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Adaptive Test Feedback LoopA Modelling Approach for Checking Side Effects During Test Executionfor Advised Explorative Testing

Bremer Inst. Für Produktion Und Logistik-Marco Franke, K. A. Hribernik
University of Bremen-K. D. Thoben
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0017
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The main objective of testing is to evaluate the functionality, reliability, and operational safety of products. However, this objective makes testing a complex and expensive stage in the development process. This is particularly true for complex and large systems, such as trains or aircrafts, which require maximum operational safety. From the perspective of an aircraft manufacturer, the checks are carried out via test cases on the integration, system and application levels. Thus, they certify the products against the requirements using black box testing approach. In doing so, a test plan defines a sequence of test cases whereby it sets up the environment, stimulates the fault, and then observes the system under test for each case. Subsequently, the post processing of the test execution classifies the test plan in passed or failed. The ongoing digitization and interconnectedness between aircraft systems is leading to a high number of test cases and a multitude of reasons why a specific test-case fails. A corresponding error analysis and adaptation of the test plan is a complex and lengthy process, which…
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Aircraft Engine Technology Review - The Pathways for an Efficient, Cleaner and Quieter Aviation Industry

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0175
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The aviation industry has been submitted to a set of environmental and commercial drivers that have led it to pursue engine technologies focused on the efficiency improvement, greenhouse (CO2) and pollutant (NOx and PM) emissions reductions, as well as noise abatement.The effort to comply with the ambitious long term environmental and efficiency targets set by the regulatory authorities has driven the aeronautic industry in a technological research effort. In the medium term, the aviation industry's strategy for commercial aviation is to focus on the advanced, but rather conventional propulsion systems (mainly turbofan engines). In this scenario, technological efforts have focused basically on enhancing thermal efficiency, through advanced core engines, as well as improving propulsive efficiency, through the use of low pressure systems (basically reduced pressure ratio and increased engine bypass ratio). To reach these objectives, a set of technological platforms has been proposed, with some already on an operational/commercial level, while others still in a prototype category. In this context, engine manufacturers have given a special focus on some technological approaches, like Ultra High Bypass…
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DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEM BUSINESS MODEL: a study at Mercedes-Benz Brazil

Centro Universitario da FEI-Renato Ferreira Junior, Dra. Gabriela Scur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0093
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
With the increase in the use of information technology and communication, Internet of Things, Big Data, in addition to the concepts of sustainability, a new strategy has been structured, which aims to add value to the traditional PSS model, in the integration of new services to products. The challenge is how to change the current business model of a fully product-oriented (PO) company into a supplier of products with integrated services, in a new business model. From the theoretical propositions and best practices of companies that have implemented PSS businesses models, this paper propose and validate a systematization of strategic actions that make possible for product-oriented companies to change to a new PSS business model, and can be used as a guideline to the PSS implementation, as it compiles the key aspects needed for each strategic area, the important actions found in the literature and bibliographic references that may help in further research. In terms of theoretical relevance, this paper expands the PSS model, using the Big Data to generate new business. Managerial contribution was…
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Independent Aftermarket (IAM) and the Three Dimensions of Friction Material Evaluation

LINK South America-Pedro Oliveira, Henrique Rodrigues, Eduardo Ferro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0006
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is well known the difference between development levels and engineering investment applied to passenger car brake pads when compared to Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and items sold in the Independent Aftermarket (IAM). Based on these differences, the objective of this paper is to propose a simple evaluation for the IAM that can provide at least some level of the understanding of frictional material behavior. Based on a tripod of variables, or three Dimensions Development, described in this work as Performance, Comfort (NVH) and Durability; and using internationally and established testing procedures to measure these dimensions in order to meet the IAM demands for the cost-benefit engineering investment. An important part of the proposed tool is to position friction material against competition for market known issues, and, more importantly, to ensure end product safety and reliability.
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Feasibility Study of the Fuel Magnetizer in Flex-Fuel Cars

Centro Universitário FAESA and SENAI-ES-Pablo A. Amorim, Luiz F. De N. Mattos, Everton L. P. Almeida, Gustavo C. Pellacani, Luiz A. M. M. Marques
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0238
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The topic of energy efficiency is currently a subject widely debated in industrial sectors because of its high relevance due to the finite life time of fossil fuels and the need for reduction in consumption and consequently the emissions of gases and the environmental impact. The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of fuel magnetizers, a product marketed that, according to suppliers, guarantees an improvement in combustion efficiency, representing a saving of 10% to 22% of fuel. For the analysis of the efficiency of the magnetizer, consumption tests were carried out on engine test bench with and without the use of the product in idling speed, 2000 rpm and 2700 rpm. The conclusions obtained showed that the use of magnetizers did not achieve a satisfactory result in the efficiency of internal combustion engines, a possible factor responsible is the high content of ethanol in Brazilian gasoline.
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Regressions of brake pads compressibility from experimental data

TMD Friction do Brasil S.A.-André Garcia Lima Suetti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0014
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
One of the critical characteristics in a brake pad is its deformation when subjected to compressive loads. This deformation is called compressibility, which can be obtained quantitatively through compression cycles performed by a specific test bench. However, such testing is costly and long enough not to meet the demand of manufacturers of friction materials.To overcome this difficulty, this work presents regressions for the estimation of compressibility through the natural frequencies of the pads, since they can be obtained quickly and at low cost through a simple modal analysis. The theoretical basis for the correlation between compressibility and natural frequencies includes the theory of elasticity - which defines an inverse relationship between strain and stiffness - and the theory of vibrations, which defines the natural frequencies of a mechanical system as a function of its mass matrices and stiffness. Since the dependent variable (compressibility) and explanatory variable (natural frequency) are linked to stiffness, it is theoretically plausible to direct estimative.As additional explanatory variables, in addition to the experimental data of natural frequencies, the work uses the…
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Lift Capacity Calculation Method Knuckle-Boom Log Loaders and Certain Forestry Equipment

MTC4, Forestry and Logging Equipment
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2417_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides a uniform method to calculate the lift capacity of knuckle-boom log loaders and certain forestry equipment. It establishes definitions and specifies machine conditions for calculations. This document applies to knuckle-boom log loaders as defined in ISO 6814 and ISO 17591 and certain forestry equipment defined in ISO 6814 that have a rotating upper-structure such as feller bunchers, forwarders, harvesters, and behind the cab or rear-mounted knuckle-boom log loaders not having their own power supply. It does not apply to harvesters that are incapable of lifting a tree or log completely off the ground. This document applies to those machines that are crawler, rubber-tired, and pedestal or stationary mounted.
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Optimization of Race Car Front Splitter Placement Using CFD

Delhi Technological University-Sourajit Bhattacharjee, B.B. Arora, Vishesh Kashyap
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5097
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The behavior of flow over an automobile’s body has a large effect on vehicle performance, and automobile manufacturers pay close attention to the minimal of the details that affect the performance of the vehicle. An imbalance of downforce between the front and rear portion of the vehicle can lead to significant performance hindrances. Worldwide efforts have been made by leading automobile manufacturers to achieve maximum balanced downforce using aerodynamic elements of vehicle. One such element is the front splitter. This study aims to analyze the aerodynamic performance of automobile at various splitter overhang lengths using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). For the purpose of analysis, a three-dimensional (3D) CFD study was undertaken in ANSYS Fluent using the realizable k-ε turbulence model, based on the 3D compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 was taken as profile for the fixed-length splitter attached to a NASCAR 2019 model body. Vehicle speeds of 200, 250, and 300 km/h were considered in order to simulate the velocity of a race car. Drag coefficient, lift…
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Digital Automotive AC Pulldown Prediction in a Real Driving Condition

Dassault Systemes Simulia-Vijaisri Nagarajan
Dassault Systemes, Simulia Corp-Chin-Wei Chang, Kamalesh Bhambare, Adrien Mann, Edward Tate, Abdelhakim Aissaoui
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5090
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Automotive Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) are always striving to deliver fast Air-Conditioning (AC) pulldown performance with consistent distribution of cabin temperature to meet customer expectations. The ultimate test is the OEM standard, called “AC Pull Down,” conducted at high ambient temperature and solar load conditions with a prescribed vehicle drive cycle. To determine whether the AC system in the vehicle has the capacity to cool the cabin, throughout the drive cycle test, cabin temperature measurements are evaluated against the vehicle target. If the measured cabin temperatures are equal or lower than the required temperatures, the AC system is deemed conventional for customer usage.In this paper, numerical predictions of the cabin temperatures to replicate the AC pulldown test are presented. The AC pulldown scenario is carried out in a digital Climatic Wind Tunnel simulation. The solution used in this study is based on a coupled approach. With this method, convection is solved using PowerFLOW, a Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM)-based flow solver, while conduction/radiation are solved using PowerTHERM thermal solver. Cooling loads, reproducing a drive cycle with…
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MR20DD Motoring Fuel Economy Test for 0W-12 and 0W-8 Low Viscosity Engine Oil

Japan Automobile Research Institute-Tomoya Nakajo
Nissan Motor Co., LTD.-Takumaru Sagawa, Seiichi Nakano, Isao Shouganji, Sachiko Okuda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2295
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The SAE J300 classification was expanded to 0W-12 and 0W-8 viscosity grades in 2015, and lower viscosity engine oils have been studied in the industry. ILSAC GF-6B that will be introduced in 2020 will specify a 0W-16 requirement, but 0W-12 and 0W-8 grades are not considered. Because engine oil equal to or higher than the 0W-20 grade is recommended for almost all engines globally, suitable engine tests for 0W-12 and 0W-8 do not exist. Therefore, the Japan Automobile Manufacturers Association, Petroleum Association of Japan and Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan decided to establish new 0W-12 and 0W-8 low viscosity engine oil specifications. It is referred to as JASO GLV-1, and together with a new fuel economy engine test procedure, these engine oils for better fuel economy will be put on the Japanese market in 2019.Motoring friction torque tests are widely used to ascertain the friction reduction effect of fuel-economy engine oils. However, the estimated improvement in fuel economy in actual vehicles has not been shown clearly. In this study, a new motoring friction torque…
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