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A Technical Review on Performance and Emissions of Compressed Natural Gas - Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Indian Oil Corp., Ltd.-M. Muralidharan, M Subramanian
University of Petroleum and Energy Studies-Ajay Srivastava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2390
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In view of the depletion of energy and environmental pollution, dual fuel technology has caught the attention of researchers as a viable technology keeping in mind the increased availability of fuels like Compressed Natural Gas (CNG). It is an ecologically friendly technology due to lower particulate matter (PM) and smoke emissions and retains the efficiency of diesel combustion. Generally, dual fuel technology has been prevalent for large engines like marine, locomotive and stationary engines. However, its use for automotive engines has been limited in the past due to constraints of the limited supply of alternative fuels. CNG is a practical fuel under dual-fuel mode operation, with varying degree of success. The induction method prevents a premixed natural gas-air mixture, minimizes the volumetric efficiency and results in a loss of power at higher speeds. Under lower engine operating temperatures, at low-intermediate loads, the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduce however hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions are significantly increased. This paper reviews the fuel properties of CNG comparison with diesel, methods available to use CNG…
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Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Vishal Eknath Kirve
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2442
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields. The main purpose of this paper is focused on the review of basic concept of Industry 4.0, the number of new tools and techniques used by smart agriculture for the improvement in the fields and the list of benefits of smart agricultural solutions. Smart Agriculture is using advanced technologies such as…
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Self-Expressive & Self-Healing Closures Hardwares for Autonomous & Shared Mobility

General Motors Technical Center India-Vijayasarathy Subramanian, Biju Kumar, Masani Sivakrishna, Anandakumar Marappan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2525
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Shared Mobility is changing mobility trends of Automotive Industry and its one of the Disruptions. The current vehicle customer usage and life of components are designed majorly for personal vehicle and with factors that comprehend usage of shared vehicles. The usage pattern for customer differ between personal vehicle, shared vehicle & Taxi. In the era of Autonomous and Shared mobility systems, the customer usage and expectation of vehicle condition on each & every ride of vehicle will be a vehicle in good condition on each ride. The vehicle needs systems that will guide or fix the issues on its own, to improve customer satisfaction. We also need a transformation in customer behavior pattern to use shared mobility vehicle as their personal vehicle to improve the life of vehicle hardwares & reduce warranty cost. We will be focusing on Vehicle Closure hardware & mechanisms as that will be the first and major interaction point for customers in vehicle. This gives us an opportunity to improve product life and customer experience in ride share and shared mobility…
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Potential for Emission Reduction and Fuel Economy with Micro & Mild HEV

AVL List GmbH-Franz Murr, Ernst Winklhofer, Michael Weissbaeck, Gerald Teuschl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2504
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The development of modern combustion engines (spark ignition as well as compression ignition) for vehicles compliant with future oriented emission legislation (BS6, Euro VI, China 6) has introduced several technologies for improvement of both fuel efficiency as well as low emissions combustion strategies. Some of these technologies as there are high pressure multiple injection systems or sophisticated exhaust gas after treatment system imply substantial increase in test and calibration time as well as equipment cost.With the introduction of 48V systems for hybridization a cost- efficient enhancement and, partially, an even attractive alternative is now available. An overview will be given on current technologies as well as on implemented test procedures. The focus will be on solutions which have potential for the Indian market, i.e. solutions which can be implemented with moderate application effort for currently available compact and medium size cars. The possibilities of 48V technologies for fuel economy and emission reduction will be discussed. Simultaneously, tools for testing and calibration at power train testbed as well as for on-road application will be presented.Furthermore, it…
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A review on influence of different flushing methods on Material Removal Rate using EDM.

Manav Rachna International University-Gurpreet Singh Matharou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2543
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electrical release machining (EDM), is a material removal procedure whereby a coveted shape is acquired by utilizing electrical releases (sparks). Material is expelled from the work piece by a progression of quickly repeating current releases between cathode and anode, isolated by a dielectric fluid and subject to an electric voltage. At the point when the voltage between the two terminals is expanded, the power of the electric field in the volume between the anodes winds up more prominent than the quality of the dielectric (in any event in a few spots), which separates, enabling current to stream between the two cathodes. This wonder is the equivalent as the breakdown of a capacitor (condenser). Accordingly, material is expelled from the cathodes. Once the present stops (or is quit, contingent upon the sort of generator), new fluid dielectric is generally passed on into the between cathode volume, empowering the strong particles (flotsam and jetsam) to be diverted and the protecting properties of the dielectric to be reestablished. Including new fluid dielectric in the between anode volume is…
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Powertrain topologies for 2 wheelers : From ICE to Electrification

Robert Bosch Engrg & Bus Solutions , Ltd.-Sathyanarayana Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2480
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
As Battery cost is expected to see a Downward trend, Electrification of Powertrain in general is expected to pick up and 2wheeler Market is foreseen to be the Flag bearer in this race towards Electrification. In this paper, we would like to emphasize on the Journey of 2wheelers from Conventional Internal combustion Engine to Electrified Powertrains which we foresee in the future. Methodology: EV - Analysis of OEM strategies and upcoming trends in connectivity and electrification. Estimation of current market size of 2Wheeler and segmentation based on different personas. Building survey data based personas around ownership patterns for electric 2Wheelers. Mapping consumer decision process for electric 2Wheelers. Analyse the decision influencers and role of influencers in decision making process. Hybrid - Analysis of different hybrid topologies. Feasibility study via simulation and focus group assessments to evaluate the design. PoC will also be tried to validate the concept. Analysis of real data with simulated results will be done to infer potential of the concept. Results: We are trying to understand the mobility demand and the causes…
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Methodology for Failure Simulation Using 4 Corner 6 DOF Road Load Simulator of Overhanging Components: An Experimental Approach

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Naveen Malik, Ayan Bhattacharya, Sahil Jindal, Sayed Zergham Ali Naqvi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2404
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, Road Load Simulators are used by automobile companies to reproduce the accurate and multi axial stresses in test parts to simulate the real loading conditions. The road conditions are simulated in lab by measuring the customer usage data by sensors like Wheel Force transducers, accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges on the vehicle body and suspension parts. The acquired data is simulated in lab condition by generating ‘drive file’ using the response of the above mentioned sensors. Due to non- linear nature of the vehicle parts, transmissibility of load is a complex phenomenon.Due to this complex transmissibility, good simulation at wheel center does not always ensure good correlation at all vehicle locations. The low level of correlation is common at the locations like engine mount, horn bracket and other overhanging brackets which are away from the wheel center. However, during countermeasure evaluation for vehicle development, often it becomes essential to simulate failure at this kind of low correlation zones.In this paper, an experimental approach was applied for focused failure simulation of engine mount which…
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Simulation of Softening and Rupture in Multilayered Fuel Tank Material

General Motors Technical Center India-Vijaya Kumar R L, Biswajit Tripathy, Jayaraj Radhakrishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2557
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Multi-layered, high-density polyethylene (HDPE) fuel tanks are increasingly being used in automobiles due to advantages such as shape flexibility, low weight and corrosion resistance. Though, HDPE fuel tanks are perceived to be safer as compared to metallic tanks, the material properties are influenced by service temperature. At higher temperatures (more than 80oC), plastic fuel tanks can soften, sag and eventually spill out the fuel, while the extreme cold (less than -20°C) can lead to potential cracking problems. Damage may also occur due to accidental drop while handling or due to an impact from a flying shrapnel. This can be catastrophic due to flammability of the fuel. The objective of this work is to characterize and develop a failure model for the plastic fuel tank material to simulate damage and enhance predictive capability of CAE for chassis and safety load cases. Different factors influencing the material properties such as service temperature, rate of deformation, state of stress etc. were considered to develop a characterization and modelling strategy for the HDPE fuel tank material. Samples cut-out from…
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CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL, BACKSHELL, NONENVIRONMENTAL, STRAIGHT, NON-SELF-LOCKING AND SELF-LOCKING, CATEGORY 3B (FOR MIL-DTL-5015 CRIMP, MIL-DTL-26482 SERIES 2, AS81703 SERIES 3, AND MIL-DTL-83723 SERIES III CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/31B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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CONNECTOR ACCESSORIES, ELECTRICAL, BACKSHELL, NONENVIRONMENTAL, STRAIGHT, SELF-LOCKING AND NON-SELF-LOCKING, CATEGORY 3B (FOR MIL-DTL-38999 SERIES I AND II CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS85049/27B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-14 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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