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Impact of Thermal Management of the Three-Way Catalyst on the Energy Efficiency of a P2 Gasoline FHEV

Università del Salento-Marco Benegiamo, Andrea Valletta, Antonio Carlucci
Università di Roma Tor Vergata-Vincenzo Mulone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0019
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FHEVs) are recognized as a cost-effective solution to comply with upcoming emissions legislation. However, several studies have highlighted that frequent start-and-stops worsen the HC tail-pipe emissions, especially when the light-off temperature of the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not been reached. In fact, strategies only addressing the minimization of fuel consumption tend to delay engine activation and hence TWC warming, especially during urban driving. Goal of the present research is therefore to develop an on-line powertrain management strategy accounting also for TWC temperature, in order to reduce the time needed to reach TWC light-off temperature. A catalyst model is incorporated into the model of the powertrain where torque-split is performed by an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS). The developed A-ECMS operates on a domain of power-split combinations between electric machine and internal combustion engine, which, aside from satisfying the torque demand, also ensure a controlled ICE torque derivative as well as a controlled ICE start-and-stop frequency. Hence, the algorithm which is extended for TWC thermal management, incorporates a penalty on…
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How Should Innovative Combustion Engines be Developed, Operated and Built in Order to Turn From Climate Sinners Into Climate Savers?

Hamburg University of Applied Sciences-Victor Gheorghiu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0009
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
KEYWORDS – Strict Atkinson Cycle implementation, Extended Expansion Cycle, VCR, Enhanced Thermal Conversion Efficiency, High Pressure Turbocharging, Hydrogen DI, stoichiometric mixture, new load control ABSTRACT The Ultra-Downsizing is introduced as an even higher stage of downsizing of ICE. Ultra-downsizing will be implemented here by means of real Atkinson cycles using an asymmetrical crank mechanisms with continuous VCR capabilities, combined with two-stage high-pressure turbocharging and very intensive intercooling. This will allow an increase of ICE performance while keeping the thermal and mechanical strain strength of engine components within the current usual limits. Research Objective The principal purpose of this investigation is to analyze and evaluate a strict implementations of Atkinson cycles on Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) by means of the VCSR asymmetrical crank mechanisms (VCSR means Variable Compression and Strokes Ratios) for DI-Hydrogen-fueled (or with H2-CNG blends) case. The VCSR will be presented in two constructive variants. The mechanical loads as torque and forces within the VCSR crank mechanism will be presented and analyzed in some engine operation points. Methodology A small size SI NA MPI…
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Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6b and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co., Ltd.-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co., Ltd.-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of CC1 TWC and CC2 coated gasoline particulate filters (cGPF) were aged by 4-mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 200K kilometers of in-use aging in China and Europe, respectively. Separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Catalyst volume and PGM mass were varied in the CC1. OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading in the GPF. For the Chinese application, after the four-mode aging, it was found that the CC1 TWC catalyst volume should be greater than 1.0 L. High levels of OSC were needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. For the European application, after fuel cut aging, Euro 6d emissions were met with any combination of TWC and GPF catalysts. If the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6b, the CC1 TWC catalyst should also be great than 1.0 L in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. Over all, results imply that CC1 TWC design is most critical for gaseous emissions. More…
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Effects of Using an Electrically Heated Catalyst on the State of Charge of the Battery Pack for Series Hybrid Electric Vehicles at Cold Start

NE Chemcat Corp.-Makoto Nagata
Waseda University-Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Xieyang Yan, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0444
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery models are being developed as a component of the powertrain systems of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) to predict the state of charge (SOC) accurately. Electrically heated catalysts (EHCs) can be employed in the powertrains of HEVs to reach the catalyst light off temperature in advance. However, EHCs draw power from the battery pack and hence sufficient energy needs to be stored to power auxiliary components. In series HEVs, the engine is primarily used to charge the battery pack. Therefore, it is important to develop a control strategy that triggers engine start/stop conditions and reduces the frequency of engine operation to minimize the equivalent fuel consumption. In this study, a battery pack model was constructed in MATLAB-Simulink to investigate the SOC variation of a high-power lithium ion battery during extreme engine cold start conditions (-7°C) with/without application of an EHC. The EHC was simulated in MATLAB to determine the energy required to heat the catalyst during cold start conditions. The effect of the EHC in emissions purification at -7°C was studied using a three-way catalyst…
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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Passive Pre-Chamber Ignition with EGR and Air Dilution for Future Generation Passenger Car Engines

DEA-IRP Groupe Renault-Cedric Libert, Fano Rampanarivo, Chistou Panagiotis, Maziar Dabiri
Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Ricardo Novella, Jose Pastor, Josep Gomez-Soriano, Ibrahim Barbery
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0238
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays the combination of strict regulations for pollutant and CO2 emissions, together with the irruption of electric vehicles in the automotive market, is arising many concerns for internal combustion engine community. For this purpose, many research efforts are being devoted to the development of a new generation of high-performance spark-ignition (SI) engines for passenger car applications. Particularly, the PC ignition concept, also known as Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI), is the focus of several investigations for its benefits in terms of engine thermal efficiency. The passive or un-scavenged version of this ignition strategy does not require an auxiliary fuel supply inside the PC; therefore, it becomes a promising solution for passenger car applications as packaging and installation are simple and straightforward. Moreover, combining this concept with lean burn is an interesting alternative for both improving the engine efficiency and maintaining low pollutant emissions as it enables Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) which ultimately reduces NOX emissions. EGR dilution is also an attractive approach as it is compatible with the three-way catalyst for NOX control. However, previous researches…
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Coated Gasoline Particulate Filter Technology Development to Meet China6 PN Regulation

Corning Inc-Jian Chen, Suhao He
Kunming Sino-Platinum Metals Catalyst Co-Wenzheng Xia, Xinbo Yuan, Dongxia Yang, Gavin harle, Depeng zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0387
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely adopted in Europe and China. GPF can be wash-coated with different level of three-way catalyst (TWC) coating. Some applications use heavy coating (>100g/L), and some don’t use at all. Pressure drop (DP) and PN filtration efficiency (FE) are the top two design criteria for OEMs. It is important to understand how various of coating technologies work with GPF technologies for optimized FE/DP performance. To study filter and coating interaction, a big matrix of coated GPFs are prepared and tested for lab DP and vehicle PN based FE. The matrix includes a wide range of wash coating loadings (WCLs), coating technologies that enable more coating inside GPF filtration walls (in-wall coating) or more on top of walls (on-wall coating), and GPF technologies with high and low mean pore size (MPS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to analyze microstructure of coated filter walls, and coating distribution for better understanding filter performance data. In general, DP…
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Development of Three-Way Catalyst with Advanced Coating Layer

Cataler Corporation-Minoru Ito, Shunsuke Oishi, Takuya Okuda
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Akira Morikawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0653
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Further improvements in catalyst performance are required to help protect the atmospheric environment. However, from the viewpoint of resource availability, it is also necessary to decrease the amount of precious metals used at the active sites of the catalyst. Therefore, a high-performance three-way catalyst with an advanced coating layer has been developed to lower the amount of precious metal usage. Fuel efficiency improvement technologies such as high compression ratios and a large-volume exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) generally tend to increase the ratio of hydrocarbons (HC) to nitrogen oxides (NOx) in exhaust gas. This research focused on the palladium (Pd) loading depth in the coating layer with the aim of improving the hydrocarbon (HC) conversion activity of the catalyst. Contact between Pd, which has a high degree of HC conversion activity, and the exhaust gas can be facilitated by controlling the loading depth on the surface of the coating layer, enabling efficient conversion even under high space velocity (SV) conditions. Subsequently, this research focused on the coating structure to maximize the conversion activity and oxygen storage…
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Characteristics of Transient NOx Emissions of HEV under Real Road Driving

Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Corp.-Bo He, Shi Bo
Cambustion, Ltd.-Qiang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0380
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To meet the request of China National 6b emission regulations which will be officially implemented in China, firstly including the RDE emission test limits, the transient emissions on real road condition are paid more attention. A non-plug-in hybrid light-duty gasoline vehicles (HEV) sold in the Chinese market was selected to study real road emissions employed fast response NOx analyzer from Cambustion Ltd. with a sampling frequency of 100Hz, which can measure the missing NO peaks by standard RDE gas analyzer now. Emissions from PEMS were also recorded and compared with the results from fast response NOx analyzer. The concentration of NOx emissions before and after the Three Way Catalyst (TWC) of the hybrid vehicle were also sampled and analyzed, and the working efficiency of the TWC in real road driving process was investigated. It is found that when the engine is at high-speed and heavy-load conditions, especially when fuel is injected after fuel cut, instantaneous spikes in tailpipe NO emissions could be observed, which means that traffic positions such as crosswalks, speed bumps, expressway entrances,…
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Control Oriented Physics Based Three-Way Catalytic Converter Temperature Estimation Model for Real Time Controllers

FCA US LLC-Darshan Shah, Kiran Premchand, David Pedro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0904
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As automotive emissions become more stringent, accurate control of three-way catalyst temperature is increasingly important for maintaining high levels of conversion efficiency as well as preventing damage to the catalyst. A real-time catalyst temperature model provides critical information to the engine control system. In order to improve emissions and ensure regulatory compliance over a wide range of speed-load conditions, it is desirable to use modelled catalyst temperature as the primary input to catalyst efficiency control strategies. This requirement creates a challenge for traditional empirical models designed for component protection at high speed-load conditions. Simulation results show that a physics aligned model can estimate temperature in all operating conditions, including: cold-start, extended idle, engine shutdown, stop-start events, decel fuel shut-off, as well as traditional high load and part load points. However, physics based approaches which calculate detailed chemical reaction kinetics remain impractical for real-time controller implementation due to computational burden and calibration complexity. This paper outlines a proposal for a simplified control-oriented physics model which estimates catalyst temperature in real time. The model consists of reduced…