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Vehicle Emission Solutions for China 6B and Euro 7

Umicore AutoCat (China) Co., Ltd.-Gu Weiwei
Umicore Autocat (China) Co., Ltd.-Xiangwei Meng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0654
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combinations of TWC (CC1) and coated gasoline particulate filters (CC2) were aged by 4 mode and fuel cut aging to simulate 160K kilometers of in-use aging China and Europe, respectively. The separate combinations of catalysts were then evaluated on two low emission engines using the WLTC driving cycle. Regarding the TWC CC1 catalysts both volume and PGM were varied. With respect to the gasoline particulate filters (GPF) OSC/washcoat amounts were varied at constant PGM loading. For European applications, after fuel cut aging, Euro6D emission target can be met with any combination of TWC + GPF catalysts. However, if the gaseous regulations for Euro 7 are similar to China 6B the TWC CC1 catalyst should be >1.0L in volume in order to meet CO and NOx emissions. For the Chinese applications, after the 4-mode aging again the TWC CC1 catalyst should be >1.0L in volume and high levels of OSC are needed in the GPF to meet CO and NOx emission targets. Results imply that TWC CC1 design is most critical and more washcoat (bigger volume)…
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A Fundamental study on the effects of Electrically Heated Catalyst on State of Charge of the battery pack for a series hybrid electric vehicle at cold start.

NE Chemcat Corp.-Makoto Nagata
Waseda University-Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Xieyang Yan, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0444
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Battery models are recently being developed as one of a component of the powertrain system of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) to predict the State of Charge (SOC) accurately. The electric components like the Electrically Heated Catalyst (EHC) which is used to reach the catalyst light off temperature in advance are being employed in the powertrain of HEVs. The EHC draws power from the battery pack of the HEV. Therefore, sufficient energy should be stored in the battery pack of an HEV to power the auxiliary components in the powertrain. In a series hybrid electric vehicle system, the engine is primarily used to charge the battery pack. Therefore, it is important to develop a control strategy that triggers the engine start/stop conditions and reduces the frequency of engine operation to minimize the equivalent fuel consumption. A battery pack model was constructed in MATLAB-Simulink to investigate the SOC variation of a high-power lithium ion battery during extreme engine cold start conditions (-7°C) with and without the application of EHC. An electrically heated catalyst (EHC) was also simulated…
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Effect of Driving Cycles on Emissions from On-Road Motorcycles

Environment and Climate Change Canada-Debbie Rosenblatt, Jonathan Stokes
Evoke Management Consulting-Kevin F. Brown
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0377
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The effects of driving cycles and fuel composition on emissions from on-road motorcycles were studied with the objectives of understanding the effects of established drive cycles, quantifying the emissions from a more rigorous drive cycle, and determining the emission differences between various certification test fuels. Chassis dynamometer emissions testing was conducted on three motorcycles with engine displacements of 300 cc, 750 cc and 1200 cc. All of the motorcycles were Class II North American certified motorcycles with fuel injection and three-way catalysts. The motorcycles were tested using the North American certification cycle, also known as the Federal Test Procedure (FTP); the World Motorcycle Transit Cycle (WMTC); and a trial cycle based on real-world motorcycle driving, informally named the ‘Real World Driving Cycle’ (RWDC). Per cycle exhaust emissions characterization included the following: carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide, total particulate matter, and a calculated determination of fuel economy. Along with an analysis of test cycle phase contributions and cumulative emissions over the test cycles. Engine torque was plotted against engine speed for each motorcycle…
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Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Passive Pre-Chamber Ignition with EGR and Air Dilution for Future Generation Passenger Car Engines

DEA-IRP Groupe Renault-Cedric Libert, Fano Rampanarivo, Chistou Panagiotis, Maziar Dabiri
Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Ricardo Novella, Jose Pastor, Josep Gomez-Soriano, Ibrahim Barbery
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0238
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays the combination of strict regulations for pollutant and CO2 emissions, together with the irruption of electric vehicles in the automotive market, is arising many concerns for internal combustion engine community. For this purpose, many research efforts are being devoted to the development of a new generation of high-performance spark-ignition (SI) engines for passenger car applications. Particularly, the pre-chamber ignition concept, also known as Turbulent Jet Ignition (TJI), is the focus of several investigations for its benefits in terms of engine thermal efficiency. The passive or un-scavenged version of this ignition strategy does not require an auxiliary fuel supply inside the pre-chamber; therefore, it becomes a promising solution for passenger car applications as packaging and installation are simple and straightforward. Moreover, combining this concept with EGR dilution is an interesting alternative for both improving the engine efficiency maintaining low pollutant emissions as this approach is perfectly compatible with the three-way catalyst for NOX control. However, previous researches focused on developing the technology rather than understanding the governing physical phenomena. Consequently, the knowledge about the characteristics…
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Coated Gasoline Particulate Filter Technology Development to Meet China6 PN Regulation

Corning Inc-Jian Chen, Suhao He
Kunming Sino-Platinum Metals Catalyst Co-Wenzheng Xia, Xinbo Yuan, Dongxia Yang, Gavin harle, Depeng zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0387
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the introduction of stringent particulate number (PN) limit and real driving emission (RDE) requirements, gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) are widely adopted in Europe and China. GPF can be wash-coated with different level of three-way catalyst (TWC) coating. Some applications use heavy coating (>100g/L), and some don’t use at all. Pressure drop (DP) and PN filtration efficiency (FE) are the top two design criteria for OEMs. It is important to understand how various of coating technologies work with GPF technologies for optimized FE/DP performance. To study filter and coating interaction, a big matrix of coated GPFs are prepared and tested for lab DP and vehicle PN based FE. The matrix includes a wide range of wash coating loadings (WCLs), coating technologies that enable more coating inside GPF filtration walls (in-wall coating) or more on top of walls (on-wall coating), and GPF technologies with high and low mean pore size (MPS). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is used to analyze microstructure of coated filter walls, and coating distribution for better understanding filter performance data. In general, DP…
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Development of Three-way Catalysts with Advanced Coating Layer

Cataler Corporation-Minoru Ito, Shunsuke Oishi, Takuya Okuda
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Akira Morikawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0653
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to protect the atmospheric environment, further improvement of catalyst performance is required. On the other hand, from the viewpoint of resource risk, it is necessary to reduce the amount of precious metal used as active sites of the catalyst. Therefore, we have developed a high performance three-way catalyst with advanced coating layer to achieve the reduction of precious metal usage. In recent years, fuel efficiency improvement technologies such as a high compression ratio and a large amount of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) have attracted attention. These technologies generally tend to increase the ratio of HC to NOx in exhaust gas. In order to improve the HC purifying activity of the catalyst, we focused on the Pd loading depth in the coating layer. By controlling the loading depth on the surface of the coating layer, Pd with high HC purification activity is easily in contact with exhaust gas. And it became possible to purify efficiently even under high Space Velocity (SV) conditions. Subsequently, we focused on the coating structure to maximize purifying activity and…
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Characteristics of Transient NOx Emission of HEV under Real Road Driving

Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Group Corp.-Bo He, Shi Bo
Cambustion, Ltd.-Qiang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0380
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To meet the request of China National 6b emission regulations which will be officially implemented in China, firstly including the RDE emission test limits, the transient emissions on real road condition are paid more attention. Several non-plug-in hybrid light-duty gasoline vehicles (HEV) sold in the Chinese market were selected to study real road emissions employed fast response NOx analyzer from Cambustion Ltd. with a sampling frequency of 100Hz. The concentration of NOx emissions before and after the TWC (Three Way Catalyst) of the hybrid vehicle were also sampled and analyzed, and the working efficiency of the TWC in real road driving process was investigated. It is found that when the engine is at low-speed and heavy-load conditions, especially when fuel is injected after fuel cut, instantaneous spikes in tailpipe NOx emissions could be observed, which means that traffic positions such as crosswalks, speed bumps, high-speed entrances, traffic lights, would lead to higher NOx emissions. At the same time, emissions from PEMS were also recorded and compared with the results from fast response NOx analyzer. Obvious…
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Relevance of exhaust aftertreatment degradation for EU7 gasoline engine applications

FEV Europe GmbH-Michael Görgen, Jim Cox, Martin Nijs, Johannes Scharf
RWTH Aachen University-Stefan Sterlepper, Johannes Claßen, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0382
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust aftertreatment systems must function sufficiently over the full useful life of a vehicle. In Europe this is currently defined as 160.000 km, but it is expected that with introduction of EU7, the required mileage will be extended to 240.000 km. This will then be consistent with the US legislation. While emission limits are tightened, additional engine operation areas become relevant for certification. This results in new challenges in terms of limiting the deterioration of the conversion efficiencies of the exhaust aftertreatment system during the life of the vehicle. Before this backdrop, three-way catalyst aging and gasoline particulate filter ash accumulation are investigated in this paper. An advanced gasoline exhaust aftertreatment system with high platinum group metals loading, as expected necessary for the EU7, is evaluated. The system is aged using different cycles, such as the Standard Bench Cycle, the ZDAKW cycle for gasoline exhaust systems (a cycle developed by the German Exhaust Center for the Automotive Industry) and supplemented with borderline catalyst aging as well as a novel ash loading method. All aging operations…
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Control Oriented Physics Based Three-Way Catalytic Converter Temperature Estimation Model for Real Time Controllers

FCA US LLC-Darshan Shah, Kiran Premchand, David Pedro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0904
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As automotive emissions become more stringent, accurate control of three-way catalyst temperature is increasingly important for maintaining high levels of conversion efficiency as well as preventing damage to the catalyst. A real-time catalyst temperature model provides critical information to the engine control system. In order to improve emissions and ensure regulatory compliance over a wide range of speed-load conditions, it is desirable to use modelled catalyst temperature as the primary input to catalyst efficiency control strategies. This requirement creates a challenge for traditional empirical models designed for component protection at high speed-load conditions. Simulation results show that a physics aligned model can estimate temperature in all operating conditions, including: cold-start, extended idle, engine shutdown, stop-start events, decel fuel shut-off, as well as traditional high load and part load points. However, physics based approaches which calculate detailed chemical reaction kinetics remain impractical for real-time controller implementation due to computational burden and calibration complexity. This paper outlines a proposal for a simplified control-oriented physics model which estimates catalyst temperature in real time. The model consists of reduced…
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Ultra-lean and High EGR Operation of Dual Mode, Turbulent Jet Ignition (DM-TJI) Engine with Active Pre-chamber Scavenging

Aramco Research Centers - Detroit-Alexander K. Voice
Michigan State University-Cyrus Atis, Sadiyah Sabah Chowdhury, Yidnekachew Ayele, Thomas Stuecken, Harold Schock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1117
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Continuous efforts to improve thermal efficiency and reduce exhaust emissions of internal combustion engines have resulted in development of various solutions towards improved lean burn ignition systems in spark ignition engines. The Dual Mode, Turbulent Jet Ignition (DM-TJI) system is one of the leading technologies in that regard which offers higher thermal efficiency and reduced NOx emissions due to its ability to operate with very lean or highly dilute mixtures. Compared to other pre-chamber ignition technologies, the DM-TJI system has the distinct capability to work with a very high level of EGR dilution (up to ~40%). Thus, this system enables the use of a three-way catalyst (TWC). Auxiliary air supply for pre-chamber purge allows this system to work with such high EGR dilution rate. This work presents the results of experimental investigation carried out with a Dual Mode, Turbulent Jet Ignition (DM-TJI) optical engine equipped with a cooled EGR system. The results show that the DM-TJI engine could maintain stable operation (COVIMEP<2%) with 40% external EGR at stoichiometric (λ ~ 1) operating conditions. The relative…