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The Influence of Fuel Composition and Renewable Fuel Components on the Emissions of a GDI Engine

Porsche AG-Hans-Peter Deeg, Dietmar Schwarzenthal
Technical Univ of Braunschweig-Michael Albrecht, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0025
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Investigations were performed, in which the emission behavior of renewable and conventional fuels of different composition and renewable fuel components was observed. The influence on the emissions of the start of injection at different load points was investigated. This shows how much wall and valve wetting affects the mixture formation of the different fuels. Further, the air fuel ratio in an operating point for catalyst heating, with medium engine temperatures, was varied. The latter shows the ability of evaporation of the fuels at engine warm-up conditions and sub-stochiometric λ-Values. The studied fuels were four fuel mixtures of significantly different composition of which three were compliant with the European fuel standard EN 228. A RON 98 in-field fuel, a Euro 6 reference fuel, an Anti-Spark-Fouling (ASF) fuel (designed for minimum soot production) and a potentially completely renewable and CO2-neural fuel, which is designed by Dr. Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, named POSYN (POrsche SYNthetic fuel) were chosen. Additionally, the fuel components Ethanol as classic biofuel, Isopropanol, Isobutanol and methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), which were chosen by…
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Assessment of the Potential of Power to Gas Fuels for Replacement of Fossile Fuels in Switzerland

EMPA-Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler, Florian Kiefer, Karin Schröter, Christian Bach
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0027
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In Switzerland, road traffic is responsible for one third of greenhouse gas emissions respectively 40% of the CO2 emissions and therefore accounts for the largest single share of all sectors. These emissions have even increased slightly since 1990 (from 15.5 to 16.2 million tCO2). Private individual road transport achieves a mileage of approximatively 91.0 billion pkm (person-kilometer) and 17.2 billion tkm (tons-kilometer) per year. Therefore, 3.3 billion liters of gasoline and 3.2 billion liters of diesel are used, resulting in 16.2 million tCO2 emissions in total. Thereof, 10.2 million tons of CO2 are emitted by passenger cars and 1.7 million tons by trucks, the two most important means of transport concerning CO2 emissions. The rest is produced by vans, buses, motorcycles, railways and shipping, national air traffic and fuel tourism. The passenger cars are the most relevant application in terms of CO2 emissions with a share of 63% of the road vehicle CO2 emissions. To comply with the 95 g/km target, low CO2 vehicles have to be introduced. In the following, the number of such…
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Potential Analysis and Virtual Development of SI Engines Operated with Synthetic Fuel DMC+

FKFS-Cornelius Wagner, Michael Grill, Mahir-Tim Keskin
FKFS / University of Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0342
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
On the way to emission-free mobility, future fuels must be CO2 neutral. To achieve this, synthetic fuels are being developed. In order to better assess the effects of the new fuels on the engine process, simulation models are being developed that reproduce the chemical and physical properties of these fuels.In this paper, the fuel DMC+ is examined. DMC+ (a mixture of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) and methyl formate (MeFo) mainly, characterized by the lack of C-C Bonds and high oxygen content) offers advantages with regard to evaporation heat, demand of oxygen and knock resistance. Furthermore, its combustion is almost particle free. With the aid of modern 0D/1D simulation methods, an assessment of the potential of DMC+ can be made.It is shown that the simulative conversion of a state-of-the-art gasoline engine to DMC+ fuel offers advantages in terms of efficiency in many operating points even if the engine design is not altered. This is mainly due to the higher knock resistance and the lower temperatures in the intake stroke resulting from the higher amount of evaporated fuel.…
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The Application of E-Fuel Oxymethylene Ether OME1 in a Virtual Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine for Ultra-Low Emissions

FKFS-Michael Grill
Universitat Stuttgart-Qirui Yang, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0349
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For long haul transport, diesel engine due to its low fuel consumption and low operating costs will remain dominant over a long term. In order to achieve CO2 neutrality, the use of electricity-based, synthetic fuels (e-fuels) provides a solution. Especially the group of oxymethylene ethers (OME) is given much attention because of its soot-free combustion. However, the new fuel properties and the changed combustion characteristics place new demands on engine design. Meanwhile, the use of new fuels also creates new degrees of freedom to operate diesel engines. In this work, the application of dimethoxymethane (OME1) is investigated by means of 1D simulation at three operating points in a truck diesel engine. The subsystems of fuel injection, air path and exhaust gas are sequentially adjusted for the purpose of low emissions, especially for low nitrogen oxides (NOx). Thanks to the inexistent soot-NOx trade-off, NOx can be considerably reduced by high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at a nearly stoichiometric operation. In addition, conceivable configurations of exhaust after-treatment system are analyzed. At last, a holistic layout of a…
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Considerations for Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Airborne Applications

SAE EUROCAE Fuel Cell Task Group
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7765
  • Current
Published 2019-11-18 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this joint EUROCAE/SAE report is to compile the considerations relating to airborne application of hydrogen fuel cells. This document provides a comprehensive analysis of the use of hydrogen as a fuel by describing its existing applications and the experience gained by exploiting fuel cells in sectors other than aviation. The use of hydrogen fuel cells in aircraft can help in meeting aviation environmental targets (including noise pollution) and can be vital to achieving efficient electrically propelled air vehicles. The experience gained with mature fuel cells in terrestrial applications and the handling of other gases in aviation, as presented herein, will help in alleviating safety concerns and in demystifying the usage of hydrogen in aviation.
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OTHER expert voices

Automotive Engineering: July/August 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP08_06
Published 2019-01-01 by SAE International in United States

Noted industry experts in Powertrain technologies shared their views on future propulsion trends during SAE's 2019 WCX panel, “Still Not Dead: The ICE's Continued Evolution,” moderated by Editor-in-Chief Lindsay Brooke. Some of those insights included:

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Electrical Wiring Fuel Compatibility

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR6820
  • Current
Published 2018-12-12 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is limited to the subject of compatibility of wiring as part of aircraft Electrical Wiring and Interconnect Systems (EWIS) installed in and around aircraft fuel tanks.
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Methodical Selection of Sustainable Fuels for High Performance Racing Engines

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Sebastian Wohlgemuth, Florian Bach
Universitat Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
As the importance of sustainability increases and dominates the powertrain development within the automotive sector, this issue has to be addressed in motorsports as well. The development of sustainable high-performance fuels defined for the use in motorsports offers technical and environmental potential with the possibility to increase the sustainability of motorsports at the same or even a better performance level. At the moment race cars are predominantly powered by fossil fuels. However due to the emerging shift regarding the focus of the regulations towards high efficient powertrains during the last years the further development of the used fuels gained in importance. Moreover during the last decades a huge variety of sustainable fuels emerged that offer a range of different characteristics and that are produced based on waste materials or carbon dioxide. This study investigates the question of which sustainable fuels offer the characteristics suitable for high-performance race engines. Equivalents to gasoline, diesel and natural gas are examined separately in order to present the options with various engine concepts. The requirements for a high-performance fuel are…
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Guidance on the Impact of Fuel Properties on Fuel System Design and Operation

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR7484
  • Current
Published 2018-02-24 by SAE International in United States
This document describes a number of jet fuel properties and where applicable gives the specification limits for Jet A and Jet A-1, though the properties are generally applicable to all turbine fuels. Later versions of this document will give more details on specification limits for other similar fuels, such as TS-1, where they differ from Jet A and Jet-A1. It gives details about the possible impact on airframe fuel system design.
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ICE BREAKER!

MOBILITY ENGINEERING: December 2017

Ian Adcock
  • Magazine Article
  • 17MEIP12_03
Published 2017-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Mazda's Skyactiv-X beats the big companies to market with a promising new engine that marries Otto and Diesel attributes.

One of the most significant developments in internal combustion engine (ICE) technology for decades, Mazda's innovative Skyactiv-X Spark Controlled Compression Ignition (SpCCI) combustion system is slated for production in 2018. It has the potential to extend the practical life of gasoline engines, which are increasingly under threat from both global emissions legislation and the accelerating development of electric vehicles (EVs).

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