part of a smart energy management system and as an active safety device, has been studied. This system allows misuse due to underinflation to be avoided and adapts the tires to the current working conditions of the vehicle. For instance, the tire pressure can be adapted according to the carried load or during tire warm-up. An on board software is able to evaluate the working conditions of the vehicle and select the tire pressure that minimizes the energy expense, the TCO, or the braking distance, according to a multi-objective optimization strategy.A simulation tool has been set up to evaluate the effects of tire pressure on fuel consumption and tire…
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A Guide to Landing Gear System Integration

A-5 Aerospace Landing Gear Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5451A
  • Current
Published 2017-07-12 by SAE International in United States
The landing gear system is a major and safety critical airframe system that needs to be integrated efficiently to meet the overall aircraft program goals of minimizing the penalties of weight, cost, dispatch reliability and maintenance. As the landing gear system business develops and large-scale teaming arrangements and acquisitions become increasingly common, it may be desirable in some instances to procure an Integrated Landing Gear System. This document provides guidelines and useful references for developing an integrated landing gear system for an aircraft. The document structure is divided into four sections: Landing Gear System Configuration Requirements (Section 3) Landing Gear System Functional Requirements (Section 4) Landing Gear System Integrity Requirements (Section 5) Landing Gear System Program Requirements (Section 6) The landing gear system encompasses all landing gear structural and subsystem elements. Structural elements include shock struts, truck beams, torsion links, braces, fittings, pins, wheels, tires, and brakes. The subsystem elements include the retraction/extension system (both normal and alternate), the steering system, the braking system (both normal and alternate, manual and automatic), the indication and monitoring…
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A Novel Zero Crossing Method for Mass Estimation in Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System

Hyundai-Autron-SangHeon Lee, TaeHun Kim, SeungHwan Shin, YangNam Lim
Published 2017-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Knowledge of the vehicle mass is an important factor to measure the tire inflation pressure indirectly. To estimate the mass change from the wheel speed signals, the novel zero crossing method (ZCM) was proposed. The accuracy of the proposed method was demonstrated using the logged vehicle data, and the compatibility with indirect tire pressure monitoring system (iTPMS) was evaluated by statistical analysis. Therefore, the proposed ZCM for vehicle mass estimation can expect technological advances in iTPMS and chassis control systems.
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TPMS Tire Localization with RF Transceiver

Automotive Semiconductor Supplier-Lifeng Guan
Infineon Technologies Asia Pacific Pte-Felix Gow, Jooil Park
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) sensor measures air pressure and temperature in the tire and transmits tire information as wireless messages to TPMS central unit which consists of Radio Frequency (RF) receiver. TPMS central unit needs to determine the exact sensor locations (e.g. Front Left, Front Right, Rear Left or Rear Right) in order to correctly identify the location of the tire with pressure out of the desired range. The identified tire with abnormal pressure is highlighted on dash board in the car. Thus, determination of the location of a particular tire made automatically by the TPMS system itself or tire localization is required. TPMS tire localization is implemented currently in several methods. A new method is proposed in this paper. The proposed method uses at least two RF transceivers as repeaters. Each transceiver receives wireless messages (eg. Pressure, temperature, sensor ID) from the nearest TPMS sensor and re-transmits them with RF transceiver identity to TPMS central unit. RF transceiver is fixed near to each wheel in the car and its position is known to…
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