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Marine Electrical Switches

Marine Technical Steering Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1320_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-06 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice covers the requirements for switches used in marine applications both under and over 50 V.

 
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Fast Accurate Non-Destructive Measurement of Absorber Impedance and Absorption

3M Company-Jon Alexander
Bruel & Kjaer Sound and Vibration A/S-Jason Kunio, Flemming Larsen
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Cabin acoustic comfort is a major contributor to the potential sales success of new aircraft, cars, trucks, and trains. Recent design challenges have included the increased use of composites, and the switch to electrically powered vehicles, each of which change the interior noise spectral content and level. The role of acoustic absorption in cabins is key to the optimisation of cabin acoustic comfort for modern vehicles, with acoustic impedance data needed in order to assess and optimise the impact of each component of a given lay-up.Measurements of absorbing interior trim are traditionally performed using either sample holder tests in a static impedance tube (impedance and absorption), or through tests in reverberation rooms (absorption only). Both of these procedures present challenges. In-tube absorption and impedance measurements are destructive, requiring highly accurate sample cutting and sealing. Reverberation room absorption measurements are subject to the effects of varying room diffusion, along with the impact of edge diffraction, sample geometry, and location. Finally, while non-destructive methods using hand-held probes also measure absorption, they are not able to measure impedance…
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All-Fiber, Optically Controlled Optical Switch

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34622
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

An optical switch is a device where information-bearing light may be directed to one of several outputs. Prior art optical switches have mainly been integrated optical waveguide structures such as titanium-diffused (Ti) waveguides in lithium-niobate (LiNbO3) or gallium-arsenide (GaAs) structures, or other compound semiconductors.

 
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ONR Short Pulse Research, Evaluation and non-SWaP Demonstration for C-sUAV Study

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_09
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Research project is designed to map small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV) effects space, empirically and by simulation, as a function of high power microwave (HPM) waveform to develop effective countermeasures.

The OSPRES (ONR Short Pulse Research, Evaluation and non-SWaP) program performed fundamental work in the areas of Silicon (Si) and Gallium Nitride (GaN) based photoconductive switch development, measurement of HPM waveform dependent effects on small unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV), adaptive design of experiments, noise injection, RF coupling to sUAV's, minimally dispersive wave theory, and positive feedback non-linear transmission line (NLTL) development.

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Eyes in the Sky

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_01
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Rugged High-Speed Cameras Capture Critical Flight Test Video Data

There is increasing demand for high-quality High Definition (HD) video for airborne applications such as Flight Test Instrumentation (FTI). Ideally, such new camera solutions can reduce the weight and difficultly of installing wiring, and enable data to be coherently combined with image data. Ethernet cameras can address these needs with built-in compression and multiple output streams. Additionally, as Ethernet-based networks have become an attractive choice for FTI applications, we see increased requirements for integrating Ethernet-based cameras with FTI data acquisition equipment, network recorders, and telemetry systems as this removes duplication of wiring and devices.

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Standardized Symbols for Electrical Circuit Diagrams

Truck and Bus Electrical Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2221_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice identifies graphic symbols used in electrical circuit diagrams. The symbols aid troubleshooting electrical systems.
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Study of Replacing the Traditional Electromechanical Relay with the Full Semiconductor Solution of Bussed Electrical Center

Infineon Technologies China Co., Ltd.-Ning Shen, Xingwei Wang
Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center-Xia Tian
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
To face the challenges of CO2 emission and automated driving, the electrical distribution system (EDS), as the basis of all electronic loads, needs to be continuously changed. Traditional bussed electrical center (BEC) has limited functions such as simple switch and fuse protection, while the full semiconductor solution of smart BEC can provide more accurate diagnosis, faster response, higher reliability with lower power loss and smaller space.This paper will introduce the practical function of the smart BEC: in normal operation of the car, the voltage and current of the loads can be detected by the smart BEC. Once in abnormal, immediate feedback will be transferred from smart BEC to the whole system and a related response will be triggered in time, while the cost of power harness can also be optimized. In parking mode, the quiescent current of the loads from KL30 can be detected by smart BEC, which could prevent against leakage.Automated driving is a hot topic, many people focus on functional safety and redundancy of the actuators in the car, which can only be…
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Experimental Investigation of the Bi-Stable Behavior in the Wake of a Notchback MIRA Model

Tongji University-Gongjie Yan, Chao Xia, Hua Zhou, Hui Zhu, Zhigang Yang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper reports an experimental investigation of the wake flow behind a 1/12 scale notchback MIRA model at Re = UL/ν = 6.9×105 (where U is free-stream velocity, L the length of the model and ν viscosity). Focus is placed on the flow asymmetry over the backlight and decklid. Forty pressure taps are used to map the surface pressure distribution on the backlight and decklid, while the wake topology is investigated by means of 2D Particle Image Velocimetry. The analysis of the instantaneous pressure signals over the notch configuration clearly shows that the pressure presents a bi-stable behavior in the spanwise direction, characterized by the switches between two preferred values, which is not found in the vertical direction. Based on the barycenter of momentum deficit, the instantaneous velocity fields in the plane z/H = 0.8 (H height of the model) can be sorted into three patterns, including two bi-stable states and one switch state, corresponding to the result of the instantaneous pressure signals. The sequence of these asymmetric states is random. In order to enable…
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A Resonant Capacitive Coupling WPT-Based Method to Power and Monitor Seat Belt Buckle Switch Status in Removable and Interchangeable Seats

Ford Motor Co.-Mark Cuddihy
Solace Power Inc.-Brian Pottle
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we present an intelligent and wireless subsystem for powering and communicating with three sets of seat belt buckle sensors that are each installed on removable and interchangeable automobile seating. As automobile intelligence systems advance, a logical step is for the driver’s dashboard to display seat belt buckle indicators for rear seating in addition to the front seating. The problem encountered is that removable and interchangeable automobile seating outfitted with wired power and data links are inherently less reliable than rigidly fixed seating, as there is a risk of damage to the detachable power and data connectors throughout end-user seating removal/re-installation cycles. The present study tackles this issue through outfitting three removable and interchangeable rear seat assemblies with resonant capacitive coupling wireless power transfer as to power each rear seat across a variable gap between the interior paneling and that side of the seat closest to the interior paneling. A fundamental design challenge this system presented was the need to develop a rugged method to account for different sizes of seating, and hence…
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Modelling of a Discrete Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) System for Fuel Consumption Evaluation - Part 1: Model Development

Luca Barazzoni
Oakland University-Brian Sangeorzan, Dan DelVescovo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Given increasingly stringent emission targets, engine efficiency has become of foremost importance. While increasing engine compression ratio can lead to efficiency gains, it also leads to higher in-cylinder pressure and temperatures, thus increasing the risk of knock. One potential solution is the use of a Variable Compression Ratio system, which is capable of exploiting the advantages coming from high compression ratio while limiting its drawbacks by operating at low engine loads with a high compression ratio, and at high loads with a low compression ratio, where knock could pose a significant threat. This paper describes the design of a model for the evaluation of fuel consumption for an engine equipped with a VCR system over representative drive cycles. The model takes as inputs; a switching time for the VCR system, the vehicle characteristics, engine performance maps corresponding to two different compression ratios, and a drive cycle. Two different types of transmission, a Continuously Variable Transmission and a Step Ratio Transmission, were also considered in the model.As an initial step, the compression ratio switching time was…
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