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Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…

Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System For Hot Climate Regions

Pranav Vikas India Private Limited-Tarun Rana, Yuji Yamamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2507
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ELECTRIC VEHICLE THERMAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR HOT CLIMATE REGIONS Rana Tarun*, Yamamoto Yuji, Kumar Ritesh, Bhagatkar Shubhada Pranav Vikas India Private Limited, India Key Words Electric Vehicles (EV); Battery Thermal Management System (BTMS); COP; Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System (EVTMS); BTMS and HVAC System Integration; Thermal System Performance Comparison; Active Liquid Cooling; EV Battery Cooling Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective Electric Vehicles is the need of time to limit global warming and it is in application at a wide scale in colder or mild climate regions where ambient temperature is limited to mild or moderate level. Its application (Heat pump, CO2) is constrained to cold climates only due to securing better COP for heating function, sacrificing cooling COP of the existing system when operated in Hot Climate Regions, thus limiting its application to nearly half of the automotive user-base. This study is aimed to develop a new Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System (EVTMS) limited to active liquid cooling for application of Electric Vehicle in Hot Climate Regions with higher system COP targets when compared to existing…

Thermal Management of Li-Ion Battery Pack using GT-SUITE

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Sushant Mutagekar
NoonRay Energy Pvt. Ltd.-Kaushal Kumar Jha
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2500
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Objective It is very important to simulate the battery pack being built to understand its behavior when used in applications especially Electric vehicles (EV). All Li-Ion cells are not the same. They need to be characterized before building any battery pack. Hence modeling the battery pack to simulated its performance in the actual conditions becomes important. Methodology To understand the behavior of cells in the on-field environment, they are tested at various conditions like different rates of charging/discharging, various depth of discharge (DOD), ambient temperature, etc. HPPC test is also performed on cells to derive its RC model equivalent model. GT Suite simulation software is used to model the Li-Ion cell using the testing data. Depending on the pack configuration, the modeled cell is connected in the required series and parallel configuration, to study the battery pack with respect to aging, performance and cooling requirements. Results The performance and aging of the battery pack are studied using the cell model. Cooling is designed in such a way that there are no hotspots in the battery…

Miniaturized and sleek protective device

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Priyanka Marudhavanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2535
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A miniaturized and sleek protective device M. Priyanka, Mahindra&Mahindra, India D. Boobala Krishnan*, Mahindra&Mahindra, India T.Vijayan, Mahindra& Mahindra, India Keywords-Fuse, Lightweight. Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: Now-a-days there is lot of advancement coming in automobiles. Earlier the electronics were used in engine and engine compartment areas. Now all hydraulics and transmission have been operated by electronics. The role of electronics like sensors, actuators increasing day by day for lifting and moving operations. With increase in electronics circuit, there is complex in wiring harness and packaging space for fuse box is premium Limitations: Limitations of placing other devices. Occupy more space and weight in the vehicle. Packing constraint due to vibration and thermal management issues. Methodology: Two different fuse of same rating can be given in one fuse and we can reduce the wire size. By this method we can save many fuses and reduce the fuse box size. An optimized fuse box minimizes the length of circuit. It translates the system into less plastics. This type of system is highly useful in systems such as ECU…

Thermal Challenges in Automotive Exhaust System through Heat Shield Insulation

Sharda Motor industries limited ( R&D )-Rajadurai S
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2539
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
While advanced automotive system assemblies contribute greater value to automotive safety, reliability, emission/noise performance and comfort, they are also generating higher temperatures that can reduce the functionality and reliability of thesystem over time. Thermal management and insulation are extremely important and highly demanding in BSVI, RDE and Non-IC engine operating vehicles. Passenger vehicle and Commercial vehicle exhaust systems are facing multiple challenges such as packaging constraints, weight reduction andthermalmanagement requirements.Frugal engineering is mandatory to develop heat shield in the exhaust system with minimum heat loss. The focus of the paper is to design, develop and validate heat shield products with different variables such as design gap, insulation material, sheet metal thickness and manufacturing processes. 1D and 3D computational simulations are performed with different gaps from 3 mm to 14 mm are considered. Heat protection of about 75% is achieved ( from 614°C to 140°C) using different insulation materials. Sheet metal thicknesses from 0.15 mm to 1 mm with different manufacturing processes are used in the wrap around, closed and open type protections. Computational simulation and…

Coupled Electro-Chemical and Thermal Modeling for Cylindrical Lithium-ion Batteries

Automotive Research Association of India-Ravindra Kumar, Prashant Pathare, Shantanu Waman, Gargi Moharil
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2488
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The shift over of the automobile sector from the ICE to the electric drives is imminent due to arising global issues of pollution and ever rising pressure on the demand of the natural resources due to lower efficiency of the ICE drives. This has led to uprising of the Lithium-ion batteries, with addition of the burden of living to expectation of clean energy and higher efficiencies. Alongside, with limitation in the availability of the lithium-ion batteries they carry a hefty price tag with them, hence causing huddles in the research. Lack of research leads to failure of batteries and may cause life threatening situations when operating in the vehicle. In order to insight the working of the cylindrical lithium-ion batteries under different driving and environmental conditions a methodology is developed for the coupled electro-chemical and thermal phenomenon. This allows anticipating the behaviour of the battery under different conditions that influence its performance. The 18650 battery with three different chemistries i.e. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide (NCA), Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) and Lithium Iron…

Combined Optimization of Energy and Battery Thermal Management control for a Plug-in HEV

FEV Italia S.R.L.-Michele Caggiano
University of Bologna-Gabriele Caramia, Nicolo Cavina, Alessandro Capancioni, Stefano Patassa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0249
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an optimization algorithm, based on discrete dynamic programming, that aims to find the best control inputs both for energy and thermal management control strategies of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle, in order to minimize the energy consumption over a given driving mission. The chosen vehicle has a complex P1-P4 architecture, with two electrical machines on the front axle and an additional one directly coupled with the engine, on the rear axle. In the first section the algorithm structure is presented, including the cost-function definition, the disturbances, the state variables and the control variables chosen for the optimal control problem formulation. The second section reports the simplified quasi-static analytical model of the powertrain, which has been used for the backward optimization. For this purpose, only the vehicle longitudinal dynamics have been considered. In order to validate the algorithm, the quasi-static model has been simulated in a forward-facing approach, using as control inputs the results of the backward optimization. The third section describes the Model-in-the-Loop environment of the vehicle, implemented in Simulink. In particular,…

A Coupled Lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method for the Thermal Transient Analysis of an Air Cooled Li-ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles with Porous Media Insert Modeled at REV Scales

University Of Rome TOR VERGATA-Gino Bella
University of Rome Niccolò Cusano-Daniele Chiappini, Laura Tribioli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0242
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Lithium ion batteries are the most promising candidates for electric and hybrid electric vehicles, owe to their ability to store higher electrical energy. As a matter of fact, in automotive applications, these batteries undergo frequent and fast charge and discharge processes, which are associated to internal heat generation, which in turns causes temperature increase. Thermal management is therefore crucial to keep temperature in an appropriate level for safe operation and battery wear prevention. In a recent work authors have already demonstrated the capabilities of a coupled lattice Boltzmann-Finite Volume Method to deal with thermal transient of a three dimensional air-cooled Li-ion battery at different discharging rates and Reynolds numbers. Here, in order to improve discharge thermal capabilities and reduce temperature levels of the battery itself, a layer of porous medium is placed in contact with the battery so to replace a continuum solid aluminum layer. Many studies, which have already demonstrated how the porous media can improve thermal performance of heat exchange systems, are present in recent literature. There is a large number of models…

Friction Reduction by Optimization of Local Oil Temperatures

University of Kassel-Oemer Oezdemir, Adrian Rienäcker
University of Stuttgart-Kevin Huttinger, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0177
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower partial loads most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures which are far below the maximum temperatures allowed, dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research project was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimization of the thermal management of the oil circuit of a combustion engine. Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings can be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature. For the investigations, the oil circuit of the test engine was modified to realize three separate oil circuits of main and connecting rod bearings, cylinder head and the piston jets with turbocharger, that were individually supplied with oil at different pressures and temperatures by an external system. Furthermore, on a journal bearing test rig it was shown…

A New Co-Simulation Approach for Tolerance Analysis on Vehicle Propulsion Subsystem

GM Global Propulsion Systems-Claudio Mancuso, Domenico Cavaiuolo, Giuseppe Corbo
Gamma Technologies LLC-Iakovos Papadimitriou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0079
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
An increasing demand for reducing cost and time effort of the design process via improved CAE (Computer-Aided Engineer) tools and methods has characterized the automotive industry over the past two decades. One of the main challenge regarded the effective simulation of a vehicle’s propulsion system dealing with different physical domains: several examples have been proposed in literature mainly based on co-simulation approach which involves a specific tool for each propulsion system part modeling. Nevertheless, these solutions are not fully suitable and effective to perform statistical analysis including all physical parameters. In this respect, this paper presents the definition and implementation of a new simulation methodology applied to a propulsion subsystem. The reported approach is based on the usage of Synopsis Saber as dominant tool for co-simulation: models of electronic circuitry, electro-mechanical components and control algorithm are implemented in Saber to perform tolerance analysis; in addition, a dynamic link with engine plant model developed in GT-Suite environment has been established via a dedicated procedure. Moreover, a HPC Grid (High Performance Computing Grid) is used with the…