The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Thermal management
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Heat Pumps for BEVs: Architectures and Performance Analysis

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris, Federica Bettoja, Mauro Casella, Matteo Rostagno, Angela Tancredi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0030
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have never been more popular, yet fears around being left stranded by an exhausted battery remain a key reason why some car buyers resist making a purchase. Bigger batteries are not always the solution because of the direct link with higher costs and high impact on weight. A re-engineering of the most energy-consuming auxiliaries is mandatory and the thermal management function is on top of the redesign request list. Heat Pump solution is considered one of the best way to save energy and reduce the impact on vehicle range of heating and cooling function, but the automotive application requires a careful definition of the system features to avoid unjustified growing up of complexity as well as an unneeded system over-sizing. The paper aims to give an overview on the heat pump design best practices through a virtual performance comparison of different lay-out configurations, which have been selected starting from a benchmark analysis crossed with a detailed vehicle segment-oriented functions selection. Control strategies role, costs, and target requirements have been used as drivers for…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The Virtual Engine Development for Enhancing the Compression Ratio of DISI-Engines by Means of Water Injection and Variable Valve Timing

FKFS-Antonino Vacca, Francesco Cupo, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
Ford Werke GmbH-Oliver Berkemeier, Maziar Khosravi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0010
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the aim of significantly reducing emissions, while keeping CO2 production under control, gasoline engines are faced with a new challenge to survive the constraints imposed by the RDE cycles. Current downsized engines are developed with the most recent techniques for increasing efficiency, such as high direct injection pressure, selective valve actuation, variable turbine geometry, and innovative thermal management system. The factor limiting their further step towards enhanced efficiency is the onset of abnormal combustion process. Therefore the challenge for the further boost of modern engine efficiency is the improvement of the combustion process. Different combustion technics such as HCCI and the employment of pre-chamber have been investigated, but the possibility of effectively use them in a wide range of the engine map, by fulfilling at the same time the needing of fast load control are still limiting their dissemination. For these reasons the technologies for improving the characteristics of a standard combustion process are still deeply investigated. Among these water injection in combination with either early or late intake valve closing offers the possibility…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Impact of Thermal Management of the Three-Way Catalyst on the Energy Efficiency of a P2 Gasoline FHEV

Università del Salento-Marco Benegiamo, Andrea Valletta, Antonio Carlucci
Università di Roma Tor Vergata-Vincenzo Mulone
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0019
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Gasoline Full Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FHEVs) are recognized as a cost-effective solution to comply with upcoming emissions legislation. However, several studies have highlighted that frequent start-and-stops worsen the HC tail-pipe emissions, especially when the light-off temperature of the three-way catalyst (TWC) has not been reached. In fact, strategies only addressing the minimization of fuel consumption tend to delay engine activation and hence TWC warming, especially during urban driving. Goal of the present research is therefore to develop an on-line powertrain management strategy accounting also for TWC temperature, in order to reduce the time needed to reach TWC light-off temperature. A catalyst model is incorporated into the model of the powertrain where torque-split is performed by an adaptive equivalent consumption minimization strategy (A-ECMS). The developed A-ECMS operates on a domain of power-split combinations between electric machine and internal combustion engine, which, aside from satisfying the torque demand, also ensure a controlled ICE torque derivative as well as a controlled ICE start-and-stop frequency. Hence, the algorithm which is extended for TWC thermal management, incorporates a penalty on…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Next-Generation Refrigerant and Air Conditioner System Choice for Internal Combustion, Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (Presentation Only) by Stephen O. Andersen, Jiangping Chen, Sourav Chowdhury, Tim Craig, Walter Ferraris, Jianxin Hu, Sangeet Kapoor, Carloandrea Malvicino, Prasanna Nagarhalli, Nancy J. Sherman, and Kristen N. Taddonio

Centro Ricerche Fiat SCpA-Walter Ferraris
FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Carloandrea Malvicino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0029
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the passage of Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol in 2016, HFC-134a will need to be phased down in all markets worldwide due to its high global warming potential (GWP=1300). Meanwhile, global adoption of electric vehicles is accelerating. Improved MAC and heat pump efficiency is critically important to extend vehicle range. Engineers must design MAC and heat pump systems using low-GWP refrigerants that are simultaneously cost-effective, energy efficient, safe, reliable, affordable for consumers, and able to provide both cooling and heating of the cabin and thermal management of vehicle components like power electronics and batteries. This is a challenging and complex task. Fortunately, solutions are available, but they may diverge from traditional direct expansion systems of the past. This paper: 1) documents the global history and market status of the development of alternatives to HFC-134a, including secondary-loop (SL-MAC) systems; 2) outlines the existing and expected regulations demanding low-GWP MAC refrigerant and high fuel efficiency; 3) explains the importance of comprehensive LCCP analysis when evaluating MAC climate impacts instead of focusing on only one component…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Refrigerant Valves in AC- and Heat Pump systems for Electric Vehicles

Otto Egelhof GmbH & Co. KG-Eike Willers
Otto Egelhof GmbH&Co. KG-Stephan Wild
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0038
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Abstract The Thermal Management of Electric Vehicles differs strongly from the Thermal Management in IC engine driven vehicles. The Air Conditioning Circuit itself has comparable requirements, however, the electric components and their properties lead to new architectures. Essential is at least a chiller for the conditioning of the battery, which needs to be cooled down to the range of summer ambient temperatures. The respective control devices need to fulfill different basic requirements - Small package - Lightweight - Low noise - Low energy consumption - High control accuracy to play an important role in the Refrigeration architecture of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. For conventional systems, optimization of package and weight will be achieved by a 75g TXV with a 28 mm thermal head. As soon as a battery also has to be cooled, Shut-Off valves will be implemented in the system in order to manage the respective heat loads according to the needs. For some system configurations, it is important to have a precise electronic control, which is not following the usually fixed superheat characteristic…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulation Methodology for design and development of Li-ion Cell and Battery Pack

ICAT-Akash Saxena, Gopal Singh Rathore, Adesh Kumar Chauhan, Shubham chawla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0009
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The thermal management of Li-ion Cell/ battery pack while charging-discharging plays a significant role in the development of Electric Vehicles, as increase in rate of charge-discharge leads to higher heat generation which decrease the life of li-ion cell drastically, it also increases the possibility of hazard. The present paper reports the simulation methodology for optimizing the design of li-ion cell by performing the simulation to study the variation of potential difference, heat generation and temperature distribution across the cell on different charging- discharging cycles. These simulations lead for better cell design with lesser heat generation. The Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis is performed for the better thermal management of the battery pack so that maximum heat dissipation could take place. It is expected that this simulation methodology gives an edge in the designing of li-ion cell and battery packs and optimising the performance of cell/ battery pack and ensure the safety.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

High Voltage Battery durability enhancement in electric mobility through 1D CAE

Tata Motors Ltd-Sambhaji Jaybhay, Kiran Kadam, Sangeet Kapoor
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Santosh Kumar Venu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0013
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
The public transport in India is gradually shifting towards electric mobility. Long range in electric mobility can be served with High voltage battery (HVB), but HVB can sustain for its designed life if it’s maintained within a specific operating temperature range. Appropriate battery thermal management through battery cooling system (BCS) is critical for vehicle range and battery durability This work focus on two aspects BCS sizing and coolant flow optimization in Electric bus. BCS modelling was done in 1D CAE by using KULI software from M/s Magna Steyr. The objective is to develop a model of battery cooling system in virtual environment to replicate the physical testing. Electric bus contain numerous battery packs and a complex piping in its cooling system. BCS sizing simulation was performed to keep the battery packs in operating temperature range. Iterations were carried out to maintain uniform flow at the battery packs as well as to sustain target coolant flow requirement in order to maintain thermal uniformity across the battery packs 1D simulation is vital when it comes to analyzing…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Thermal management of electrified vehicle by means of system simulation

Gamma Technologies, LLC-Sanket Shah, Dig Vijay, Marek Lehocky
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0033
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
With an objective of improving the range as well as other safety and comfort aspects, thermal management becomes increasingly important in the development of electrified vehicles both at the component as well as system level. The considerable increase in complexity of the thermal management system and its tighter interactions with the complete vehicle is driving an increasing trend towards system simulation compared to expensive testing. At the system level, different sub-systems interact with each other at varying extents. An example of one such strong interaction is between the coolant and AC circuits using battery chillers. Thermal management system simulation models must be capable of running such interactive systems. At the component level, ensuring the efficacy of the several components used in these intricately linked systems becomes increasingly important. An accurate prediction of temperature distribution inside the battery pack is essential to avoid damaging situations such as thermal runaway. An integrated approach of 1D-flow inside the cooling plates combined with 3D-thermal analysis of battery cells and cooling plates in GT-SUITE is described in this study. Also,…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Universal Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System

Electric Vehicle Thermal Management-Tarun Rana, Yuji Yamamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0002
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Universal Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System describes a thermal system architecture that delivers efficient year round thermal performance for electric vehicles. Proposed system takes care for cabin thermal comfort, battery thermal comfort. A benchmark study for thermal management system for electric vehicle shows that there is no efficient thermal system available that can be applicable to year round requirements of different geographical regions. Proposed system delivers less refrigerant pressure drop throughout the system and waste heat recovery from high thermal potential of refrigerant on discharge side of compressor to cabin heater using a water condenser. A single compressor and pump takes care for circulating refrigerant and coolant respectively for entire thermal system. An extensive simulation and testing validation for the proposed system is carried out to prove the efficient functionality of the proposed system. Waste energy recovery is the key to improve thermal system performance and same has been successfully validated for the proposed system with different stage of testing. Different simulations were carried out using 1-D simulation tool and parallel validation is done system…