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The Isochoric Engine

University of Stuttgart-Benjamin Burger, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0796
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For the gasoline engine, the isochoric process is the ideal limit of the ideal processes. During the project, a combustion engine with real isochoric boundary conditions is built.A “resting time” of the piston for several degrees crank angle in the top dead center (TDC) can be realized with a special crank drive. This crank drive consists of two crankshafts with different strokes, which are combined. The two crankshafts rotate with a ratio of two to one in opposite directions.The total stroke corresponds to the amount of the first crankshaft, so it is possible to investigate different strokes of the second crankshaft in the same crankcase. Different “resting times” can be achieved by different strokes of the second crankshaft. A specific combination of both crankshafts make a stroke possible which corresponds to that of a conventional combustion engine.In addition to the standard cylinder pressure sensor, a quick surface temperature probe is also used as supplementary measurement technology. The influence of isochoric combustion is studied with constant air mass and constant lambda at three different strokes of…
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Hot Plate Method for Evaluating Heat Resistance and Thermal Insulation Properties of Materials

Acoustical Materials Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1361_202003
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
This test method is applicable for rating various materials, such as automotive trim materials and insulation composites, for their ability to resist heat transfer, heat degradation, odor, smoking, and exothermic reaction under prescribed temperature.
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Development of a Novel Hybrid-Piston for Application in High Performance Two-Stroke Engines

Fraunhofer IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany-Axel Jahn, Frieder Zimmermann, Uwe Stamm
Mahle König Kommanditgesellschaft GmbH & Co KG, 6830 Ran-Christian Bechter, Thomas Herb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0508
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The current development trends for high performance two-stroke engines have been identified in raising combustion pressures and therefore higher cylinder temperatures [1] [2]. Thus, the requirements on piston assembly are increased in such a way that pistons based on aluminium-silicon alloys – as most commonly used in high performance two-stroke engines - reach their application limit. A suitable solution has been shown by research work such as that conducted by Mahle König, by using a piston consisting of different materials. With this approach, the higher stressed piston crown consists of steel, while the lower stressed piston skirt is made out from aluminium. Previous basic examinations showed the high potential of the hybrid piston concept in terms of pressure and temperature increase, while also showing the need for a temperature-stable and pressure-tight joint between crown and skirt.This paper will focus on the development of two novel hybrid-piston concepts, where the piston crown and the piston skirt are connected in different ways. The first hybrid concept presented uses the piston pin in order to realize a plugconnection…
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Dynamic Mechanical Strain-Induced Temperature Gradient Coating

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35811
Published 2020-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Evaluating components for discontinuities without damaging the part or system remains a priority for diverse industries and research fields. Low-cost techniques such as fluorescent penetrant inspection (FPI) are used widely by major industries, such as aviation and aerospace, despite limited defect detection and the need for complex, multi-step operations in highly controlled conditions. Nondestructive methods such as sonic infrared (SIR) testing apply ultrasound waves to identify surface defects and cracks. These techniques hold promise for widespread use but stand to improve in the detection of false positives.

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TAIZAC -TAndem Injectors Zapping ACtivation- for Thermal Efficiency Improvement of Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Meiji University-Tetsuya Aizawa, Shinobu Akiyama, Taizo Shimada, Yoshiaki Toyama, Yuya Nishikawa, Soshu Saruwatari, Yoshiro Noguchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2179
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to explore the potential of thermal efficiency improvement of diesel engines with injection rate shaping, TAIZAC (TAndem Injectors Zapping ACtivation) injector consisting of commercially available two common-rail injectors was developed in-house. A simple architecture adopted for TAIZAC injector consists of an upper injector connected to a high pressure source, a lower injector injecting into the cylinder and sealing parts between the two injectors. A fast response piezo-actuated injector (G3P) was employed as the upper one with an additionally drilled large axial orifice for faster fuel supply. A solenoid-actuated injector (G4S) was employed as the lower one for its applicability to inner volume reduction by body cut. Control of injection timing and duration of the upper injector realized not only the originally targeted inversed-delta injection rate shaping, but also sharper rise of initial injection rate and modulation of injection pressure among and during multi-injection pulses. Single cylinder diesel engine performance tests were conducted to demonstrate the effects of a combination of 100MPa low pressure pre and pilot injections, sharper rise of initial injection rate…
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Set-Up and Validation of an Integrated Engine Thermal Model in GT-SUITE for Heat Rejection Prediction

Jaguar Land Rover Limited-Steven Pierson, Giuseppe Virelli
POWERTECH Engineering S.r.l.-Eduardo Graziano, Luigi Bruno, Paolo Corrado
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Current approaches to heat rejection prediction during the development stage of a new engine are mostly based on maps built upon experimental data. However, these maps can be obtained fairly late in the development process, when at least a prototype of the engine can be run on the test bench. Furthermore, such experimental maps are limited to a discrete number of points measured at fixed operating conditions.An innovative approach based on 1D simulation was tested in the commercial 1D multi-physics code GT-SUITE, developed by Gamma Technologies LLC, to advance the moment at which reliable heat rejection calculations can be effectively used to support the engine and cooling system design. A fully physical Diesel engine performance model - featuring a predictive combustion model - was integrated with a detailed finite element wall temperature solver based on the 3D meshing feature available in GT-SUITE. Coolant and oil hydraulic circuits were implemented in the model and used to predict flow rate through the water jacket and oil gallery. In addition, a predictive detailed friction model of the cranktrain…
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An Innovative Electric Motor Cooling System for Hybrid Vehicles - Model and Test

Clemson University-Shervin Shoai Naini, Junkui (Allen) Huang, Richard Miller, John R. Wagner
US Army TARDEC-Denise Rizzo, Katherine Sebeck, Scott Shurin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Enhanced electric motor performance in transportation vehicles can improve system reliability and durability over rigorous operating cycles. The design of innovative heat rejection strategies in electric motors can minimize cooling power consumption and associated noise generation while offering configuration flexibility. This study investigates an innovative electric motor cooling strategy through bench top thermal testing on an emulated electric motor. The system design includes passive (e.g., heat pipes) cooling as the primary heat rejection pathway with supplemental conventional cooling using a variable speed coolant pump and radiator fan(s). The integrated thermal structure, “cradle”, transfers heat from the motor shell towards an end plate for heat dissipation to the ambient surroundings or transmission to an external thermal bus to remote heat exchanger. A complete lumped parameter numerical modelling was implemented to estimate the thermal behavior of the corresponding electric motor cooling system. Experimental and numerical results compare the temperature, heat flux, and cooling power measurements. For 250VA thermal load applied, the hybrid heat rejection strategy could save up to 33% of the power consumption while the operating…
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Effects of Temperature on Mechanical Response of Lithium Ion Batteries to External Abusive Loads

Temple University-Mehdi Gilaki, Elham Sahraei
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper focuses on mechanical properties of lithium ion batteries subjected to mechanical loading. Researchers have studied mechanical properties of batteries under room temperature. However, the operating temperature for these cells can change from -20 to +60 degrees Celsius. Therefore, characterization of cell’s response under varying temperature is of utmost importance. We have tested battery components and cells at a range of temperatures and have documented the changes in mechanical properties. Our results show that extreme hot or cold temperatures can have a significant effect on the mechanical response of lithium ion batteries under crush and indentation.
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Development of TLP-AI Technology to Realize High Temperature Operation of Power Module

Toyota Central R&D Labs, Inc.-Hirofumi Ito, Masanori Usui
Toyota Motor Corporation-Rintaro Asai, Masaki Aoshima
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Application of SiC power devices is regarded as a promising means of reducing the power loss of power modules mounted in power control units. Due to those high thermostable characteristics, the power module with SiC power devices are required to have higher operating temperature than the conventional power module with Si power devices. However, the limitations of current packaging technology prevent the utilization of the full potential of SiC power devices. To resolve these issues, the development of device bonding technology is very important. Although transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding is a promising technology for enabling high temperature operation because its bonding layer has a high melting point, the characteristics of the TLP bonding layer tend to damage the power devices. This paper describes the development of a bonding technology to achieve high temperature operation using a stress reduction effect. Called transient liquid phase bonding with an aluminum interlayer (TLP-AI), this method utilizes the high melting point and ductility of aluminum to reduce the device stress of power modules. The developed method lowers device stress…
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The Heat Is On: A Guide to Specifying Insulation Materials

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33919
Published 2019-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

One of the first things an electrical engineer will learn is that the number-one enemy of designing and manufacturing any electrical/electronic product is heat. It's the one characteristic that can cause your idea of a hand-sized unit to turn into a tabletop unit. When discussing insulation with a manufacturer, the first question that seems to come up is temperature resistance. It is a very important characteristic but there are a few others that need to be addressed as well. In addition to temperature rating, voltage along with mechanical strength play a very important role in the selection of insulation.