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Electrical Heated Epoxy Tool for Rotational Molding Application

John Deere India Pvt., Ltd.-Sorna Rajendran Gandhi, Amit S Patil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0234
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The conventional method of making rotational molding part is by heating the cast aluminum mold or sheet metal mold by hot air medium which has its own limitation on energy loss, the other means is by direct heat and cold of mold by passing hot oil/water in the mold to have better energy efficiency but leakage and safety problems associated with pumping pressurized hot oil / Water. There is no solution available for prototyping rotational molding parts using design intended material. The current practice of prototyping with conventional method is expensive and time-consuming. In this work, a simple method is presented to produce a rotational molded part with breakthrough in mold construction, which is Composite Mold Technology (CMT) with glass fiber reinforced epoxy resin built-in with electrical heaters. Project focuses is on proving CMT in comparison with the current production method. CMT reduce the cost by 90% and time to build Protomold by 30%. This electrical heated CMT can be used for new product development (NPD) and very low volume production as the cycle time of the part development was observed very high and life mold is yet to be tested. Deeper study of the life…
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Estimation of the mechanism to suppress water degradation of 1K heat-curing epoxy adhesive with high durability

Aisin Chemical Co., Ltd.-Kazumasa Sakaguchi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0227
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, structural adhesives have been used in automotive applications in order to improve the rigidity and impact resistance of joints, and the need for them is expected to expand in the future. However, it is known that the degradation factors of adhesives are heat, load, and water, which cause degradation and decrease in strength. In this study, we focused on water absorption degradation, which is considered to be the largest degradation factor of adhesives, and succeeded in imparting high water resistance by adding an appropriate material to 1K heat-curing epoxy adhesives. This adhesive was subjected to a degradation acceleration test at 70℃100%RH 14days, and it was confirmed that hydrolysis did not occur, and the strength retention rate and cohesive failure rate were 100%. In this study, factors that give adhesive high durability were extracted, and the mechanism that these factors suppress water absorption degradation was estimated.
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A finite element design study and performance evaluation of an ultra-lightweight carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite vehicle door assembly

Clemson University-Anmol Kothari, Aditya Yerra, Madhura Limaye, Sai Aditya Pradeep, Gaurav Dalal, Gang Li, Srikanth Pilla
Honda R & D Americas Inc.-Skye Malcolm, Duane Detwiler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0203
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ever-growing concern to reduce the impact of transportation systems on environment has pushed automotive industry towards fuel efficient and sustainable solutions. While several approaches have been used to improve efficiency, the light-weighting of automobile components has proven broadly effective. A substantial effort is devoted to lightweight body in white which contributes ~35% of total weight of the vehicle. Closure systems, however, have been often overlooked. Closure systems are extremely important as they account for ~ 50 % of the structure mass and have a very diverse range of requirements including crash safety, durability, strength, fit, finish, NVH, and weather sealing. To this end a carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite door is being designed to enable 42.5% weight reduction for an OEM’s mid-size SUV steel door. In this work, several novel composite door assembly designs are developed by using an integrated design, analysis and optimization approach. A design optimization is performed to satisfy static load case requirements which represent daily use and misuse. The crashworthiness of the door assembly is assessed by considering three non-linear…
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Advancements in Thermoplastic Optical Materials for Automotive Lighting Systems

Arkema Inc.-Altuglas International-Brian Cromer, Laura Thoma, Noah Macy, Charles Rissel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0634
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Optical materials strongly influence the performance and efficiency of automotive lighting systems. In particular, LED signature headlight design motifs such as dispersion optics and light pipes comprise long optical path lengths, which require homogeneous color distribution and light extraction with minimal attenuation. Unfortunately, conventional thermoplastic optical materials are not suitable for long path length (LPL) applications, as they often lack sufficient light transmission, absorption coefficient and/or heat resistance for LPL optics. In this presentation, we will demonstrate strategies to maximize performance and efficiency of automotive lighting systems, using new acrylic resins optimized for LPL optics. Through practical examples, we will show how strategic improvements to absorption coefficient and spectral uniformity significantly reduce light attenuation, while increasing power efficiency and color uniformity in LPL optics. Additionally, we will outline thermal and physical material properties relevant to the design, engineering, and manufacturing of thermoplastic LPL optics. Finally, we will discuss the importance of outdoor stability, UV-weathering resistance, and chemical resistance for maintaining efficient long-term performance, and in the case of signature lighting, preserving the vehicle brand identity…
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Anisotropic Material Damage Model of Randomly Oriented Thermoplastic Composites for Crash Simulation

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Seiji Hayashi, Mitsuharu Kan
JSOL Corporation-Kei Saito, Masato Nishi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1305
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this research, a material model was developed with orthotropic properties for in-plane damage to support finite element strength analysis of components manufactured from a randomly oriented long-fiber thermoplastic composite. This is a composite material with randomly oriented bundles of carbon fibers that are approximately one inch in length. A macroscopic characteristic of the material is isotropic in in-plane terms, but there are differences in the tension and compression damage characteristics.In consideration of these characteristics, a material model was developed in which the damage progression rate is correlated with thermodynamic force and stress triaxiality. In-plane damage was assumed to be isotropic with respect to the elements. In order to validate this material model, the results from simulation and three-point bending tests of closed-hat-section beams were compared and found to correlate closely.However, in the case of axial compression of a hat-section beam, it was found that although the initial peak load corresponded closely, the peak loads after the second one did not match.As a cause for this, it is conceivable that the damage applied in the…
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The Influence of the Content and Nature of the Dispersive Filler at the Formation of Coatings for Protection of the Equipment of River and Sea Transport

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ivano-Frankivsk National Medical University, Ukraine-Liubov Poberezhna
Kherson State Maritime Academy, Ukraine-Oleksandr Sapronov, Andriy Buketov, Anna Sapronova, Vitalii Sotsenko, Mykola Brailo, Serhii Yakushchenko, Serhii Smetankin, Andriy Kulinich, Viacheslav Kulinich
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0006
Published 2020-01-23 by SAE International in United States
To protect ship equipment of river and sea transport, it is suggested to use polymeric protective coatings based on epoxy diane oligomer ED-20, polyethylene polyamine (PEPA) curing agent and filler, which is a departure from industrial production. Thus the purpose of the work is analysis of major dependency of the properties on the content of fillers that allowed to revealed the critical filler content (furnace black) in composites to form a protective coating with the required set of characteristics. The infrared (IR) spectral analysis was used to investigate the presence of bonds on the surface of particles of the PM-75 furnace black, which allows us to assess the degree of cross-linking of the polymer. The influence of the content of dispersed furnace black on the physicomechanical and thermophysical properties and the structure of the protective coating is investigated. For the formation of the coating with increased adhesive properties, the optimum content of the additive is q = 25 parts by weight (pts.wt.), due to the increase in the number of C—O, C—C, C═O, C═C, C═O,…
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Ring - Back-Up, Boss Connection, AMS3678/1 Material

A-6C2 Seals Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS9058D
  • Current
Published 2020-01-03 by SAE International in United States
This standard establishes the dimensional and visual quality requirements, lot requirements, and packaging and labeling requirements for back-up rings machined from AMS3678/1 polytetrafluoroethylene materials for use in AS5202 ports. It shall be used for procurement purposes.
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Butyl (IIR) Rubber Phosphate Ester Resident 85 - 95

AMS CE Elastomers Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS3239G
  • Current
Published 2020-01-03 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers a butyl (IIR) rubber in the form of sheet, strip, tubing, extrusions, and molded shapes.
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OEM Plastic Parts Repair

Motor Vehicle Council
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1573_201910
  • Current
Published 2019-10-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice defines the information required to repair the various types of plastics found on modern light-duty highway vehicles. Information is included for the repair and refinishing of most plastic body parts, both interior and exterior. Repair information is described for all commonly used plastics including, but not limited to, polyurethanes, polycarbonate blends, modified polypropylenes, polyethylenes and nylons. Repairs can be made to these types of plastics using two-part (2K) repair adhesives, plastic welding, and other materials available from body shop suppliers. When a new type of plastic is being introduced to the market through a new vehicle program, specific repair and refinishing procedures should be provided, following the format in this document. Sheet-molded compounds (SMC), fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) and carbon fiber reinforced plastics can also be repaired using slightly different procedures and repair materials.
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Design and Analysis of Natural Fibre Reinforced Epoxy Composites for Automobile Hood

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Akhil Kumar Guduru, V N B Prasad Sodisetty, Vidya Prudhvi Sai Katari
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The need for eco-friendly materials is recently increasing in the automobile and aerospace sectors. Material selection for automobile components is influenced by various factors such as cost, weight and strength. Natural fibers offers various advantages over conventional materials such as environmental friendly, easily available, recyclable and higher specific strength. Among the natural fibers Sisal and Kenaf fibers are selected for present study due to their good mechanical properties and availability. Kenaf fibers have great potential to be used as construction and automotive materials due to their long fibers which are derived from the bast. Sisal fibers do not absorb moisture and possess good impact, sound absorbing properties and high fire resistance properties. Epoxy LY556 is selected as matrix material to bind the combination of these two natural fibers due to its high temperature resistance and adherence to reinforcements. Alkaline treatment was carried out to remove the moisture from the natural fibers. Fabrication of epoxy/Kenaf fibre/Sisal Fibre composite materials of different stacking sequence was carried out by Vacuum Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) method. These composites…
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