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Aircraft Engine Technology Review - The Pathways for an Efficient, Cleaner and Quieter Aviation Industry

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0175
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The aviation industry has been submitted to a set of environmental and commercial drivers that have led it to pursue engine technologies focused on the efficiency improvement, greenhouse (CO2) and pollutant (NOx and PM) emissions reductions, as well as noise abatement.The effort to comply with the ambitious long term environmental and efficiency targets set by the regulatory authorities has driven the aeronautic industry in a technological research effort. In the medium term, the aviation industry's strategy for commercial aviation is to focus on the advanced, but rather conventional propulsion systems (mainly turbofan engines). In this scenario, technological efforts have focused basically on enhancing thermal efficiency, through advanced core engines, as well as improving propulsive efficiency, through the use of low pressure systems (basically reduced pressure ratio and increased engine bypass ratio). To reach these objectives, a set of technological platforms has been proposed, with some already on an operational/commercial level, while others still in a prototype category. In this context, engine manufacturers have given a special focus on some technological approaches, like Ultra High Bypass…
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Turbocharger Performance Prediction: A Review of Map Modelling

Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Mecânica - Universid-José Arthur G. S. Teixeira, Oscar R. Sandoval, Bryan Castro Caetano, José Guilherme Coelho Baeta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0120
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Supercharging has been increasingly more employed as an approach to improve the internal combustion engine (ICE) thermal efficiency. The turbocharger (TC) stands out as a well-established technology which recovers waste energy from exhaust gases to increase the ICE intake pressure and mass flow rate. Nevertheless, the increasingly stringent restrictions on greenhouse gases emission, concomitantly with performance improvement required from customers, impose a tighter pairing between TC and ICE and higher control of TC operational conditions. Matching a proper TC for a given ICE has a major importance for the global efficiency, having direct impact on specific consumption, emission levels and drivability. This process is typically performed using computational simulations via interpolations of TC tabular performance maps, which details the flow status for given shaft speed and mass flow rate. Although this method provides a reliable and accurate description of the TC performance within the mapped domain, the multiple interpolations and extrapolations required entails high computational costs. Furthermore, the extrapolations required to describe the flow outside the mapped domain are not able to predict well the…
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Basic technical requirements for ballistic safety to guarantee the quality of civilian automotive armoring services in Brazil

Polytechnic School of University of Sao Paulo-Guido Muzio Candido, Paulo Carlos Kaminski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0329
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Brazil is the largest civilian armored vehicle market in the world with more than 16,000 new protected units produced in 2018, followed by Mexico with 7,000 automobiles, according to Brazilian Army (BA) data. In this context, this paper presents an overview of Brazilian market for civilian vehicle armoring, definitions and characteristics of transparent and opaque ballistic resistance protective materials according to U. S. Department of Justice, the National Institute of Justice, NIJ Standard 0108.01. Based on this premises, the paper addresses basic technical requirements for ballistic safety in design and process to guarantee minimum quality of armoring services. The purpose of this paper is to safeguard the original features and functionality of the automotive components while simultaneously providing recommended ballistic protection of the vehicle with quality. The adoption of minimum automotive quality management system requirements from IATF 16949 International Automotive Task Force, in armoring services with different types of vehicle models and brands, will encourage to reduce tack time production, to improve vehicle armored quality, to reduce final reworks, to keep original equipment guarantees, to…
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CONTACTS, ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR, PIN, CRIMP REMOVABLE, THERMOCOUPLE (FOR MIL-DTL-38999 SERIES I, II, III, AND IV, MIL-DTL-24308, AND MIL-DTL-83733)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS39029/87A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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CONTACTS, ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR SOCKET, CRIMP REMOVABLE, THERMOCOUPLE (FOR MIL-DTL-38999 SERIES I, III, IV CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS39029/88A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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CONTACTS, ELECTRICAL CONNECTOR, SOCKET, CRIMP REMOVABLE (THERMOCOUPLE FOR MIL-DTL-38999 SERIES II, MIL-DTL-83733, AND MIL-DTL-24308 CONNECTORS)

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS39029/89A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-07 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Vehicle Control History: Data from Driver Input and Pre-Collision System Activation Events on Toyota Vehicles

Toyota Motor North America-Lance Lewis
Toyota Motor North America, Inc.-Barry Hare, Harold Clyde, Robert Landis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5094
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Separate from the event data recorder (EDR), which records and stores data from qualifying vehicle crash events, the Vehicle Control History (VCH) on Toyota vehicles records and stores certain vehicle data based on select driver inputs, such as hard acceleration or braking, or upon the activation of certain vehicle dynamic control systems such as antilock braking system (ABS), traction control (TRAC), vehicle stability control (VSC), and the pre-collision system (PCS). In the United States, VCH was first equipped on the 2013 Toyota RAV4 and has been subsequently introduced into other Toyota and Lexus models. Most recently, in addition to VCH data, additional PCS operational data (PCS-O) and image data (PCS-I) may be recorded and stored. The image storage capability may record under certain conditions such as if the system has automatically applied the vehicle brakes. PCS-O and PCS-I data became available with the launch of Toyota Safety Sense (TSS), a grouping of advanced active safety features equipped on many Toyota vehicles generally available in 2017. Multiple dynamic tests with a 2017 Toyota Corolla were performed…
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Ignition of Individual Droplets in a Reactive Fuel/Air Mixture behind Reflected Shock Waves

University of Duisburg-Essen-P. Niegemann, M. Fikri, S. A. Kaiser, C. Schulz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2162
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Multiphase-induced ignition is frequently discussed as a trigger for early ignition in internal combustion engines. In this context, we investigated the ignition process of single lubricant-oil droplets and their interaction with the bulk air/fuel mixture in a high-pressure shock tube, mimicking oil-fuel interaction in turbocharged internal combustion engines at the end of the compression stroke. A fast micro-dispensing injector released single fuel or lubricant oil droplets with a diameter of 200±50 µm into shock-heated fuel/air mixtures consisting of PRF95 and synthetic air. The injector was flush-mounted in the sidewall of the shock tube. The droplets were released into the gas after the passage of the reflected shock waves at post-shock conditions of 2 MPa and 750-950 K. With a high-frame-rate color camera, the entire evolution of droplet injection and ignition was traced in space and time through a large sapphire window in the endwall of the shock tube. A high-repetition-rate laser at 532 nm was used to illuminate the droplets. The light scattered by the droplets was detected in the green channel of the camera,…
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Combined Scattering and Imaging Diagnostics to Detect and Quantify Fuel Contaminants

Artium Technologies, Inc.-Julien Manin, William D. Bachalo, Reza Karami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2347
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Contamination from water and particulate matter in diesel or aviation fuel can cause complications even under normal operating conditions. Fuel contamination becomes a major problem in air transportation, where engine flame-out due to injection system blockage or malfunction might have catastrophic consequences. The presence of contaminants in fuel has been linked to several incidents including commercial and military aircraft over the past decade. Unless they are detected and separated from the fuel, water or solid particles have several ways to reach the engine and cause troubles. Aviation fuel is commonly stored in large tanks and transferred frequently before it reaches the aircraft, increasing the risk for contamination. At the same time, gas bubbles may be present in the system. While harmless to the aircraft, gas bubbles have been the reason why contamination monitoring systems would fail, as the system would be triggered by gas bubbles, instead of detrimental contaminants. We developed a set of optical diagnostics to detect the presence of contaminants in fuel, and quantify their size and concentration. The system consists of a…
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Akasol packs industry-leading energy density into new battery design

SAE Truck & Off-Highway Engineering: December 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19TOFHP12_08
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Projecting the market for full-electric and hybrid-electric commercial vehicles will continue to expand, Germany-based lithium-ion battery specialist Akasol recently announced production-readiness of a newly-developed battery pack that sets an energy-density benchmark. The company's president also confirmed Akasol will build a manufacturing facility in the Detroit area targeted to begin production in mid-2020.

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