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A Comprehensive Study on BSVI Turbocharger Selection and its Deterioration with Closed Crank-Case Ventilation in Heavy Commercial Vehicles

Automobile Industry-Juzer Jaliwala
Automotive-Aravind Mohan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0061
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
BSVI Norms getting implemented in India by April 2020 and every heavy commercial vehicle OEMs viewing it as one of the greatest challenge, there are many factors and trade off that should be considered at every step of the project. The newly developed engine in BSVI will be equipped with actuators like Intake Throttle Valve, Exhaust Throttle Valve and combination of these flap operations with turbocharger output plays a prominent role in controlling performance and emission. Turbocharger selection plays major role in engine and vehicle performance on road and testcell. Turbo charger plays an apex role in providing both required boost to the engine performance and set up a control on emissions. This study focusses on the use of different AVU (Air Valve Unit) controlled waste gate turbochargers from different suppliers and how it’s getting matched with the engine performance requirements. The fluctuations observed in boost pressure at higher loads due to the waste gate operational inconsistency and its solution is also explained. The legislation stresses on importance of positive crank case ventilation (connected to…
 

In-Cylinder Flow Measurements in a Transparent Spark Ignition Engine

Vasileios D. Tsiogkas
University of Western Macedonia-Anastasios Chraniotis, Dimitrios Kolokotronis, Antonios Tourlidakis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0099
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Flame development, combustion efficiency and emissions of a gasoline direct injection engine are strongly related with mixture preparation. Consequently, it is important to investigate the flow field and turbulence quantities at the parts of the thermodynamic cycle in which mixture preparation occurs. Flow field measurements were obtained by using 2D digital Particle Image Velocimetry technique in a 475cc optical single – cylinder GDI spark ignition engine. The results include phase averaged velocity fields at 1000 and 1500 RPM with 100% and 25% throttle position. These sets of measurements were conducted for cold flow conditions at three different planes including the tumble plane and the swirl plane. The flow was recorded at various crank angles between -340° and -20° before the combustion top dead center (BTDC) with an increment of 40°. The spatial averaged TKE (Turbulent Kinetic Energy) was calculated along with the TR (Tumble Ratio). It was observed that a tumble like motion with Counter Clock Wise rotation (CCW) was present near the maximum lift timing of the intake valves. The peak TKE was found…
 
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Snowmobile Throttle Control Systems

Snowmobile Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J92_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice is intended to provide the minimum acceptable criteria for snowmobile hand throttle control systems. This recommendation is not intended to cover competition vehicles, nor is it intended to limit development of new and/or improved technology in controls. Although these recommendations are primarily addressed to hand-control systems using an outer flexible conduit with a multiple strand inner cable, the basic requirements of freedom of movement, strength, material, etc., will apply to any system.

 
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Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

FCA US LLC-Anil Charan
InDepth Engineering Solutions-Aniket Parbat
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins. The main results include a single number rating and a rating curve as a function of engine speed useful for comparative NVH assessments of multiple vehicles or of multiple hardware iterations on a development vehicle with objectionable clatter content. The latter application is particularly useful since it gives correct feedback to an uninitiated engineer about the hardware…
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Experimental Studies on Liquid Phase LPG Direct Injection on a Two-Stroke SI Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India-Adwitiya Dube, M. Vivekanand, A. Ramesh
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-03-0023
Published 2019-05-31 by SAE International in United States
Directly injecting fuel in two-stroke spark-ignition (2S-SI) engines will significantly reduce fuel short-circuiting losses. The liquid phase liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) DI (LLDI) mode has not been studied on 2S-SI engines even though this fuel is widely used for transportation. In this experimental work a 2S-SI gasoline-powered engine used on three-wheelers was modified to operate in LLDI mode with an electronic engine controller. The influences of injection pressure (IP), end of injection (EOI) timing, location of the spark plug, and type of injector on performance, combustion, and emissions were studied at different operating conditions. EOI close to bottom dead center with the spark plug located near the exhaust port was the most suitable for the LLDI mode which significantly enhanced the fuel trapping efficiency and improved the thermal efficiency. At 70% throttle condition the brake thermal efficiency increased from 19% to 25.6% and there was an 87% reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emission compared to liquid phase LPG manifold injection. The use of multi-hole injector extended the maximum power output due to better in-cylinder mixture formation,…
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Multi-Objective Optimization of Gerotor Port Design by Genetic Algorithm with Considerations on Kinematic vs. Actual Flow Ripple

Purdue University-Andrew Robison, Andrea Vacca
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The kinematic flow ripple for gerotor pumps is often used as a metric for comparison among different gearsets. However, compressibility, internal leakages, and throttling effects have an impact on the performance of the pump and cause the real flow ripple to deviate from the kinematic flow ripple. To counter this phenomenon, the ports can be designed to account for fluid effects to reduce the outlet flow ripple, internal pressure peaks, and localized cavitation due to throttling while simultaneously improving the volumetric efficiency. The design of the ports is typically heuristic, but a more advanced approach can be to use a numerical fluid model for virtual prototyping. In this work, a multi-objective optimization by genetic algorithm using an experimentally validated, lumped parameter, fluid-dynamic model is used to design the port geometry. This optimization is repeated for five pumps with different kinematic flow ripples, and the simulated performance of the pumps with optimized port geometries is compared to the kinematic flow in each case. The performance of the pumps with the optimized ports in each case was…
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Particle Reduction in LPG Lean Stratified Combustion by Intake Strategies

Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology-Sanguk Lee, Sangjae Park, Choongsik Bae
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Lean stratified combustion shows high potential to reduce fuel consumption because it operates without the intervention of a throttle valve. Despite its high fuel economy potential, it emits large amounts of particulate matter (PM) because the locally rich mixture is formed at the periphery of a spark plug. Furthermore, the combustion phasing angle is not realized at MBT ignition timing, which can bring high work conversion efficiency. Since PM emission and work conversion efficiency are in a trade-off relation, this research focused on reducing PM emission through achieving high work conversion efficiency. Two intake air control strategies were examined in this research; throttle operation and late intake valve closing (LIVC). The experiment was conducted in a single cylinder spray-guided direct injection spark ignition (SG-DISI) engine with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The injected fuel amount was fixed so as to investigate the effect of each strategy. The throttle valve strategy decreased the filter smoke number (FSN) as the restriction of inhaled air was increased. By contrast, the number of particles was increased. When the LIVC strategy…
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Use of Cellphones as Alternative Driver Inputs in Passenger Vehicles

Clemson University-Chengshi Wang, Kim Alexander, Philip Pidgeon, John Wagner
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automotive drive-by-wire systems have enabled greater mobility options for individuals with physical disabilities. To further expand the driving paradigm, a need exists to consider an alternative vehicle steering mechanism to meet specific needs and constraints. In this study, a cellphone steering controller was investigated using a fixed-base driving simulator. The cellphone incorporated the direction control of the vehicle through roll motion, as well as the brake and throttle functionality through pitch motion, a design that can assist disabled drivers by excluding extensive arm and leg movements. Human test subjects evaluated the cellphone with conventional vehicle control strategy through a series of roadway maneuvers. Specifically, two distinctive driving situations were studied: a) obstacle avoidance test, and b) city road traveling test. A conventional steering wheel with self-centering force feedback tuning was used for all the driving events for comparison. Based on the lane position and vehicle response data collected, the operators’ lane tracking capability during city road traveling was slightly inferior using a cellphone compared to traditional steering wheel. However, in extreme maneuvers like obstacle avoidance…
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A Bifurcation Analysis of an Open Loop Internal Combustion Engine

Loughborough University-Shaun Smith, James Knowles, Byron Mason
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The process of engine mapping in the automotive industry identifies steady-state engine responses by running an engine at a given operating point (speed and load) until its output has settled. While the time simulating this process with a computational model for one set of parameters is relatively short, the cumulative time to map all possible combinations becomes computationally inefficient. This work presents an alternative method for mapping out the steady-state response of an engine in simulation by applying bifurcation theory. The bifurcation approach used in this work allows the engine’s steady-state response to be traced through the model’s state-parameter space under the simultaneous variation of one or more model parameters. To demonstrate this approach, a bifurcation analysis of a simplified nonlinear engine model is presented. Using "throttle position" and "desired load torque signal", the engine’s dynamic response is classified into distinct regions bounded by bifurcation points. These bifurcations are shown to correspond to key physical properties of the open-loop system: fold bifurcations correspond to the minimum throttle angle required for a steady-state engine response; Hopf…
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Effects of EGR, Swirl, and Cylinder Deactivation on Exhaust Temperatures of a Throttled Light-Duty Diesel Engine under Idle Conditions

University of Texas at Austin-Yousif Alsulaiman, Meng Lyu, Tayyar Ozel, Matthew J. Hall, Ronald Matthews
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study extends a previous study on the effects of intake throttling and post-injection on light-duty Diesel engine exhaust temperatures and emissions, and includes the effects of EGR, in-cylinder swirl air motion, and cylinder deactivation. The baseline injection strategy was adapted from a 2014 Chevrolet Cruze having an engine similar to the light-duty GM engine used for this study. While the engine was fixed to a motoring engine dynamometer, the dynamometer was not active for the study, as the engine was operated under idle conditions. The desired idle speed was controlled using a feedback loop in the control algorithm to vary the duration of the main injection event.Three methods were investigated. In the first method, the engine was operated fully warmed up, firing all four cylinders. Two rail pressures of 400 and 550 bar were studied, with the injection strategy and throttle position defining the baseline operating conditions, around which the effects of EGR and swirl were studied. The degree of throttling possible was determined by the ability of the engine to maintain a stable…
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