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A Competitive Approach to an Active Exhaust Heat Recovery System Solution

Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Timothy Gardner, John Stanavich, Raphael Bellard, Brian Kunkel, Nicholas Morley
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0161
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As greenhouse gas regulations continue to tighten, more opportunities to improve engine efficiency emerge, including exhaust gas heat recovery. Upon cold starts, engine exhaust gases downstream of the catalysts are redirected with a bypass valve into a heat exchanger, transferring its heat to the engine coolant to accelerate engine warm-up. This has several advantages, including reduced fuel consumption, as the engine’s efficiency improves with temperature. Furthermore, this accelerates readiness to defrost the windshield, improving both safety as well as comfort, with greater benefits in colder climates, particularly when combined with hybridization’s need for engine on-time just for cabin heating. Such products have been in the market now for several years; however they are bulky, heavy and expensive, yielding opportunities for competitive alternatives. Customer voice expresses needs for less complex designs that reduce package space, mass, and part count (i.e. cost) while maintaining or improving performance, including the integration of an active rather than passive exhaust bypass control valve. This paper highlights the design evolution of EHRS, including relative benchmarking of competing products, comparing various aspects…
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Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Development Ecosystem

Florida Polytechnic University-Rahul Razdan
  • Research Report
  • EPR2020004
Published 2020-03-17 by SAE International in United States
With over 100 years of operation, the current automobile industry has settled into an equilibrium with the development of methodologies, regulations, and processes for improving safety. In addition, a nearly $2-trillion market operates in the automotive ecosystem with connections into fields ranging from insurance to advertising. Enabling this ecosystem is a well-honed, tiered supply chain and an established development environment.Autonomous vehicle (AV) technology is a leap forward for the existing automotive industry; now the automobile is expected to manage perception and decision-making tasks. The safety technologies associated with these tasks were presented in an earlier SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Technology Areas in Autonomous Vehicle Test and Validation.” In a later SAE EDGE™ Research Report, “Unsettled Topics Concerning Automated Driving Systems and the Transportation Ecosystem,” senior executives from the automotive ecosystem explored the impact of AV technology as they faced the prospect of this disruptive technology entering their marketplace. Interestingly, stable use-models and market penetration were all gated primarily by the demonstration of AV safety. Building on these previous verification and validation (V&V)-related reports, “Unsettled…
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Item Level Serialization and Traceability of Aerospace Fasteners Based on Individual Inherent Surface Patterns

Arconic Fastening Systems-Luke Leonard Haylock, Jens Harde, Jürgen Rösing, Nils Murray, Torsten Timpe
fraunhofer-Tobias Schmid-Schirling, Norbert Saum lng, Daniel Carl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0012
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Item level serialization traceability, defined as the ability to track and trace products, items or components through the supply chain from product manufacturing all the way to the end of life service, has significant value in the aerospace industry. Many items become susceptible to counterfeiting when their origin and authenticity cannot be verified and Item level serialization and traceability fosters supply chain integrity. Data Matrix and radio-frequency identification (RFID) are two common methods that enable detailed information about the manufacturer. However, these methods are not generally compatible with fasteners due to the small size of the fasteners and the cost of these methods. Fasteners are the most commonly used parts on an aircraft and rely on lot level traceability associated with packaging to provide a level of supply chain risk management. However, the association of individual fasteners to parental lots is often lost once the fasteners are removed from packaging. We demonstrate a completely new approach to develop item level serialization traceability for aerospace fasteners. It is demonstrated that this label-free traceability can be realized…
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Collaboration: A Powerful, Effective Strategy for Medtech Companies Moving to Embrace Industry 4.0 and Drive Digital Transformation

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36276
Published 2020-03-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The digital revolution under way in medtech manufacturing will continue to transform the industry into a more connected, efficient, and agile ecosystem. However, the challenge for many companies is to plot the best way to embrace various existing and new technologies and move toward smarter manufacturing — their version of the “factory of the future.” Every company is at a different stage of digital transformation. Some companies are wholeheartedly piloting, integrating, and scaling disruptive technologies within their operations in a bid to realize greater supply chain and internal operational benefits. Others are at a different place in their digital journey, identifying incremental opportunity areas where they can demonstrate initial impact and justify further investment.

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Hardware Protected Security for Ground Vehicles

Vehicle Electrical System Security Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3101_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-10 by SAE International in United States
Access mechanisms to system data and/or control is a primary use case of the hardware protected security environment (hardware protected security environment) during different uses and stages of the system. The hardware protected security environment acts as a gatekeeper for these use cases and not necessarily as the executor of the function. This section is a generalization of such use cases in an attempt to extract common requirements for the hardware protected security environment that enable it to be a gatekeeper. Examples are: Creating a new key fob Re-flashing ECU firmware Reading/exporting PII out of the ECU Using a subscription-based feature Performing some service on an ECU Transferring ownership of the vehicle Some of these examples are discussed later in this section and some have detailed sections of their own. This list is by no means comprehensive. Other use cases that require hardware protected security environment-based access control may be used by each manufacturer/service provider based on vehicle capabilities, architecture, and business model. This section describes how the hardware protected security environment provides a platform…
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Passive RFID Tags Intended for Airborne Equipment Use

G-18 Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Aero Applications
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS5678B
  • Current
Published 2020-02-05 by SAE International in United States
The scope of this document is to: 1 Provide a requirements document for RFID tag manufacturers to produce passive-only UHF RFID tags for the aerospace industry. 2 Identify the minimum performance requirements specific to the Passive UHF RFID Tag to be used on airborne equipment, to be accessed only during ground operations. 3 Specify the test requirements specific to Passive UHF RFID tags for airborne equipment use, in addition to EUROCAE ED-14 / RTCA DO-160 compliance requirements separately called out in this document. 4 Identify existing standards applicable to Passive UHF RFID Tag. 5 Provide a certification standard for RFID tags which will use permanently-affixed installation on airborne equipment.
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Replacement of a 50cc Two-stroke Engine with an Electric Powertrain

TWIG Power-Jesse Beeker
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0623
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
As global regulations look to create a dramatic reduction in CO2 emission and other forms of pollution, companies with products that rely on engine technology must be ready to take on the electrification challenge. Applications that remain using two-stroke engine technology continue to exist due to their very high power density requirements. However, their history of higher pollution compared to four-stroke engines makes them a target to be regulated out of existence.Such high power two-stroke applications include high performance off-road motorcycles. In this type of product, electrification can solve not only pollution challenges but market challenges, such as ridership and public perception. By addressing the core problems presented by the two-stroke engine and turning challenges into opportunity, a strong attraction is created to convert a two-stroke engine motorcycle to an electric vehicle.With Automotive electric vehicle technology paving the way, the basis for cost effective electric motorcycle powertrain is explored for a 50cc off-road motorcycle application. The 50cc engine and motorcycle represent a special product where size, performance, and cost have a high sensitivity. The 50cc…
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Enhancement of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly Guidelines for Effective Application in Aerospace Part and Process Design

GITAM School of Technology-Mani Rathinam Rajamani, Eshwaraiah Punna
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-6001
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
An aircraft’s detail part and assembly product design and development phase contribute to about three-fourths of the total cost spent in its entire product life cycle and determine the fate of the aircraft’s life as a whole. Each aerospace design organization presently has developed their own set of design rules, focusing on improving product design capability by enhancing the determined “Design for X” factor, with the focus on continual optimization and improvements. However there is huge variation among these design principles due to the nonstandardization of these design guidelines. To meet this gap, the use of Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DFMA®) principles applicable for aerospace has to be developed. DFMA®) principles have been proven effective as guidelines to designers and manufacturing engineers in various discrete manufacturing and process industries. The use of DFMA® principles have resulted in proactively simplifying designs with reduced product costs and improved efficiencies in product design. Aerospace Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) industries are highly oligopolistic in nature, and their designs are widely reliant on the specific intellectual knowledge gained by…
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Effect of alternative fuels on marine engine performance

Aalto University-Michal Wojcieszyk, Yuri Kroyan, Martti Larmi, Ossi Kaario, Kai Zenger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2230
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Marine transportation sector is highly dependent on fossil-based energy carriers. Decarbonization of shipping can be accomplished by implementing biobunkers into an existing maritime fuel supply chain. However, there are many compatibility issues when blending new biocomponents with their fossil-based counterparts. Thus, it is of high importance to predict the effect of fuel properties on marine engine performance, especially for new fuel blends. In the given work, possible future solutions concentrated on liquid fuels are taken into account. Under consideration are such fuels as biodiesel (FAME), hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), straight vegetable oil (SVO), pyrolysis oil, biocrude, and methanol. Knowledge about the behavior of new fuel in an existing engine is notably important for decision makers and fuel producers. Hence, the main goal of the present work is to create a model, which can predict the engine performance from the end-user perspective. For the purpose of modeling, only the latest research on marine fuels is taken into account. In the current approach, results from a representative measurement set-up are compared in order to create a uniform…
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Guidelines for Writing IVHM Requirements for Aerospace Systems

HM-1 Integrated Vehicle Health Management Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6883
  • Current
Published 2019-12-03 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides guidance on developing requirements for systems that include Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) capability [REF1], [REF18]. IVHM is increasingly being implemented on military and commercial aircraft. Some examples include the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) [REF1] and the AH-64 Apache [REF3] in the military domain, and the B787 [REF4] and A350XWB [REF5] in the commercial domain. This document provides a systematic approach for developing requirements related to the IVHM capabilities of a vehicle system. This document is not intended to repeat general guidelines on good requirements writing [REF13], [REF20]. Instead, the focus is on the unique elements, which need to be considered for IVHM and the resulting specific guidelines that will help define better requirements and hence better systems. The multi-faceted nature of IVHM should include the process of requirements gathering. Therefore, this document presents some guidance on how to go about this task. The document also includes some case studies that illustrate, in a practical manner, what a good set of IVHM requirements might look like. These have…
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