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The Road to the Top is Not on the Map: Conversations with Top Women of the Automotive Industry

Terry Barclay
Center For Automotive Research-Carla Bailo
  • Book
  • R-491
To be published on 2019-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Carla Bailo, CEO of the Center for Automotive Research, and Terry Barclay, CEO of Inforum, bring together over 30 of the most influential women in the automotive industry to share their insight and advice. From suppliers to OEMs, they hail from every corner of the industry.


SLD and Ice Crystal Discrimination with the Optical Ice Detector

Collins Aerospace-Kaare J. Anderson, Mark D. Ray
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1934
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recent years have seen increased awareness within the aerospace community of icing hazards posed by conditions beyond those described by 14 CFR Part 25, Appendix C. Engine and airframe manufacturers are now required to certify their products for operation in the presence of supercooled large droplets (SLD) and high ice water content (HIWC) conditions, or alternatively, to implement a detect-and-exit strategy. The latter option implies a need for the capability of detecting Appendix C, SLD, and HIWC conditions, and to discriminate between them. The Optical Ice Detector (OID) technology under development at Collins Aerospace provides the ability to detect and differentiate Appendix C, Appendix O, and Appendix D conditions with a compact cloud lidar system. The OID’s ability to determine bulk cloud phase and water content has been previously demonstrated. Recent development efforts have focused on expanding the OID’s capabilities to also enable differentiation between small droplet clouds and bimodal clouds such as those described by Appendix O. This is enabled through statistical analysis of ensembles of individual lidar cloud reflection signals. Combined with the…

Development of a Hailstone Subtitute for Representative Impact Tests

  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1942
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Hailstone impacts still cause millions of dollars in airplane damages. Aircraft manufacturers have to study the effects of hail impacts on aeronautical structures. These studies are mainly conducted through impact experiments. The simulated hail used is often manufactured following an ASTM standard. The manufacturing protocol consists in reinforcing the ice by adding cotton in the water before the freezing process. Several impact tests performed in Thiot-Ingénierie Shock Physics laboratory have shown that the behaviour of this specific ice turn out to be not sufficiently realistic to correctly predict the damages caused to the tested structures. In addition, the mechanical behaviour of hailstone is not well studied and documented especially due to their complex microstructures and the difficulty to collect natural samples. Most studies are in reality conducted on either single crystals or polycrystalline ices. There is a consistent need in understanding the microstructure of real hail in order to develop an artificial ice with adapted microstructure whose behaviour is similar to real hailstone. Consequently, the behaviour of real hailstone has to be characterized through high…

Advanced Nanocomposite Low Adhesion Icephobic Coating for Aerospace Applications

Oceanit Laboratories Inc.-Vinod Veedu, Sumil Thapa, Ganesh Kumar Arumugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1996
To be published on 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Icing is a major safety issue for flight operations in the civil, defense and space sectors. Ice can form on critical components during takeoff/landing, or while in service, depending on prevailing weather conditions. Aircraft manufacturers relies on two different approaches to prevent ice buildup using an active anti-icing system to melt ice buildup or deicing chemicals/ice repellent surface to minimize the buildup ice. The use of active anti-icing systems offers good protection, however can add significant penalty to overall weight, energy consumption and cost. Aerospace industry is in need for an advanced ice repellent surface to effectively minimize ice buildup on critical components with no modification to existing design can provide significant relief to ice prone systems. In this paper, Oceanit will present its most advanced nanocomposite low ice adhesion icephobic coating technology that was developed and demonstrated for application on metallic surfaces to provide the lowest ice adhesion to significantly reduce ice buildup. Oceanit’s advanced icephobic coating was tested to be one of the lowest ice adhering coating (ice adhesion strength = 5.1kPa) ever…

Development of an Accelerated Laboratory Test to Simulate Real-World Tire Flat-Spotting

NissanTechnical Center North America-Farokh Kavarana, Scott Fritz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1509
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Tire flat-spotting occurs when tires remain in a loaded condition without rolling for an extended period of time, and can be temporary or permanent depending on the length of storage, vehicle loading and environmental factors. Tire non-uniformity caused due to flat-spots often induce shake and shimmy vibration in vehicles due to increased tire-wheel force variation input into the chassis. This results in increased warranty costs for OEMs / tire suppliers and customer dissatisfaction in third-party quality surveys such as J. D. Power IQS. Flat-spotting is of particular concern for slow-moving vehicle inventory that remains parked for long periods at OEM plants and/or dealership lots. OEMs often stipulate or recommend inventory storage practices for dealers that require physical movement of vehicles every 30 days to reduce the risk of tires developing permanent flat-spots. OEMs also provide component level flat-spotting requirements to tire manufacturers during sourcing and specification timing to secure their internal requirements and targets. The study in this paper initially determined real-world flat-spotting levels on an actual vehicle during the adverse summer months of Arizona.…

Application of Model Order Reduction to nonlinear Finite Element tire models for NVH design

Goodyear SA-Peter Kindt
Goodyear SA/KU Leuven-Daniel De Gregoriis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1507
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
In order to meet customer NVH performance requirements, tire manufacturers continuously strive to improve their tire designs. Building and testing new designs has been the standard procedure for many years now. However, as the need to simultaneously optimize multiple performance criteria increases and development cycles become shorter, predictive numerical simulation techniques could be used rather than time consuming physical experiments. Especially since many tire performance areas are coupled, the experimental approach often lacks detailed insights which numerical simulations can provide. Currently, no industrially applicable fully predictive high fidelity numerical approach that incorporates the use of nonlinear Finite Element (FE) tire models for NVH design is available in literature. Therefore, a fully predictive numerical simulation approach that predicts the rolling of a tire over a coarse road surface is described in this work. The proposed approach allows to predict the dynamic contact- and hub forces that arise during rolling without the need for experimental data. These results are useful to assess and optimize the NVH performance of a specific tire design. One of the main drawbacks…

Method development for half shaft joint characterization to predict and evaluate its influence on low idle vibration in vehicle.

FCA US LLC-Wei Yuan, Ahmad Abbas, Francisco Antonio Sturla
Siemens PLM Software-Saeed Siavoshani, Prasad Balkrishna Vesikar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1558
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Method development for half shaft joint characterization to predict and evaluate its influence on low idle vibration in vehicle. Author: Prasad Vesikar, Saeed Siavoshani, Siemens PLM Yuan Wei, FCA LLC In conventional IC engine powered vehicles, engine low idle vibrations of vehicle between 20 to 50Hz range is very common NVH issue. Engine excitations pass through mounts and half shafts to body structure. Half shaft designs are observed to be major influencing factor in managing these low idle vehicle vibrations. Half shaft’s dynamic characteristics are mainly dependent upon the universal joints design in the shaft. To evaluate the half shaft designs for its influence on the low idle vibration in early phase of vehicle program, predictive model of shaft is required to be generated. The shafts at low idle engine running condition are at specific pre load and shafts needs to be characterized under that preload to use in the full vehicle predictive modeling. Half shaft manufacturers are generally only characterize shaft joints for its frictional behavior however for predictive modeling the stiffness and damping…

Aluminum Foil Perforation Impact on Acoustic and Thermal Performance of Automotive Sound Absorbers

General Motors-Gang Glenn Yin, Alan Parrett, Timothy J. Roggenkamp
General Motors De Mexico S de R L de CV-Felipe G. Salazar Prieto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1580
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Adding aluminum foil on sound absorber surface has broad application in automotive industry. The foil layer offers thermal insulation for the parts close to exhaust pipes, turbo charge and other heat sources in engine compartment, it also adds physical protection in tough water-splashing/stone-impinging environment at vehicle exterior. It is known that adding impermeable plain foil will impact the sound absorption negatively, so micro perforated aluminum foil is widely used based on micro perforated absorption principle[]. Analytical results of sound absorption from micro-perforated panel or panel with fibrous substrate materials matches very well with measurement when perforation is well controlled in lab environment. However, for industry mass production perforated aluminum foil, it is found that hole size and shape, which are two important parameters of perforation pattern, are not precisely controlled as the samples for lab research, flimsy foil with thickness in between (0.02-0.25mm) is not behaving exactly like elastic panel. In addition, the adhesive film applied on foil back and hot molding process add more uncertainties to part final performance, moreover perforation pattern also might…

Comparing Interior Cabin SPL Suppression Performance Based on Vying Flat Sample Data and Requirements

California State Univ-Long Beach-Allen Teagle-Hernandez
Honda R & D Americas Inc-Fumihiko Ide
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1543
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Since the automobile development time becomes shorter and shorter every year in the current trend in automobile industry, OEM's NV engineers are often required to analyze vehicle systems and components in early stage in development, where the design constraints are still not severe. This analysis are refined further to parts and then to flat sample requirements. As a result, trim suppliers in the automobile industry are given Insertion Loss (IL) and Absorption Coefficients (AC) requirements for their material to satisfy. Quite often this IL and AC requirements pertain to flat sample data. Additionally, trim suppliers catalog flat sample IL and AC for most materials they have in stock and some of their competitors' materials to benchmark. Flat sample data are valuable but should not be used as the only metric in order to decide which material will be applied onto a full vehicle. This paper will highlight the confusion created in trying to make decisions solely based on flat sample data. A process will be shown that it is possible to make a fair comparison…

Understanding the Stick Slip behaviour of plastics and target setting: An OEM Perspective

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Sundaralingam Somasundharam, Amit Kumar, Riyazuddin Mohammed, Prasath Raghavendran
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1465
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Automotive OEMs are aggressively using different materials in their interior. This trend has increased in recent years due to value proposition and variety of options available for customers in market. Visual harmony, touch haptics, craftmanship and comfort are the driving factors to create different designs and options for customization. New trends like self-driving car and electrification increases the importance of comfort. Excessive usage of different grade plastics with zero gap philosophy can cause to stick slip effect leading to audible discomfort called squeak. Even though systems and subsystems are designed in best approach of structural design and manufacturing tolerances they are vulnerable to extreme environmental conditions and incompatible mating materials can initiate contacts leading to Squeak noise. One way to minimize the possibilities of squeak is by appropriate selection of mating material pairs. In present study, an understanding of stick slip behavior of different plastics is discussed, along with parameters required to focus during material incompatibility testing using a tribology test stand. Friction coefficient of different material pairs are analyzed for observing behavior patterns of…